Thursday, December 06, 2007

Back for Good



Bet you're all tired of the cheeky "Good Morning Campers" post. I know I am.

Don't know if any has been paying attention, but over the past two months I've been regularly posting on an OEDB as a paid writer. The site's been sold and the new owners aren't interested in continuing the "Wide Open" blog.

I wish the best to the OEDB guys and I'm glad I was a part of it, however briefly. I haven't had much time for blogging recently and being forced/incentivated helped me to get a rhythm going and to remember that I like to do it. I hope to do some more posts back here on Stingy Scholar in the future.

'Cause you know, it's not about the money...it's about the music. All those chicks and parties and blow, dude, that was just keeping us from focusing on the m-u-u-sic....

But seriously, if you want to pay me, drop me a line at wynnwilliamson at gmail dot com. I'm just a whore for the money.

194 comments:

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Writing for Professional Publication in National Refereed Journals
A Session for Faculty and Doctoral Students

California State University, San Bernardino
April 3, 2008

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
Prairie View A&M University/The Texas A&M University System

1. Professional reasons for writing for publication
2. Personal reasons for writing for publication
3. How real writers behave
4. Writer’s write for the following reasons
5. How to get started
6. What will “sell” the editor on your work?
7. Formula: Brilliant Ideas + Good Luck + Knowing the Right People = Publication
8. On scholarly work
9. Reasons to write and publish journal articles
10. Writing and publishing journal articles enables you to…
11. Three basic types of articles: practical – review or theoretical – research
12. Quantitative Studies
13. Qualitative Research
14. On writing books
15. Four phases of book publishing (Fun – Drudgery – Torture – Waiting)
16. Some reasons to write a book
17. Where does the dollar go after a book is published?
18. What do editors and reviewers really want?
19. Earning approval from editors and reviewers
20. What to remember about bad writing
21. How to get fired as a reviewer
22. Publish or perish or teach or impeach
23. I’ve been rejected many times – should I give up?
24. In writing, how you read is important
25. How teachable is writing?
26. “I can’t seem to tell how my writing is going while I am doing it. Can you help?
27. Remember your purpose in writing
28. What differentiates ordinary writing from writing with style
29. It must get somewhat easier to write, otherwise, how would some authors become so prolific?
30. If writing for publication does not prove to be lucrative, why bother?
31. Why creative work is worthwhile
32. Show respect for your writing. It is about what the readers should know. If this puts a strain on a professional relationship, then so be it.
33. “Why I Write” (Orwell) Sheer egoism, aesthetic enthusiasm, historical impulse, and political purpose.
34. What really makes an academic write?
35. The Writer’s Essential Tools – words and the power to face unpleasant facts.
36. No human activity can sap the strength from body and life from spirit as much as writing in which one doesn’t believe.
37. “Because it was there.” Edmund Hillary. And with this comment he supplied generations with a ready-made and unanswerable defense for any new undertaking even writing.
38. Why we write.
39. Climbing Your Own Mountain
40. Be yourself. Have fun writing.

Please list any other topics you want Dr. Kritsonis to discuss.
281-550-5700 Home; Cell: 832-483-7889 – williamkritsonis@yahoo.com

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Dr. Kritsonis Lectures at the University of Oxford, Oxford, England

In 2005, Dr. Kritsonis was an Invited Visiting Lecturer at the Oxford Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England. His lecture was entitled the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning.

Dr. Kritsonis Recognized as Distinguished Alumnus

In 2004, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis was recognized as the Central Washington University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus for the College of Education and Professional Studies. Dr. Kritsonis was nominated by alumni, former students, friends, faculty, and staff. Final selection was made by the Alumni Association Board of Directors. Recipients are CWU graduates of 20 years or more and are recognized for achievement in their professional field and have made a positive contribution to society. For the second consecutive year, U.S. News and World Report placed Central Washington University among the top elite public institutions in the west. CWU was 12th on the list in the 2006 On-Line Education of “America’s Best Colleges.”




Educational Background

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis earned his BA in 1969 from Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. In 1971, he earned his M.Ed. from Seattle Pacific University. In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa. In 1981, he was a Visiting Scholar at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, and in 1987 was a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.

Professional Experience

Dr. Kritsonis began his career as a teacher. He has served education as a principal, superintendent of schools, director of student teaching and field experiences, invited guest professor, author, consultant, editor-in-chief, and publisher. Dr. Kritsonis has earned tenure as a professor at the highest academic rank at two major universities.

Books – Articles – Lectures - Workshops

Dr. Kritsonis lectures and conducts seminars and workshops on a variety of topics. He is author of more than 500 articles in professional journals and several books. His popular book SCHOOL DISCIPLINE: The Art of Survival is scheduled for its fourth edition. He is the author of the textbook William Kritsonis, PhD on Schooling that is used by many professors at colleges and universities throughout the nation and abroad.
In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis’ version of the book of Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning (858 pages) was published in the United States of America in cooperation with partial financial support of Visiting Lecturers, Oxford Round Table (2005). The book is the product of a collaborative twenty-four year effort started in 1978 with the late Dr. Philip H. Phenix. Dr. Kritsonis was in continuous communication with Dr. Phenix until his death in 2002.
In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis was the lead author of the textbook Practical Applications of Educational Research and Basic Statistics. The text provides practical content knowledge in research for graduate students at the doctoral and master’s levels.
In 2008, Dr. Kritsonis’ book Non-Renewal of Public School Personnel Contracts: Selected Supreme and District Court Decisions in Accordance with the Due Process of Law is scheduled for publication by The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, New York.
Dr. Kritsonis’ seminar and workshop on Writing for Professional Publication has been very popular with both professors and practitioners. Persons in attendance generate an article to be published in a refereed journal at the national or international levels.
Dr. Kritsonis has traveled and lectured throughout the United States and world-wide. Some recent international tours include Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, Turkey, Italy, Greece, Monte Carlo, England, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Poland, Germany, and many more.




Founder of National FORUM Journals – Over 4,000 Professors Published

Dr. Kritsonis is founder of NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS (since 1983). These publications represent a group of highly respected scholarly academic periodicals. Over 4,000 writers have been published in these refereed, peer-reviewed periodicals. In 1983, he founded the National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision – now acclaimed by many as the United States’ leading recognized scholarly academic refereed journal in educational administration, leadership, and supervision.
In 1987, Dr. Kritsonis founded the National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal whose aim is to conjoin the efforts of applied educational researchers world-wide with those of practitioners in education. He founded the National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, National FORUM of Special Education Journal, National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal, International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, and the DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research. The DOCTORAL FORUM is the only refereed journal in America committed to publishing doctoral students while they are enrolled in course work in their doctoral programs. In 1997, he established the Online Journal Division of National FORUM Journals that publishes academic scholarly refereed articles daily on the website: www.nationalforum.com. Over 500 professors have published online. In January 2007, Dr. Kritsonis established Focus: On Colleges, Universities, and Schools.

Professorial Roles

Dr. Kritsonis has served in professorial roles at Central Washington University, Washington; Salisbury State University, Maryland; Northwestern State University, Louisiana; McNeese State University, Louisiana; and Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge in the Department of Administrative and Foundational Services.
In 2006, Dr. Kritsonis published two articles in the Two-Volume Set of the Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration published by SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, California. He is a National Reviewer for the Journal of Research on Leadership, University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA).
In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis has been invited to write a history and philosophy of education for the ABC-CLIO Encyclopedia of World History.
Currently, Dr. Kritsonis is Professor of Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University – Member of the Texas A&M University System. He teaches in the newly established PhD Program in Educational Leadership. Dr. Kritsonis taught the Inaugural class session in the doctoral program at the start of the fall 2004 academic year. In October 2006, Dr. Kritsonis chaired the first doctoral student to earn a PhD in Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University. He lives in Houston, Texas.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Professor
Doctor of Philosophy Program in Educational Leadership
Prairie View A&M University
(Member of the Texas A&M University System)
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View, Texas 77446

Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
Central Washington University
College of Education and Professional Studies
Ellensburg, Washington

Visiting Lecturer (2005)
Oxford Round Table
Oriel College
University of Oxford
Oxford, England

PhD, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, 1976
M.Ed. Seattle Pacific University, Seattle, Washington, 1971
B.A. Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington
Visiting Scholar, Columbia University, Teachers College, New York, 1981











______________________________________________________________________________
BOOKS

Kritsonis, W.A., & Mary Ann Springs (2008-09). Effective Teaching in the Elementary School. Murrieta, CA: The Alexis Group - ISBN 977-1-5130-5741-0

Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G., Bahrim, C., Marshall, R.L., Herrington, D., Hughes, T.A., & Brown, V.E. (2007). Practical Applications of Educational Research and Basic Statistics. Houston,TX: National FORUM Press – ISBN 0-9770013-4-2

Kritsonis, W. (2007) Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning. Published in
cooperation with financial support of Visiting Lecturers, Oxford Round Table (2005),
Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England. Distributed by National
FORUM Journals – ISBN o-9770013-3-14

Person, O. & Kritsonis, W. (2006) A Brief Analysis of the Historical Development of Higher
Education for African Americans. Houston, TX: National Forum Press
ISBN 0-9770013-1-8


______________________________________________________________________________
SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

2008 (16 Total)

Butler, N.L., Davidson, B.S., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G. (2008) International Education:
Do Polish Higher School Students Prefer Speaking in Person, Listening, Reading or Writing
During Spanish Classes? The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
7 (Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED500292)

Kritsonis, W.A., & Marshall, R.L.(2008) Doctoral Dissertation Advising: Keyes to Improvement of Completion Rates. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision

Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Functions of the Dissertation Advisor. National Journal: Focus On Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 2 (1)

Herrington, D.E., Kritsonis, W.A., & Tanner, T. (2008). National Recommendations for Deconstructing Educational Leadership Courses: Re-Centering to Address the Needs of Students. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 25

Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Essential Reflections for Non-Profits and School Prior to Writing and Submitting Grant Proposals. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3)

Joshua, M.T., Joshua, A.M., Obi, F.B., Umoinyang, I.E., Ntukidem, E.P., Kritsonis, W.A., Tanner, T., & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008). Conceptualization and Perceptions of Teaching as an Artistic Form: National and International Implications for Evaluation and Assessment. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 11 (1)

Joshua, A.M., Ukpong, E.M., Joshua, M.T., Kritsonis, W.A., Tanner, T., & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008). Distribution Patterns of the Four Fundamental Temperaments among Secondary School Students in Cross River State, Nigeria: National and International Implications. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 11 (1)

Joshua, M.T., Bassey, S.W., Asim, A.E., Kritsonis, W.A., Tanner, T. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008). National and International Implications for Universal Basic Education: Primary School Teachers’ Perceived and Conceived Continuous Assessment Difficulties and Reporting Competence in Cross River South, Nigeria. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 11 (1)

Kritsonis, W. (2008). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 25(3)

Kritsonis, W. (2008). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 25(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2008). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 25(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2008). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2008). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2008). FOREWORD. National FORUM Teacher Education Journal, 18(1 & 2)

Kritsonis, W. (2008). FOREWORD. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 11(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2008). On-Line Scholarly Electric Journal Division, National FORUM Journals. Available daily: www.nationalforum.com







2007 (18 Total)

Hughes, T.A., Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, David (2007) Primary and Secondary
Education in Canada and Poland Compared: International Implications. The Lamar
University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495075)

Butler, N.L., Hughes, T.A., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. (2007) Native and Non-Native Teachers of English in Polish Schools-Personal Reflections: International Educational Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495206)

Hughes, T.A., Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, M.A., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. (2007) Religious Education in Government-Run Primary and Secondary Schools in Poland and Canada (Ontario and Quebec) - An International Focus. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495110)

Kritsonis, W. (2007). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 24(3)

Kritsonis, W. (2007). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 24(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2007). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 24(1)

International

Smith, C., Butler, N.L., Hughes, T.A., Herrington, D., & Kritsonis, W.A (2007).
TECHNOLINGUA, Cracow, Poland. June 25-26, 2007 – AGH University of Science and Technology. Paper presentation: Native vs. Nonnative English Teachers in Polish Schools: Personal Reflections

Smith, C., Butler, N.L., Hughes, T.A., Herrington, D., & Kritsonis, W.A (2007).
Conference on Problems in Language, Teaching, Vyatka State University of the Humanities, Kirov, Russia, February 14-15 2007. Three papers accepted and published: 1) Native and Non-Native Teachers of English in Polish Schools – Personal Reflections: International Implications, 2) Observations on Native vs. Nonnative EFL Teachers in Poland, 3) The Role of Communication Context, Corpus-Based Grammar, and Scaffolded Interaction in ESL/EFL Instruction





2006 (5 Total)

Hughes, T., Kritsonis, W., & Herrington, D. (2006). A National Perspective for Cultivating
Working Relations Between Educational Researchers and Institutional Review Board
Members. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED491999)

Herrington, D., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). A National Perspective for Improving Working
Relationships Between Educational Researchers and Institutional Review Board Members.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 19(3)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED49199)

Kritsonis, W. (2006). FOREWORD: Publishing and Mentoring Doctorial Student Research.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 23(3).
Note: This issue featured PhD Students in Educational Leadership from Lamar University’s
College of Education and Human Development, Beaumont,Texas

Kritsonis, W. (2006) FOREWORD: National Impact: Single Sex Education; Challenges for
Superintendents; Standardized Assessments; Inclusion; Issues and Challenges; Teacher
Retention. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal.
23(2) Note: This issue featured PhD Students in Educational Leadership from Prairie View
A&M University – Member of the Texas A&M University System.

Kritsonis, W. (2006). FOREWORD: A National Study and Analysis of Poverty and
African American Incarceration. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 23(1)


2005 ( 9 Total)

Marshall, R., & Kritsonis, W. (2005). School Finance Equity and Adequacy. In Fenwick
W. English (Eds.) Sage Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Marshall, R., & Kritsonis, W. (2005). Rural and Small Schools. In Fenwick W. English
(Eds.) Sage Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Kritsonis, W., (2005). Schwarzenegger Needs Schooling in Precedents.
EDUCATION WEEK, Vol. 25, No. 13, November 20, 2005, Page 39

Kritsonis, W. (2005). FOREWORD: Teaching Latino Students: Effective Strategies for
Educating America’s Minorities: Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press

Kritsonis, W. (2005). William J. Slotnik’s Commentary “Mission Possible: Tying Earning
To Learning” EDUCATION WEEK, Volume 25, Issue 08, October 19, 2005, Page 35
Butler, L., Pachocinski, R., Davidson, B., Kritsonis, W., Van Patten, J., Borman, K.,
Johanningmeirer, E., Orlosfsky, M., & Marshall, R. (2006). Polish Post-Secondary
Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges: International Perspectives.
International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity 8(1)
(ERIC Documentation Reproduction Services No ED492983)

Kritsonis, W. (2005). FOREWORD: Developing Educational Leadership on a National Level.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 22(3)

Kritsonis, W. (2005). FOREWORD: Developing Educational Leadership on a National Level.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 22(2)
Note: This issue featured PhD Students in Educational Leadership from Prairie View A&M
University – Member of the Texas A&M University System

Kritsonis, W. (2005). FOREWORD: Development of Educational Leadership Nationally.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 22(1)


2004 (3 Total)

Kritsonis, W. (2004). FOREWORD: National Initiatives Directed to Redesigning Educational
Leadership Programs Impacts School Leaders. National FORUM of Educational
Administration and Supervision Journal, 21(3)

Kritsonis, W. (2004). Basic Procedures in Educational Research and Design for Field Settings.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 21(3)

Kritsonis, W. (2004). FOREWORD: National Education: Implications in our Learning
Environment. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 21(2)

______________________________________________________________________________
Mentored Research

Dr. Kritsonis
Mentoring and Teaching Doctoral Students and Colleagues to Write for Professional Publication - Refereed Articles Published


2008 ( 39 Articles with Students)

Morgan, M., & Kritsonis, W.A.(2008) Beyond the First Days of School: The Recruitment,
Retention, and Development of Quality Teachers in Hard-to-Staff Schools: A National Focus.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 25 (3)
Journal, 25 (3)
Laub, J.D., DeSpain, B.C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) An Analysis of the Rural Public School
Superintendency. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision
Journal, 25 (2)

Torrez, A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Smaller Learning Communities: Pre-Implementation Planning Critical to Success. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (2)

Ivy, Adam, I., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A.(2008). The Challenge of Building Professional Learning Communities: Getting Started. National FORUM of Applied Education Research Journal, 21 (2)

McLeod, K., Tanner, T., & Kritsonis,W.A. (2008). National Impact: Model of a Culturally Active Classroom. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (2)

Hines, III, M., & Kritsonis, W.A.(2008). National Implications: Racial Differences in In-service Teachers’ Perceptions’ of Caucasian American Culturally Proficient School Leadership.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 25 (4)

Morgan, M. M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). The Real Philadelphia Experiment: How Benjamin
Franklin’s 13 Virtues can Save a School from Itself. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18 (3)

Butcher, J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) A National Perspective: Utilizing the Postmodern Theoretical Paradigm to Close the Achievement Gap and Increase Student Success in Public Education America. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 25 (4)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED499482)

Egbe, R., Ivy, A., Moreland, B., Willis, L., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Ten Things to Consider When Developing a Survey or Assessment Instrument. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3)

Glasco, R.L., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Developing and Nuturing a Common Vision for Technology Integration in Education. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3)

Cloud, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Implications: Implementing Postmodernistic Strategies and the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning for the Improvement of Ethical Conduct for the Improvement of Public Education. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3) (ERIC Documentation Reproduction Service No.ED499279)



Watkins, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Aristotle, Philosophy, and the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning: A National Study on Integrating a Postmodernist Approach to Education and Student Academic Achievement. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3)
(ERIC Documentation Reproduction Service No.ED499545)

Butcher, J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning to Assist Leaders in Retaining Alternatively Certified Teachers: Six National Recommendations for Improving Education in the United States of America. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED499483)

Bowman, E., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Seven Ways to Increase At-Risk Student Participation in Extra-Curricular Activities. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18 (3)

Puentes, H., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). A Case Study with National Implications: Student Mobility and Academic Achievement at a Selected Elementary School Campus. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18 (3)

Jedlicka, K., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). The Persistence of Teacher Under-Utilization of Computer Technologies in the Classroom. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18 (3)

Cloud, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Agenda: Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning for the Improvement of Public Education. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18 (3)

Smith, M.M., Herrington, D.E., Kritsonis, W.A., & Tanner, T. (2008). National Implications: Ten Things to Consider When Teaching Mathematics to African American Students. National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal, 5 (1)

McLeod, K., Tanner, T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Recommendations for Improving Cultural Diversity: Model of a Culturally Active Classroom Setting. National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal, 5 (1)

Watkins, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Promise for Student Academic Achievement and Success: Connecting Learning Utilizing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning. National Journal: FOCUS On Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 2 (1)

Taylor, J.H., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Implications: Quality of Effort and Selected Demographic Variables Contributing to the Prediction of Cognitive Outcomes. National Journal: FOCUS On Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 2 (1)

O’Brine,C.R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Segregation Through Brown vs. the Board of Education: A Setback or Landmark Case. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction No.ED499169)

Collins, C.J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Agenda: Implementing Postmodern Strategies
To Guide Educational Leaders in Creating Schools for Quality Learning in Public Education
in America. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction No.ED499554)

Coates-McBride, A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). The M&M Effect-Assessing the Impact of Merit Pay on Teacher Motivation: National Implications. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction No.ED499772)

Terry, L.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). A National Issue: Whether the Teacher Turnover Effects Students’ Academic Performance? DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499543)

Walden, L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). The Impact of the Correlation Between the No Child Left Behind Act’s High Stakes Testing and the Drop-Out Rates of Minority Students. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499541)

Springs, M.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Implications: Practical Ways for Improving Student Self-Concept Through Student Achievement. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499551)

Morgan, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). A National Focus: The Recruitment, Retention, and Development of Quality Teachers in Hard-to-Staff Schools. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)

Charlton, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). The Documentation Process: The Administrator’s Role and the Interplay of Necessity, Support, and Collaboration. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499101)

Henderson, F.T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Graduation Rates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Review of the Literature. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)

Torrez, A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Impact for Pre-Implementation of Smaller Learning Communities. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499477)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Impact of the Mathematics Curriculum on the Success of African American High School Students. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

Smith, Y.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Leaving Good Teachers Behind: A Professional Dilemma. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

Norfleet, S., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Educational Leadership for Improved School-Community Relations. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

Watkins, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Utilizing the Ways of Knowing Through The Realms of Meaning for a Postmodern Approach to Effecting Change in Special Education. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

Brady, E.C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Targeting Reading Fluency for ESL Students: A research based and practical application. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED500036)

Townsell, R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Human Resource Management in Small Rural Districts: The Administrator’s Role in Recruitment, Hiring, and Staff Development. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED497694)

Love, A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) A Principal’s Role in Retaining First Year Teachers. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

Jacobs, K.D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Utilizing The William Allan Kritsonis Balanced Teeter-Totter Model as a Means to Cultivate a Legacy of Transformational Leaders in Schools.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)


2007 ( 27 Articles with Students)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Banning Cell Phones in Public Schools: Analyzing
A National School and Community Relations Problem. National FORUM of Educational
Administration and Supervision Journal, 24(3)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED497423)



Townsell, R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Who in the World is Ayn Rand? Doctoral FORUM-
National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 4(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED49467)

Anthony, T.D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007). A Mixed Methods Assessment of the Effectiveness of Strategic EMentoring in Improving the Self-Efficacy and Persistence (or retention) of Alternatively Certified Novice Teachers within an Inner City School District. Doctoral FORUM-National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 4(1) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED494448)

Patton, M.C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007). Great Minds Think Differently: Sustaining a System of Thinking. Doctoral FORUM-National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 4(1)

Berkins, C.L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Curriculum Leadership: Curriculum for the At-Risk Student. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED498643)

Berkins, C.L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Curriculum Leadership: New Trends and Career and Technical Education. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED498616)

Townsell, R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) A National Look at Postmodernism’s Pros and Cons in
Educational Leadership. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
4 (Summer)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED497693)

Butcher, J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Human Resource Management: Managerial Efficacy in
Recruiting and Retaining Teachers – National Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer) (ERIC Documentation Reproduction Service No ED497357)

Williams, L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Leaders We Have a Problem! It is Teacher Retention…What Can We Do About It? The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED497436)

Cloud, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Agenda: Development of Best Practices in
Human Resources using Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning as the Framework.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED497363)




Smith, C., Butler, N.L., Hughes, T.A., Herrington, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Observations
On Native vs. Non-native EFL Teachers in Poland. The Lamar University Electronic
Journal of Student Research, 4(Summer)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED495201)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (20077) New Strategies for Educational Leaders to Implement
Postmodern Thinking in Public Education in the United States of America: Creating a
National Change Strategy. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction No.ED497435)

Jacobs, K., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Strategies for Implementing Postmodern Thinking for
Improving Secondary Education in Public Education in the United States of America:
National Impact. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
4 (Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495312)

Smith, C., Butler, N.L., Hughes, T.A., Herrington, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007). Native vs Nonnative English Teachers in Polish Schools: Personal Reflections. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring) (ERIC Document Reproduction No ED495069)

Anthony, T.D., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. (2007) Postmoderism and the Implications for Educational Leadership: National Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495291)

Anthony, T.D., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. (2007) National Cry for Help: Psychological Issues as They Relate to Education; A Realistic Approach to Understanding and Coping with the African American Males. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495296)

Anthony, T.D., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. (2007) An Analysis of Human Resource Management: Involving Administrative Leadership as a Means to Practical Applications: National Focus. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495294)

Anthony, T.D., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. (2007) How to Implement the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning in Human Resource Management-Ten Recommendation: National Impact. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED495293)

Jacobs, K.D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Recommendations: Strategies for Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning for the Development of Professional Personnel. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495313)

Jacobs, K.D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) An Analysis of the Objectivist Ethics in Educational Leadership Through Ayn Rand’s The Virtues of Selfishness (1964). The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495311)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Implications for Urban School Systems: Strategic Planning in the Human Resource Management Department in a Large Urban School District. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED497431)

Cloud, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Implications: Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning for Improvement of Ethical Conduct. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495067)

Butcher, J.T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning for the Improvement of Ethical Conduct: Ten National Recommendations. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495205)

Demaris, M.C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Residential Learning Communities on Historically Black College and University Campuses. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED495305)

Smith, C., Butler, N.L., & Griffith, K.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) The Role of Communication Context, Corpus-Based Grammar, and Scaffolded Interaction in ESL/EFL Instruction. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495290)

Smith, C., Butler, N.L., Griffith, K.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Observations on Native vs. Nonnative EFL Teachers in Poland. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495201)



Webb, P., Kritsonis, W.A., & Griffith, K.G. (2007) Spare the Rod, Destroy the Child: Examining the Speculative Association of Corporal Punishment and Deviant Behavior among Youth: National Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED496203)


2006 ( 44 Articles with Students)

Jacobs, K.D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). How to Implement the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning in Human Resource Management: Ten Recommendations for Selecting Campus Administrators. Doctoral FORUM-Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED494799)

Webb, P., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). Zero-Tolerance Policies and Youth: Protection or Profiling? Doctoral FORUM-Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493837)

Collins, C.J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). National Viewpoint: The Importance of Hiring a Diverse Faculty. Doctoral FORUM-Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499556)

Watkins, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). Developing a Curriculum for At-Risk and Low Performing High School Students: Teaching Shakespeare to At-Risk Students Through Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning. Doctoral FORUM-Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Skinner, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). How to Implement the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms Of Meaning as an Ethical Decision-Making Process to Improve Academic Achievement-Ten Recommendations. Doctoral FORUM-Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495079

Patton, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). The Law of Increasing Returns: A Process for Retaining Teachers- National Recommendations. Doctoral FORUM- National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495298)

Williams, M.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). Raising More Money at the Nation’s Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Doctoral FORUM- National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493566)

Skinner, D.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). Educational Leaders as Stewards: Selecting a National Curriculum Guided by the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning. Doctoral FORUM- National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493140)

Cloud, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). National Agenda: A Holistic Approach for the Development of a Campus Improvement Plan using Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning as the Framework. Doctoral FORUM- National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493111)

Townsell, R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). National Insight: A Look at Synnoetics in One African
American Female’s Journey to the Principalship. Doctoral FORUM- National Journal
for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493442)

Demaris, M.C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). A Philosophical Approach to Minority Student Persistence on a Historically Black College and University Campus. Doctoral FORUM- National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493143)

Anthony, T.D., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Implications: An Analysis of E- Mentoring Induction Year Programs for Novice Alternatively Certified Teachers. Doctoral FORUM-
National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493137)

Anthony, T.D., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Bilingualism and How it Impacts the African American Child. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492546)

Cheng-Chieh L.., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). The Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Technology in Second Language Acquisition. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492159)

Cloud, M., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Crisis: Recognizing the Culture of Eating Disorders in School Settings. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492192)

Jacobs, K., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). An Assessment of Secondary Principal’s Leadership and Skills in Retaining and Renewing Science Educators in Urban Schools. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492156)
Jacobs, K., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Partially Decentralizing Administrative Practices in Secondary Schools to Develop Collective Staff Efficacy and Improve Student Achievement. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1))
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492155

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Dilemma: African American Students Underrepresented in Advanced Mathematics Courses. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492138)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). The Achievement Gap in Mathematics: A Significant Problem for African American Students. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492139)

Smith, Y.E., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Recommendations for Implementing Symbolics: Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492099)

Smith, Y.E., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). The Differences in Professional Development with Corporate Companies and Public Education. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492100)

Branch, R.M., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Agenda: Minority Teacher Recruitment, Development, and Retention. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499769)

Johnson, C.J., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). The National Dilemma of African American Students:
Disparities in Mathematics Achievement and Instruction. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 20(3)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492116)

Salinas, R.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006) All Children Can Learn…To Speak English.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 23(2)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED491994)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006) National Strategies for Educational Leaders to
Implement Postmodern Thinking in Public Education in the United States of America.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 23(4)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492117)


Anthony, T., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Education in a Test Taking Era. National FORUM of
Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 24(4)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492142)

Jacobs, K., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Strategies for Implementing Postmodern Thinking
for Improving Secondary Education in Public Education in the United States of America.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 23(4
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492157)

Smith, Y., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Insight: Toward a Clearer Understanding of
Preparing High School Students for Passing State Examinations for Graduation in the State
of Texas. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 16(3)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.492013)

White, P., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006).The Analysis of the Influence of the Consciousness of the
History of Various Cultures on Student Achievement. National FORUM of Teacher
Journal, 17(3)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495300)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W., & Herrington, D. (2006) National Educational Dilemma:
What Does a Student Need to Know? Answer: Ways of Knowing Through the Realms
of Meaning. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 17(3)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492119)

Smith, Y., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Research Focus: Investigating the Differences in
Professional Development with Corporate Companies and Public Education in the United
States of America. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision
Journal, 24(4)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492014)

White, P., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). The Analysis of the Influence of the Consciousness of the
History of Various Cultures on Student Achievement. National FORUM of Teacher
Education Journal, 17(3)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED49530

Hughes, T., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Perspective: An Exploration of Professional
Learning Communities and the Impact on School Improvement Efforts. Doctoral
FORUM – National Journal for the Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student
Research, 1(1)
(ERIC Documentation Reproduction Service No.ED491997)

Petterway, A., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Focus: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of the
Impact of High Stakes Testing on English Language Learners in Major Urban High Schools
in Texas. DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for the Publishing and
Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 1(1)
ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED491980)
Edgerson, D., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Analysis of the Influence of Principal-Teacher
Relationships on Student Academic Achievement: National Focus. DOCTORAL FORUM -
National Journal for the Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 1(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED491985)

Parson, G., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Vision: An Assessment of the Habits of African
American Males from Urban Households of Poverty Who Successfully Complete Secondary
Education Programs. DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and
Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 1(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED491986)

Adams, C, & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Impact: An Analysis of Secondary Schools’
Crisis Management Preparedness. DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for
Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 1(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED491991)

Petterway, A., & Kritsonis, W., & Herrington, D. (2006). The Impact of High Stakes
Testing on the Academic Achievement of English Language Learners in Texas Public
Education: National Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of
Student Research, 3(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED491981)

Salinas, R., & Kritsonis, W., & Herrington, D. (2006). Teacher Quality as a Predictor
of Student Achievement in Urban Schools: A National Focus. The Lamar
University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 3(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED491993)

Jacobs, K., Kritsonis, W. (2006) National Agenda: Ten Suggestions to Incorporate the Realms of
Meaning as a Decision Making Process to Improve Student Achievement in the United States.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492179)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Immigration and Student Success Communication:
Journey as a Learning Organization. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student
Research, 3(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492118)

Branch, R., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Insight: Pragmatism: Proof is in the Results.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 3(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499770)

Anthony, T., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Outlook: An Epistemological Approach to
Educational Philosophy. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
3(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492240)

Presentations

2008

Guest Speaker, California State University, Los Angeles, College of Education, Los Angeles,
CA. Topic ”Writing for Professional Publication in National Refereed” April 2008


2007

Guest Speaker, Lamar University, College of Education and Human Services, Beaumont,
Texas. Topic: “Writing for Professional Publication in Scholarly Journals.” February 2007.


2006

Guest Speaker, California State University, Dominguez Hills, College of Education, Carson, CA.
Topic: “Writing for Professional Publication in National Refereed Journals.” March 2007.
March 2007.


2005

Invited Guest Lecturer, Oxford Round Table, Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford,
England. Topic: “Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning.” July 2005.

Invited Guest Speaker, University of Oxford, Department of Educational Studies, Oxford,
England. Topic: “Publishing in Scholarly Journals,” July 2005

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Dr. Arthur L. Petterway

25th Year Anniversary of National FORUM Journals
Founded in 1983
William Allan Kritsonis’ Contribution to Education


Arthur L. Petterway, PhD
Principal
Houston Independent School District
Houston, Texas


ABSTRACT
This year marks the 25th Year Anniversary of the founding of National FORUM Journals by Dr. William Allan Kritsonis. The following snapshot of the career of Dr. Kritsonis is a small tribute to his contribution to education.
__________________________________________________________________________


Founder of National FORUM Journals

Dr. Kritsonis is founder of NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS (since 1983). These publications represent a group of highly respected scholarly academic periodicals. Over 4,000 writers have been published in these academic, scholarly, refereed, peer-reviewed journals.

Dr. Kritsonis Lectures at the University of Oxford, Oxford, England

In 2005, Dr. Kritsonis was an Invited Visiting Lecturer at the Oxford Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England. His lecture was entitled the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning.


Dr. Kritsonis Recognized as Distinguished Alumnus

In 2004, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis was recognized as the Central Washington University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus for the College of Education and
Professional Studies. Dr. Kritsonis was nominated by alumni, former students, friends,
faculty, and staff. Final selection was made by the Alumni Association Board of Directors.
Recipients are CWU graduates of 20 years or more and are recognized for achievement in their professional field and have made a positive contribution to society. For


the second consecutive year, U.S. News and World Report placed Central Washington
University among the top elite public institutions in the west. CWU was 12th on the list in the 2006 On-Line Education of “America’s Best Colleges.”


Educational Background

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis earned his BA in 1969 from Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. In 1971, he earned his M.Ed. from Seattle Pacific University. In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa. In 1981, he was a Visiting Scholar at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, and in 1987 was a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.


Professional Experience

Dr. Kritsonis began his career as a teacher. He has served education as a principal, superintendent of schools, director of student teaching and field experiences, invited guest professor, author, consultant, editor-in-chief, and publisher. Dr. Kritsonis has earned tenure as a professor at the highest academic rank at two major universities.


Books – Articles – Lectures - Workshops

Dr. Kritsonis lectures and conducts seminars and workshops on a variety of topics. He is author of more than 500 articles in professional journals and several books. His popular book SCHOOL DISCIPLINE: The Art of Survival is scheduled for its fourth edition. He is the author of the textbook William Kritsonis, PhD on Schooling that is used by many professors at colleges and universities throughout the nation and abroad.
In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis’ version of the book of Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning (858 pages) was published in the United States of America in cooperation with partial financial support of Visiting Lecturers, Oxford Round Table (2005). The book is the product of a collaborative twenty-four year effort started in 1978 with the late Dr. Philip H. Phenix. Dr. Kritsonis was in continuous communication with Dr. Phenix until his death in 2002.
In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis was the lead author of the textbook Practical Applications of Educational Research and Basic Statistics. The text provides practical content knowledge in research for graduate students at the doctoral and master’s levels.
In 2008, Dr. Kritsonis’ book Non-Renewal of Public School Personnel Contracts: Selected Supreme and District Court Decisions in Accordance with the Due Process of Law was published by The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, New York.
Dr. Kritsonis’ seminar and workshop on Writing for Professional Publication has
been very popular with both professors and practitioners. Persons in attendance generate an
article to be published in a refereed journal at the national or international levels. Dr. Kritsonis has traveled and lectured throughout the United States and world-wide. Some recent international tours include Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, Turkey, Italy, Greece,

Monte Carlo, England, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Poland,
Germany, and many more.


Founder of National FORUM Journals – Over 4,000 Professors Published

Dr. Kritsonis is founder of NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS (since 1983). These publications represent a group of highly respected scholarly academic periodicals. Over 4,000 writers have been published in these refereed, peer-reviewed periodicals. In 1983, he founded the National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision – now acclaimed by many as the United States’ leading recognized scholarly academic refereed journal in educational administration, leadership, and supervision.
In 1987, Dr. Kritsonis founded the National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal whose aim is to conjoin the efforts of applied educational researchers world-wide with those of practitioners in education. He founded the National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, National FORUM of Special Education Journal, National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal, International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, and the DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research. The DOCTORAL FORUM is the only refereed journal in America committed to publishing doctoral students while they are enrolled in course work in their doctoral programs. In 1997, he established the Online Journal Division of National FORUM Journals that publishes academic scholarly refereed articles daily on the website: www.nationalforum.com. Over 600 professors have published online. In January 2007, Dr. Kritsonis established the National Journal: Focus On Colleges, Universities, and Schools.

Professorial Roles

Dr. Kritsonis has served in professorial roles at Central Washington University, Washington; Salisbury State University, Maryland; Northwestern State University, Louisiana; McNeese State University, Louisiana; and Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge in the Department of Administrative and Foundational Services.
In 2006, Dr. Kritsonis published two articles in the Two-Volume Set of the Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration published by SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, California. He is a National Reviewer for the Journal of Research on Leadership, University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA).
In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis was invited to write a history and philosophy of education for the ABC-CLIO Encyclopedia of World History.
Currently, Dr. Kritsonis is Professor of Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University – Member of the Texas A&M University System. He teaches in the newly established PhD Program in Educational Leadership. Dr. Kritsonis taught the Inaugural class session in the doctoral program at the start of the fall 2004 academic year. In October 2006, Dr. Kritsonis chaired the first doctoral student to earn a PhD in Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University. He lives in Houston, Texas.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Dr. Kritsonis Mentoring and Teaching Doctoral Students and Colleagues to Write for Refereed Journals

Charlton, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Atlas Shrugged but Stumbled: A Layman’s Look at Ayn
Rand’s Objectivism. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Torrez, A., Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) The Virtue of Selfishness from a Humanitarian’s View.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Hogan-Chapman, A., & Kritsonis, W. (2008) Challenges and Techniques when Counseling Asian Americans: Implications for Classroom Teachers, School Administrators and Counselors:
National Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
8 (Summer)

O’Brine, C.R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Christianity vs. Ayn Rand: An Exploration of Objectivism Through Atlas Shrugged. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Evans, L.M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Crisis: The Educational Achievement Gap Between High and Low Socio-Economic Students and Minority and Non-Minority Students.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Skinner, D.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Impact for Defining the School Counselor’s Role. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Morgan, M.M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Now and Again: How Ayn Rand’s Objectivist Theory
Shapes Present-Day Ethical Controversies. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer 2008)

Charlton, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Reflections on Rand’s The Virtue of Selfishness: Thoughts on Collectivism and Racism. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Demaris, M.C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) The Classroom: Exploring Its Effects on Student Persistence and Satisfaction. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
8 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G., Tanner, T. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Are Polish Engineering Learners Studying German so That They Can Secure Employment in Germany? A Brief Commentary. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer).

Butler, N.L., Pirog, R., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Are Polish Post Secondary Vocational School Learners Studying English so That They Can Secure Employment in the UK and Ireland? A Brief Commentary. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G., Tanner, T. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Are Some Topics Uncomfortable for Polish Higher School Students to Discuss During English Classes?
A Brief Report. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Eisenman, R., Kritsonis, W.A. & Tanner, T. (2008) Assignment of Black and White College Students to Remedial Education Classes. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Greiner-Wronowa, E., Pusoska, A., Butler, N.L., Tanner, T., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Complementary Measurements to Diagnostic Glass Surface Corrosion by Raman Spectroscopy: Ground Breaking Research. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G., Tanner, T. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Do Poles Want Religion to be a Part of the School Leaving Exam (the Matura)? A Brief Note. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G., Tanner, T. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Do Polish Engineering Learners Prefer to Learn How to Speak German From a Native Speaker Than From a Non-Native Instructor? Snapshot Comment. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G., Tanner, T. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Do Polish Engineering Students Prefer Speaking in Person, Listening, Reading or Writing During German Classes? A Brief Note. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)
Butler, N.L., Davidson, B.S., Pirog, R., Kritsonis, W.A. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Do Polish Post-Secondary Vocational School Students Prefer Speaking in Person, Listening, Reading or Writing during English Classes? The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Mroz, L., Pirog, R., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Do Polish Post-Secondary vocational Institution Learners Prefer to Learn How to Speak English From a Native Speaker than from a Non-Native Instructor? Snapshot Comment. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Pirog, R., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Do Polish Secondary School Learners Want Marks in Religion to Be Included in Year End Averages? A Brief Commentary. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Eisenman, R., Kritsonis, W.A., Tanner, T. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) On Improving Student Grades and Graduation: A Snapshot of Minority and White Students’ Success from Supplemental Instruction at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) The Adolescent’s Perception of Failure (2008) The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Sturgis, K.., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Characteristics of the Postmodern Educational Leader: National Implications for Improving Education in America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

White, P.A. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Education in the United States of America: Six Philosophical Strategies for Selecting Curriculum Using the Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Sturgis, K.., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) How to Implement the Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning as a Process for Selecting Curriculum for the Development of the Complete Person.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Perkins, T., & Kritsonis, W.A.(2008) Improving Education in America: Implementing the Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Spring)

Smith, G., F. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Leadership for High School Reform in the United States of America: A Postmodern Concept within a Modernist Campus. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Collins, C.J. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Agenda: Implementing Postmodern Strategies to Guide Educational Leaders in Creating Schools for Quality Learning in Public Education in America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Holloway, F., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Agenda: Strategies for Improving Student
Learning and the Human Condition in Public Education in the United States of America.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Perkins, T., & Kritsonis, W.A.(2008) Improving Education in America: Implementing the Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Spring)

Collins, C.J. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Implications: Implementing Strategies for Improving Academic Achievement in Public Education in the United States. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Smith, G., F. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Leadership for High School Reform in the United States of America: A Postmodern Concept within a Modernist Campus. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Collins, C.J. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Agenda: Implementing Postmodern Strategies to Guide Educational Leaders in Creating Schools for Quality Learning in Public Education in America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Iwundu, L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Implications: Strategies for Dealing with Growing Diverse Populations in Public Education in the United States of America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Brown, D.R., Jr., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Implications for Applying Transitional Leadership in a Postmodern Paradigm for Education in the United States of America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Duong, R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Implications for Postmodernism within the Realms of Educational Leadership. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Perkins, T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Implications: Postmodernism and Its Effect on Public Schools in the United States of America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Spring)

Duong, R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Implications for Educational Leaders in Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning in the Improvement of Academic Achievement. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Iwundu, L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Policy Issues and Trends: Strategies for Implementing Postmodern Thinking to Guide Decision Making in the United States of America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

White, P.A. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Recommendations for Implementing Postmodernism in an Educational Organization for the Improvement of Public Education in the United States of America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Evans, L. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Postmodern Philosophical Thinking: National Implications and Recommendations for Educational Leaders in the United States of America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Evans, L. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Strategies for Improving Public Education in the United States of America: On the Development of Complete Persons. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Smith, G. F., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Strategies for Meeting National Standards and Improving Academic Achievement in Public Education in the United States of America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Holloway, F., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) The Emerging Challenges for the World of Education:
That Was Then – This Is Now. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student
Research, 7 (Spring)

Jedrys. J., Butler, N.L. Tanner, T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Dissertation Summation: Application of Selected Geophysical Methods in Facies Differentiation on Upper Jurassic Sediments in the
Cracow--Czestochowa Upland. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
7 (Spring)

Butler, N.L. Tanner, T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Do Polish Higher Institution Learners Prefer to Learn How to Speak English from a Native Speaker Rather than from a Non-Native Instructor: A Snapshot Comment. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
7 (Spring)

Butler, N.L., Smith, S., Davidson, B.S., Tanner, T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools vs. Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison of Information Accessibility and Accountability. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Butler, N.L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Should Tuition Fees be required of Polish Higher School Students who Study Full-Time? The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Butler, N.L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Are Polish Higher School Students in Agreement with HIV/AIDS Education Awareness Programs in Polish Primary and Secondary Schools which Include Homosexual Practices? A Brief Note. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Trzaskus-Zak, inz Beata, Buter, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., & Griffith, K.G. (2008) A Method of
Designation of Marginal Volumes of Economical Factors on a Two-Part Sale Price in the
Gas Distribution Industry. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
7 (Spring)

Kuklina, S.S., butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A. & Griffith, K.G. (2008) Learning Tolls for Overcoming Difficulties in Structuring Cooperative Activities in EFL Classrooms.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)
Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., Hines III, M, & Griffith, K.G. (2008) International Education:
Are Polish Higher School Learners Studying Spanish So That They Can Secure Employment
in Spain? A Brief Commentary. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Butler, N.L., Davidson, B.S., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G. (2008) International Education:
Do Polish Higher School Students Prefer Speaking in Person, Listening, Reading or Writing
During Spanish Classes? The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
7 (Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED500292)

Brady, E.C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Targeting Reading Fluency for ESL Students: A research based and practical application. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED500036)

Finch, J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Unmarried Couples with Children. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

2008 Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, National Refereed, Blind-Reviewed, Peeer-Reviewed, Juried Publications

Reprinted with permission: "Educational Leaders as Stewards: Selecting A National Curriculum Guided by the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning" Journal of the Massachusetts chapter of ASCD, Harvard University Chapter, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Upcoming issue to accentuate the importance of developing a whole child curriculum. Summer 2008.

Hines, III, M.T., & Kritsonis (2008) An In-Depth Analysis of the Cognitive and Metacognitive Dimensions of African American Elementary Students’ Mathematical Problem Solving Skills. Focus On Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 2 (1)

Morgan, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Beyond the First Days of School: The Recruitment,
Retention, and Development of Quality Teachers in Hard-to-Staff Schools: A National Focus.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 25 (3)

Kritsonis, W.A., & Marshall, R.L.(2008) Doctoral Dissertation Advising: Keyes to Improvement of Completion Rates. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 25 (3)

Laub, J.D., DeSpain, B.C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) An Analysis of the Rural Public School
Superintendency. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision
Journal, 25 (2)

Torrez, A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Smaller Learning Communities: Pre-Implementation Planning Critical to Success. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (2)

Ivy, Adam, I., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A.(2008). The Challenge of Building Professional Learning Communities: Getting Started. National FORUM of Applied Education Research Journal, 21 (2)

McLeod, K., Tanner, T., & Kritsonis,W.A. (2008). National Impact: Model of a Culturally Active Classroom. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (2)

Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Functions of the Dissertation Advisor. National Journal: Focus On Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 2 (1)

Hines, III, M., & Kritsonis, W.A.(2008). National Implications: Racial Differences in In-service Teachers’ Perceptions’ of Caucasian American Culturally Proficient School Leadership.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 25 (4)

Morgan, M. M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). The Real Philadelphia Experiment: How Benjamin
Franklin’s 13 Virtues can Save a School from Itself. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18 (3)

Herrington, D.E., Kritsonis, W.A., & Tanner, T. (2008). National Recommendations for Deconstructing Educational Leadership Courses: Re-Centering to Address the Needs of Students. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 25

Butcher, J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) A National Perspective: Utilizing the Postmodern Theoretical Paradigm to Close the Achievement Gap and Increase Student Success in Public Education America. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 25 (4)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED499482)

Egbe, R., Ivy, A., Moreland, B., Willis, L., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Ten Things to Consider When Developing a Survey or Assessment Instrument. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3)

Glasco, R.L., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Developing and Nuturing a Common Vision for Technology Integration in Education. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3)

Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Essential Reflections for Non-Profits and School Prior to Writing and Submitting Grant Proposals. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3)

Cloud, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Implications: Implementing Postmodernistic Strategies and the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning for the Improvement of Ethical Conduct for the Improvement of Public Education. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3) (ERIC Documentation Reproduction Service No.ED499279)

Watkins, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Aristotle, Philosophy, and the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning: A National Study on Integrating a Postmodernist Approach to Education and Student Academic Achievement. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3)
(ERIC Documentation Reproduction Service No.ED499545)

Butcher, J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning to Assist Leaders in Retaining Alternatively Certified Teachers: Six National Recommendations for Improving Education in the United States of America. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED499483)

Bowman, E., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Seven Ways to Increase At-Risk Student Participation in Extra-Curricular Activities. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18 (3)

Puentes, H., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). A Case Study with National Implications: Student Mobility and Academic Achievement at a Selected Elementary School Campus. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18 (3)

Jedlicka,K., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). The Persistence of Teacher Under-Utilization of Computer Technologies in the Classroom. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18 (3)

Cloud, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Agenda: Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning for the Improvement of Public Education. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18 (3)

Smith, M.M., Herrington, D.E., Kritsonis, W.A., & Tanner, T. (2008). National Implications: Ten Things to Consider When Teaching Mathematics to African American Students. National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal, 5 (1)

McLeod, K., Tanner, T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Recommendations for Improving Cultural Diversity: Model of a Culturally Active Classroom Setting. National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal, 5 (1)

Joshua, M.T., Joshua, A.M., Obi, F.B., Umoinyang, I.E., Ntukidem, E.P., Kritsonis, W.A., Tanner, T., & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008). Conceptualization and Perceptions of Teaching as an Artistic Form: National and International Implications for Evaluation and Assessment. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 11 (1)

Joshua, A.M., Ukpong, E.M., Joshua, M.T., Kritsonis, W.A., Tanner, T., & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008). Distribution Patterns of the Four Fundamental Temperaments among Secondary School Students in Cross River State, Nigeria: National and International Implications. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 11 (1)

Joshua, M.T., Bassey, S.W., Asim, A.E., Kritsonis, W.A., Tanner, T. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008). National and International Implications for Universal Basic Education: Primary School Teachers’ Perceived and Conceived Continuous Assessment Difficulties and Reporting Competence in Cross River South, Nigeria. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 11 (1)

Kritsonis, W. A. (2008). Functions of the Dissertation Advisor. National Journal: FOCUS On Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 2 (1)

Watkins, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Promise for Student Academic Achievement and Success: Connecting Learning Utilizing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning. National Journal: FOCUS On Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 2 (1)

Taylor, J.H., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Implications: Quality of Effort and Selected Demographic Variables Contributing to the Prediction of Cognitive Outcomes. National Journal: FOCUS On Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 2 (1)

O’Brine,C.R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Segregation Through Brown vs. the Board of Education: A Setback or Landmark Case. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction No.ED499169)

Collins, C.J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Agenda: Implementing Postmodern Strategies
To Guide Educational Leaders in Creating Schools for Quality Learning in Public Education
in America. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction No.ED499554)

Coates-McBride, A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). The M&M Effect-Assessing the Impact of Merit Pay on Teacher Motivation: National Implications. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction No.ED499772)

Terry, L.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). A National Issue: Whether the Teacher Turnover Effects Students’ Academic Performance? DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499543)

Walden, L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). The Impact of the Correlation Between the No Child Left Behind Act’s High Stakes Testing and the Drop-Out Rates of Minority Students. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499541)

Springs, M.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Implications: Practical Ways for Improving Student Self-Concept Through Student Achievement. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499551)

Morgan, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). A National Focus: The Recruitment, Retention, and Development of Quality Teachers in Hard-to-Staff Schools. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.499323)

Charlton, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). The Documentation Process: The Administrator’s Role and the Interplay of Necessity, Support, and Collaboration. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499101)

Henderson, F.T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Graduation Rates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Review of the Literature. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)

Torrez, A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Impact for Pre-Implementation of Smaller Learning Communities. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499477)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Impact of the Mathematics Curriculum on the Success of African American High School Students. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

Smith, Y.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Leaving Good Teachers Behind: A Professional Dilemma. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

Norfleet, S., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Educational Leadership for Improved School-Community Relations. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

Watkins, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Utilizing the Ways of Knowing Through The Realms of Meaning for a Postmodern Approach to Effecting Change in Special Education. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

Townsell, R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Human Resource Management in Small Rural Districts: The Administrator’s Role in Recruitment, Hiring, and Staff Development. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED497694)

Love, A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) A Principal’s Role in Retaining First Year Teachers. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

Jacobs, K.D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Utilizing The William Allan Kritsonis Balanced Teeter-Totter Model as a Means to Cultivate a Legacy of Transformational Leaders in Schools.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

Kritsonis, W. (2008). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 25(3)

Kritsonis, W. (2008). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 25(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2008). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 25(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2008). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2008). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2008). FOREWORD. National FORUM Teacher Education Journal, 18(1 & 2)

Kritsonis, W. (2008). FOREWORD. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 11(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2008). On-Line Scholarly Electric Journal Division, National FORUM Journals. Available daily: www.nationalforum.com

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Professor, PhD Program in Educational Leadership, PVAMU, The Texas A&M University System

PhD Students/Dr. Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair & Dissertation Committee Member

Doctoral Directed Research, PhD Program in Educational Leadership, Prairie View A&M University, The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education, Member of the Texas A&M University System,

Cohort I (Fall 2004)

Cheantel Adams PhD Doctoral Dissertation CHAIR
AN ANALYSIS OF TEXAS SECONDARY SCHOOLS’ CRISIS
MANAGEMENT PREPAREDNESS

Gary Bates PhD Doctoral Dissertation CHAIR – (Graduated 5/07)
A MIXED METHODS ANALYSIS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS IN
THE SUPERINTENDENCY

Gail Cyrus-Parson PhD Doctoral Dissertation Committee – (Graduated 12/07)
ASSESSMENT OF THE HABITS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN
MALES WHO HAVE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED SECONDARY
PROGRAMS

David Edgerson PhD Doctoral Dissertation CHAIR
ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF PRINCIPAL-TEACHER
RELATIONSHIPS ON STUDENT ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

Teresa Hughes PhD Doctoral Dissertation Committee CHAIR (Graduated 12/2006)
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROFESSIONAL LEARNING
COMMUNITIES AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN HIGH
SCHOOLS

H.P. Hyder, III PhD Doctoral Dissertation Committee
THE INTERPLAY AMONG STUDENT MOBILITY ON STUDENT
ACHIEVEMENT, ATTENDANCE, AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS
IN TEXAS MIDDLE SCHOOLS

James Laub PhD Doctoral Dissertation CHAIR (Graduated 5/07)
AN ANALYSIS OF THE RURAL PUBLIC SCHOOL
SUPERNTENDENCY

Nasrin PhD Doctoral Dissertation CHAIR
Nazemzadeh INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES
OF AMERICA

Lautrice Nickson PhD Doctoral Dissertation Committee – (Graduated 5/07)
AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SPECIAL
EDUCATORS TO REMAIN IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION

Arthur Petterway PhD Doctoral Dissertation Committee – (Graduated 8/07)
A MIXED METHODS ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF HIGH
STAKES TESTING ON ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS IN
MAJOR URBAN HIGH SCHOOLS IN TEXAS
Roselia Salinas PhD Doctoral Dissertation CHAIR - (Graduated 12/07)
A COMPARISION OF ALTERNATIVE AND TRADITIONAL
CERTIFIED BILINGUAL ELEMENTARY TEACHERS’ STUDENT
ACHIEVEMENT SCORES IN MAJOR URBAN TEXAS SCHOOLS

Samuel Stephens PhD Doctoral Dissertation Committee – (Graduated 8/07)
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ON OUTSTANDING SCHOOL
LEADERS: IS IT A SIGNIFICANT FACTOR IN THEIR SUCCESS
AND HOW DID THEY DEVELOP IT?

Melody Wilson PhD Doctoral Dissertation Committee CHAIR – (Graduated 5/07)
THE IMPACT OF A PUBLIC PRE-KINDERGARTEN MONTESSORI
PROGRAM ON KINDERGARTEN TEXAS PRIMARY READING
INVENTORY SCORES

Frances Worthey PhD Doctoral Dissertation CHAIR
MIXED-METHOD INVIESTIGATION OF THE RETENTION AND
PLACEMENT OF FEMALES PURSUING NON-TRADITIONAL
FIELDS OF STUDY IN HIGHER EDUCATION


Cohort II (Summer 2005)

Allena Anderson PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
THE IMPACT OF THE CHANGING CULTURAL DYNAMICS AND
DEMOGRAPHICS ON MAJOR URBAN PUBLIC SCHOOL
ADMINISTRATION

Taiwanna Anthony PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
AN ANALYSIS OF E-MENTORING INDUCTION YEAR PROGRAMS
FOR NOVICE ALTERNATIVELY CERTIFIED TEACHERS

Cynthia Berkins PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
A STUDY OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND PROGRAMMATIC
CHARACTERISTICS OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

Robert Branch PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR
MINORITY TEACHER RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT,
AND RETENTION IN THE SOUTHERN STATES

Eunetra Ellison PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR
THE IMPACT OF STRATEGIC TUTORING ON THE HIGH STAKES
TEST SCORES OF AT-RISK STUDENTS

Barbara Scott- PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR
Ferguson THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS OF PARENTS AND THE EFFECTS
OF THE MANDATORY UNIFORM POLICY

Sorie Gassama PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
DROP-OUT PREVENTION AMONG URBAN MINORITY
ADOLESCENTS: PROGRAM EVALUATION AND PRACTICAL
EVALUATIONS

Janetta Gilliam PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
THE RELATIONSHIP OF RETENTION AND MENTORING OF
AFRICAN AMERICAN FRESHMENT STUDENTS AT SELECTED
HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

Karen Jacobs PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR
ASSESSMENT OF SECONDARY PRINCIPALS’ LEADERSHIP
BEHAVIORS IN RECRUTING, RETAINING, AND RENEWING
SCIENCE EDUCATORS IN URBAN SCHOOLS

Clarence Johnson PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR
THE AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENT: FAILLING TO MAKE
THE GRADE IN MATHEMATICS
Cheng-Chieh Lai PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
THE EFFECTS OF COMUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING
PROGRAMS ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISTION FOR
ENGLISH AS SECOND LANGUAGE STUDENTS

Alfreda Love PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
THE IMPACT OF NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ON LOW
PERFORMING SCHOOLS

Jacqueline McNeir PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
THE IMPACT OF SMALLER LEARNING COMMUNITIES ON
URBAN STUDENT PROGRESSION BETWEEN THE NINTH AND
TENTH GRADES

Steven Norfleet PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR
AFRICAN AMERICAN PERSPECTIVES ON HIGH SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS LEADING TO POST SECONDARY LEARNING
SUCCESS

Yolanda Smith PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR (Graduated 5/08)
DIFFERENCES IN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRAINING
BETWEEN ONE CORPORATION AND ONE LARGE TEXAS
PUBLIC SCHOOL DISTRICT

Grace Thomas PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR
A STUDY OF THE FACTORS THAT IMPACT THE ACHIEVEMENT
AMONG MINORITY STUDENTS: A COMPARISON AMONG
ASIAN-AMERICANS, AFRICAN-AMERICANS, AND HISPANIC
STUDENTS IN LARGE URBAN SCHOOL DISTRICTS

Julie Williams PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
A CULTURAL AND LINGUISTIC APPROACH TO
TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAMS


Cohort III (Summer 2007)

Donald Brown, Jr. PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR
REDUCING THE RATES OF RECIDIVISM FOR AFRICAN
AMERICAN MALE STUDENTS ENROLLED IN ALTERNATIVE
EDUCATION PROGRAMS
Jennifer Butcher PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
A MXED-METHODS ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF MENTORING
AND INDUCTIVE PROGRAMS ON NEW TEACHER RETENTION IN
SELECTED SCHOOL SYSTEMS IN TEXAS

Michelle Cloud PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR
THE SUCCESSFUL INTEGRATION OF TRANSFER STUDENTS
FROM THEIR HOME CAMPUS TO THEIR DESIGNATED
“SCHOOL OF CHOICE” AS PRESCRIBED BY THE NO CHILD
LEFT BEHIND ACT

Crystal Collins PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
A STUDY OF DIVERSE FACULTY HIRNIG PRACTICES AND THE
EFFECT ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT AND THE NECESSARY
HIRING PROCEDURES FOR HIRING DIVERSE FACULTY

Michalyn Demaris PhD Doctoral Student - Dissertation Committee
INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT STUDENT
SATISFACTION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON PERSISTENCE AT
A HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY

Rickie Duncan PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR
THE EFFECTS OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT ON IMPROVING
STUDENT DISCIPLINE

Rebecca Duong PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
THE EFFECTS OF TEACHER EFFICACY ON THE ACADEMIC
ACHIEVEMENT OF 9th GRADE ESL STUDENTS IN TEXAS

LaShonda Evans PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
THE EFFECT OF THE AVID PROGRAM ON 9TH GRADE
STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

Gayle Ferguson PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
Smith COLLEGE READINESS: THE EFFECTS OF EARLY COLLEGE
HIGH SCHOOL ON AFRICAN AMERICAN AND HISPANIC MALES

Fletcher Holloway PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR
THE ACADEMIC EFFECT OF SINGLE GENDER SCHOOLS ON
LOW INCOME AND ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED
MINORITY STUDENTS

La’Shonte Iwundu PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
A STUDY OF THE STRATEGIC ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCE
DIRECTORS AND HOW THEY CAN CONTRIBUTE TO
EMPLOYEE RETENTION
Selena Melvin PhD Doctoral Student- Dissertation CHAIR
BARRIERS TO THE SUCCESS OF ACADEMICALLY HIGH RISK
ACHIEVEING AFRICAN AMERICANS

Margaret Patton PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
THE IMPACT OF A PILOT EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP
PROGRAM ON PRINCIPAL PREPARATION

Tracy Perkins PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
TRUANCY REDUCTION: KEEPING STUDENTS IN SCHOOL

Ellen Savoy PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR
A STUDY OF PRINCIPALS’ PERCEPTIONS OF SPECIAL
EDUCATION TEACHERS IN PUBLIC EDUCATION

Desiree Skinner PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR
A COMPARSION OF ALGEBRA UNDERSTANDING OF ENGLISH
LANGUAGE IN SHELTERED AND MAINSTREAM ALGEBRA
CLASSES

Kimberlin Sturgis PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
A STUDY OF PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
AND HOW IT IMPACTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT FOR
MINORITY STUDENTS

Rhondena Townsell PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR
THE SUCCESS RATE OF AFRICAN AMERICAN FEMALS IN
RURAL SCHOOLS

Debra Watkins PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR
A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR ENHANCHING COGNITIVE
THINKING AND IMPROVING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

Porchanee White PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
A STUDY OF AFRICAN AMERICAN PARENTAL AND STUDENT
ATTITUDES ON TEACHER EFFICACY: EMPOWERING STUDENTS
TO READ

Monica Williams PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee
ENGAGING HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY
PRESIDENT IN ENTREPRENEURIALISM THROUGH FUNDRISING





Cohort IV (Fall 2007)

Donna Charlton PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR

Alison B. McBride PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee

Misti Morgan PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR

Christopher O’Brine PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee

Mary Ann Springs PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR

Loretta A. Terry PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee

Alex Torrez PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation CHAIR

Lavada Walden PhD Doctoral Student – Dissertation Committee

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION

Business Address: Professor (Tenured)
Prairie View A&M University
Doctor of Philosophy Program in Educational Leadership
College of Education
Prairie View, TX 77446
Member of the Texas A&M University System

Personal Data: Height: 5’5”
Weight: 152 lbs.
Citizenship: United States

Iowa Credentials: Teacher, Life
Elementary Principal and Supervisor, Life
Superintendent, County and Local

Washington Credentials: Teacher, Life
Elementary and Secondary Principal, Life
Superintendent, County and Local

Louisiana Credentials: Teacher, Life
Elementary and Secondary Principal
Superintendent

National Teacher Passed Educational Leadership: Administration Supervision, 1989
Examination (NTE) Passed Education in the Elementary School, 1989

Certified Distance Successfully completed requirements for the Distance Education
Education Professional Certification Program co-sponsored by The Center for Distance Learning Research and Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, Awarded November 19, 1989.

Approved/Funded Developed and presented a proposal to the Technological Advancements for Students Committee, representing the Department of Educational Leadership & Instructional Technology at McNeese State University for a Document Camera for use in regular classrooms and possibly in distance learning/compressed video settings. Funded: $126,957.19.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Mentored Research - 2008
Dr. Kritsonis
Mentoring and Teaching Doctoral Students and Colleagues to Write for Refereed Journals

Charlton, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Atlas Shrugged but Stumbled: A Layman’s Look at Ayn
Rand’s Objectivism. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Torrez, A., Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) The Virtue of Selfishness from a Humanitarian’s View.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Hogan-Chapman, A., & Kritsonis, W. (2008) Challenges and Techniques when Counseling Asian Americans: Implications for Classroom Teachers, School Administrators and Counselors:
National Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
8 (Summer)

O’Brine, C.R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Christianity vs. Ayn Rand: An Exploration of Objectivism Through Atlas Shrugged. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Evans, L.M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Crisis: The Educational Achievement Gap Between High and Low Socio-Economic Students and Minority and Non-Minority Students.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Skinner, D.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Impact for Defining the School Counselor’s Role. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Morgan, M.M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Now and Again: How Ayn Rand’s Objectivist Theory
Shapes Present-Day Ethical Controversies. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer 2008)

Charlton, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Reflections on Rand’s The Virtue of Selfishness: Thoughts on Collectivism and Racism. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Demaris, M.C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) The Classroom: Exploring Its Effects on Student Persistence and Satisfaction. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
8 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G., Tanner, T. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Are Polish Engineering Learners Studying German so That They Can Secure Employment in Germany? A Brief Commentary. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer).

Butler, N.L., Pirog, R., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Are Polish Post Secondary Vocational School Learners Studying English so That They Can Secure Employment in the UK and Ireland? A Brief Commentary. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G., Tanner, T. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Are Some Topics Uncomfortable for Polish Higher School Students to Discuss During English Classes?
A Brief Report. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Eisenman, R., Kritsonis, W.A. & Tanner, T. (2008) Assignment of Black and White College Students to Remedial Education Classes. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Greiner-Wronowa, E., Pusoska, A., Butler, N.L., Tanner, T., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Complementary Measurements to Diagnostic Glass Surface Corrosion by Raman Spectroscopy: Ground Breaking Research. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G., Tanner, T. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Do Poles Want Religion to be a Part of the School Leaving Exam (the Matura)? A Brief Note. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G., Tanner, T. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Do Polish Engineering Learners Prefer to Learn How to Speak German From a Native Speaker Than From a Non-Native Instructor? Snapshot Comment. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G., Tanner, T. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Do Polish Engineering Students Prefer Speaking in Person, Listening, Reading or Writing During German Classes? A Brief Note. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)
Butler, N.L., Davidson, B.S., Pirog, R., Kritsonis, W.A. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Do Polish Post-Secondary Vocational School Students Prefer Speaking in Person, Listening, Reading or Writing during English Classes? The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Mroz, L., Pirog, R., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Do Polish Post-Secondary vocational Institution Learners Prefer to Learn How to Speak English From a Native Speaker than from a Non-Native Instructor? Snapshot Comment. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Pirog, R., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) Do Polish Secondary School Learners Want Marks in Religion to Be Included in Year End Averages? A Brief Commentary. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Eisenman, R., Kritsonis, W.A., Tanner, T. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008) On Improving Student Grades and Graduation: A Snapshot of Minority and White Students’ Success from Supplemental Instruction at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) The Adolescent’s Perception of Failure (2008) The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 8 (Summer)

Sturgis, K.., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Characteristics of the Postmodern Educational Leader: National Implications for Improving Education in America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

White, P.A. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Education in the United States of America: Six Philosophical Strategies for Selecting Curriculum Using the Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Sturgis, K.., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) How to Implement the Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning as a Process for Selecting Curriculum for the Development of the Complete Person.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Perkins, T., & Kritsonis, W.A.(2008) Improving Education in America: Implementing the Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Spring)

Smith, G., F. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Leadership for High School Reform in the United States of America: A Postmodern Concept within a Modernist Campus. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Collins, C.J. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Agenda: Implementing Postmodern Strategies to Guide Educational Leaders in Creating Schools for Quality Learning in Public Education in America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Holloway, F., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Agenda: Strategies for Improving Student
Learning and the Human Condition in Public Education in the United States of America.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Perkins, T., & Kritsonis, W.A.(2008) Improving Education in America: Implementing the Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Spring)

Collins, C.J. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Implications: Implementing Strategies for Improving Academic Achievement in Public Education in the United States. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Smith, G., F. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Leadership for High School Reform in the United States of America: A Postmodern Concept within a Modernist Campus. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Collins, C.J. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Agenda: Implementing Postmodern Strategies to Guide Educational Leaders in Creating Schools for Quality Learning in Public Education in America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Iwundu, L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Implications: Strategies for Dealing with Growing Diverse Populations in Public Education in the United States of America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Brown, D.R., Jr., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Implications for Applying Transitional Leadership in a Postmodern Paradigm for Education in the United States of America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Duong, R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Implications for Postmodernism within the Realms of Educational Leadership. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Perkins, T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Implications: Postmodernism and Its Effect on Public Schools in the United States of America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Spring)

Duong, R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Implications for Educational Leaders in Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning in the Improvement of Academic Achievement. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Iwundu, L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Policy Issues and Trends: Strategies for Implementing Postmodern Thinking to Guide Decision Making in the United States of America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

White, P.A. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Recommendations for Implementing Postmodernism in an Educational Organization for the Improvement of Public Education in the United States of America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Evans, L. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Postmodern Philosophical Thinking: National Implications and Recommendations for Educational Leaders in the United States of America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Evans, L. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Strategies for Improving Public Education in the United States of America: On the Development of Complete Persons. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Smith, G. F., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Strategies for Meeting National Standards and Improving Academic Achievement in Public Education in the United States of America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Holloway, F., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) The Emerging Challenges for the World of Education:
That Was Then – This Is Now. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student
Research, 7 (Spring)

Jedrys. J., Butler, N.L. Tanner, T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Dissertation Summation: Application of Selected Geophysical Methods in Facies Differentiation on Upper Jurassic Sediments in the
Cracow--Czestochowa Upland. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
7 (Spring)

Butler, N.L. Tanner, T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Do Polish Higher Institution Learners Prefer to Learn How to Speak English from a Native Speaker Rather than from a Non-Native Instructor: A Snapshot Comment. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
7 (Spring)

Butler, N.L., Smith, S., Davidson, B.S., Tanner, T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools vs. Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison of Information Accessibility and Accountability. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Butler, N.L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Should Tuition Fees be required of Polish Higher School Students who Study Full-Time? The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Butler, N.L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Are Polish Higher School Students in Agreement with HIV/AIDS Education Awareness Programs in Polish Primary and Secondary Schools which Include Homosexual Practices? A Brief Note. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Trzaskus-Zak, inz Beata, Buter, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., & Griffith, K.G. (2008) A Method of
Designation of Marginal Volumes of Economical Factors on a Two-Part Sale Price in the
Gas Distribution Industry. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
7 (Spring)

Kuklina, S.S., butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A. & Griffith, K.G. (2008) Learning Tolls for Overcoming Difficulties in Structuring Cooperative Activities in EFL Classrooms.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)
Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., Hines III, M, & Griffith, K.G. (2008) International Education:
Are Polish Higher School Learners Studying Spanish So That They Can Secure Employment
in Spain? A Brief Commentary. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

Butler, N.L., Davidson, B.S., Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G. (2008) International Education:
Do Polish Higher School Students Prefer Speaking in Person, Listening, Reading or Writing
During Spanish Classes? The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
7 (Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED500292)

Brady, E.C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Targeting Reading Fluency for ESL Students: A research based and practical application. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED500036)

Finch, J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Unmarried Couples with Children. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 7 (Spring)

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

2007

Herrington, David E., Kritsonis, William A., Proctor, Kathleen Kidd & Garza-Brown,
Guadalupe (2007 Fall). Campus Level Grant Writing: Leveraging Teacher Talent to Access
External Funding. Journal of Border Educational Research 6(1).

Osterholm, K., Nash, W.R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Effects of Labeling Students
Learning Disabled”: Emergent Themes in the Research Literature 1970 Through 2000.
National Journal: FOCUS on Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 1(1)



Osterholm, K., Horn, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) College Professors as Potential Victims
Of Stalking: Awareness and Prevention: National Implications. National Journal: FOCUS
On Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 1(1)

Williams, M.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Implications: Why HBCU Presidents
Need Entrepreneurial Focus. National Journal: FOCUS On Colleges, Universities, and
Schools, 1(1)

Belshaw, S.H., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Implications in Juvenile Justice: The
Influence of Juvenile Mentoring Programs On At-Risk Youth. The International Child Care
Network CYC-Online, Issue 106 - Online, 106, November.

Obo, F.E., Joshua, M.T., Kritsonis,W.A., & Marshall, R.L. (2007). Some Student-Personal Variables as Predictors of Mathematics Achievement in Secondary Schools in Central Cross River State, Nigeria. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal 24(2)

Hart, K.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007). The Influence of Parenting Style on Psychosocial Adjustment. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 24(2)

Joshua, M.T., Ubi, I.O., Kritsonis, W.A., & Marshall, R.L. (2007). Gender, Personality and Neurotic Factors in Mathematics Achievement among Secondary School Students in Calabar, Nigeria. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 20(2)

Pomykal, D.F., Hopper, P.F., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Impact: Creating Teacher
Leaders Through the Use of Problem-Based Learning. National FORUM of Applied
Educational Research Journal, 20(3)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Banning Cell Phones in Public Schools: Analyzing
A National School and Community Relations Problem. National FORUM of Educational
Administration and Supervision Journal, 24(3)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED497423)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National School Debate: Banning Cell Phones on
Public School Campuses in America. National FORUM of Educational Administration
and Supervision Journal, 25(4)

Wilson, M.A., & Kritsonis (2007) Melody Wilson’s Theoretical Framework Model on the
Effectiveness of Pre-Kindergarten Montessori Programs on Preparedness of Children for
Kindergarten. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 17(3)

Henderson, II, F.T., Rouce, S.D., Wawrykow, G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Impact:
Eugenics and Its Societal Implications. National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal, 4(2)

Henderson, N., Wood, J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Muslins in America. National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal, 4(2)

Jacobs, K.D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Strategies for Educational Leaders to Implement Postmodern Thinking in Public Education in the United States of America. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 25(4)

Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Serendipitous Findings of A School-University Collaboration: A Case Study with National Implications for Supporting Novice Teachers. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 17(3)

Townsell, R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Who in the World is Ayn Rand? Doctoral FORUM-
National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 4(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED49467)



Watkins, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Atlas Shrugged by Ayn Rand: A Comparative and Epistemological Philosophical Perspective Based on the Theoretical Framework of the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD. Doctoral FORUM-National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 4(1)

Henderson, III, F.T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Graduation Rates at Historically Black Colleges
and Universities: A Review of the Literature. Doctoral FORUM-National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 4(1)

Wakins, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Atlas Shrugged by Any Rand: A Comparative and
Epistemological Philosophical Perspective Based on the theoretical Framework of the
Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD.
Doctoral FORUM-National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 4(1)

Anthony, T.D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007). A Mixed Methods Assessment of the Effectiveness of Strategic EMentoring in Improving the Self-Efficacy and Persistence (or retention) of Alternatively Certified Novice Teachers within an Inner City School District. Doctoral FORUM-National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 4(1) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED494448)

Patton, M.C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007). Great Minds Think Differently: Sustaining a System of Thinking. Doctoral FORUM-National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 4(1) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED494511)

Skinner, D.A. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007). When to be Selfish: Objectivism at its Best. Doctoral FORUM-National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 4(1)

Savoy, E. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007). National Implications: Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning as an Ethical Decision-Making Process to Improve Academic Achievement-Ten Recommendations. Doctoral FORUM-National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 4(1)

Watkins, D. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007). Developing a Curriculum for At-Risk and Low Performing High School Students: Teaching Shakespeare to At-Risk Students Utilizing Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning. Doctoral FORUM-National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 4(1)

Williams, M.G. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007). National Implications: Why HBCU Presidents Need Entrepreneurial Focus. National Journal: FOCUS on Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 1(1)


Kritsonis, W. (2007). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 24(3)

Kritsonis, W. (2007). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 24(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2007). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 24(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2007). FOREWORD. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 20(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2007). FOREWORD. National FORUM Teacher Education Journal, 17(1 & 2)

Kritsonis, W. (2007). FOREWORD. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 10(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2007). On-Line Scholarly Electric Journal Division, National FORUM Journals. Available daily: www.nationalforum.com

Recent International

Smith, C., Butler, N.L., Hughes, T.A., Herrington, D., & Kritsonis, W.A (2007).
TECHNOLINGUA, Cracow, Poland. June 25-26, 2007 – AGH University of Science and Technology. Paper presentation: Native vs. Nonnative English Teachers in Polish Schools: Personal Reflections

Smith, C., Butler, N.L., Hughes, T.A., Herrington, D., & Kritsonis, W.A (2007).
Conference on Problems in Language, Teaching, Vyatka State University of the Humanities, Kirov, Russia, February 14-15 2007. Three papers accepted and published: 1) Native and Non-Native Teachers of English in Polish Schools – Personal Reflections: International Implications, 2) Observations on Native vs. Nonnative EFL Teachers in Poland, 3) The Role of Communication Context, Corpus-Based Grammar, and Scaffolded Interaction in ESL/EFL Instruction

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Books by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD, Professor, PhD Program in Educational Leadership, PVAMU, Texas A&M University System

Kritsonis, W.A., & Mary Ann Springs (2008-09). Effective Teaching in the Elementary School. Murrieta, CA: The Alexis Group.

Kritsonis, W.A., Griffith, K.G., Bahrim, C., Marshall, R.L., Herrington, D., Hughes, T.A., & Brown, V.E. (2007). Practical Applications of Educational Research and Basic Statistics. Houston,TX: National FORUM Press

Kritsonis, W. (2007) Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning. Published in
cooperation with financial support of Visiting Lecturers, Oxford Round Table (2005),
Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England. Distributed by National
FORUM Journals

Person, O. & Kritsonis, W. (2006) A Brief Analysis of the Historical Development of Higher
Education for African Americans. Houston, TX: National Forum Press

Kritsonis, W. (2005) Advanced Applications of Educational Research and Statistics
(Preliminary Edition) Ashland, OH: BookMasters, Inc.

Kritsonis, W. (2002) William Kritsonis, PhD on Schooling: Historical and Philosophical
Events and Milestones. Ashland, OH: BookMasters, Inc.
(2nd Edition In Progress)

Kritsonis, W. (2000) School Discipline: The Art of Survival (3rd Edition)
Ashland, OH: BookMasters, Inc. (4th Edition In Progress)

Kritsonis, W. (1994) Education American Style (1st Edition)
Ashland, OH: BookMasters, Inc. (1st Edition)

Kritsonis, W. & J. Brown (1993) School Discipline: The Art of Survival (2nd Edition)

Kritsonis, W. & S. Adams (1987) School Discipline: The Art of Survival (1st Edition)
Baton Rouge, LA: LAND and LAND Publishing Division

Kritsonis, W. & D.F. DeMoulin (1996) Philosophies of Education (1st Edition)
Ashland, OH: BookMasters, Inc. (2nd Edition In Progress)

Kritsonis, W. (1989) How to Improve Your Effectiveness as an Elementary School Teacher
(2nd Edition) Alexandria, LA: National Forum Books

Kritsonis, W. (1973) John Wesley’s Contribution to Education. New York, NY

Kritsonis, W. (1972) How to Improve Your Effectiveness as an Elementary School Teacher
Seattle, WA: Ballard Publishing Company

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor, PhD Program in Educational Leadership, PVAMU,
Texas A&M University

PROFESSIONAL REFERENCES

Dr. Charles M. Achilles, Professor, Seton Hall University, 53 Snug Harbor, Geneva, NY.
315-789-2399; 315-789-9332; 973-313-6334’ plato9936@yahoo.com plato936@rochester.rr.com

Dr. Vincent a. Anfara, Jr., Professor, The University of Tennessee at Knoxville, Educational Administration and Policy, A321 Clayton Complex, Knoxville, TN 37996-3430
865-974-4985; 504-957-4109; vanfara@utk.edu

Dr. Charles T. Araki, Professor Emeritus, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 3017 Kaloaluiki Street, Honolulu, HI 96822- 808-956-7704

Dr. Joe Blackbourn, Associate Professor, The University of Mississippi, School of Education, Curriculum and Instruction, University, MS 38677 662-234-3092; 662-832-0731; 662-232-7588; jmb@olemiss.edu

Dr. Richard Blackbourn, Dean, College of Education, Mississippi State University, Box 9710, Miss State, MS 39762 662-325-3717; 662-325-8784 Fax; rlb277@misstate.edu

Dr. Kathleen M. Brown, Head, Department of Educational Leadership, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 103B Peabody Hall, CB#3500, School of Education, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-#3500 919-843-8166; 919-843-4572 Fax; BrownK@mail.unc.edu

Dr. Gerald Calais, Professor, McNeese State University, Department of Teacher Education,
Burton College of Education, Lake Charles, LA 70609 337-475-5419; gcalais@mail.mcneese.edu

Dr. Patti L. Chance, Professor, Department of Educational Administration and Higher Education, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Box 453002, Las Vegas, NV 89154-3002 702-895-3491; 702-228-3791

Dr. Robert B. Cooter, Jr., Professor, Department of Instruction and Curriculum Leadership, College of Education, 400b Ball Hall, The University of Memphis, Memphis TN 38152-3570
901-678-5938; 901-678-3881 Fax; rcooter@memphis,edu

Dr. John Cotsakos, Associate Professor, California State University at Sacramento, Educational Leadership and Policy Studies, College of Education, 6000 J. Street, Sacramento, CA 95819-6079 916-933-7134; 916-275-5887; 916-933-7681 Fax; cbe@sbcglobal.net

Dr. Barry S. Davidson, Troy University, Department of Psychology, Counseling and Foundations of Education, 10 McCartha Hall, Troy, AL 36082 561-762-8134; 334-670-5682; bdaviso@troy.edu

Dr. Ben C. DeSpain, Head, Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling, PhD Program in Educational Leadership, Prairie View A&M University/Member of the Texas A&M University System, The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education, PO 519, Prairie View, TX 77446 270-339-8552;

Dr. Feng S. Din, Professor, Department of Education, University of Virginia’s College of Wise,
1 College Avenue, Wise, VA 24293 540-328-4412 fsd2e@uvawise.edu

Dr. Rita Dunn, Professor and Director, Learning Styles Network, St. John’s University, Division of Instructional Leadership, Utopia Parkways, Jamaica, NY 11439 803-642-4390

Dr. Fenwick W. English, R. Wendell Eaves Distinguished Professor of Educational Leadership, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Educational Leadership, Peabody Hall – CB #3500, School of Education, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3500 Cell: 919-451-1493; 919-843-4572; fenglish@mail.edu fenglish@attglobal.net

Mr. Joe Feucht, Purchasing Supervisor, Calcasieu Parish School Board, 1724 Kirkman Street, Lake Charles, LA 70602-0800 337-794-4155

Dr. Larry E. Frase, Professor Emeritus, San Diego State University, 2274 Ft. Stockton Drive, San Diego, CA 92103 619-298-9391

Dr. Jeanne Gerlach, Associate Vice President for K-16 Initiatives & Dean of the College of Education, University of Texas at Arlington, Box 19227, 701 S. College Street, Arlington, TX 76019 817-272-5476; 817-272-7453 Fax; gerlach@uta.edu

Dr. Clement Glenn, Associate Professor and Vice President for Student Services, Prairie View A&M University, Box 519, Prairie View, TX 77446 936-825-6300; ceglenn@pvamu.edu

Dr. Kimberly Grantham Griffith, Associate Professor and Editor, The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, Lamar University, Department of Professional Pedagogy, College of Education and Human Development, PO Box 10034, Beaumont, TX 77710 409-893-5590; 409-832-6769; 409-880-8684; babybirdcardinal@aol.com - griffithkg@hal.lamar.edu

Dr. Richard Hartnett, Chair, Educational Leadership Studies, West Virginia University, College of Education, 608 Allen Hall, Morgantown, WV 26506 304-293-3707 Richard.Hartnett@mail.edu




Dr. David E. Herrington, Associate Professor and Director of the Principal’s Center,
Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling, Prairie View A&M University/Member of the Texas A&M University System, Box 519, Prairie View, TX 77446 979-293-0613; davidherrington111@hotmail.com

Dr. Teresa Ann Hughes, Results in Education, 19307 Solon Springs Court, Tomball, TX 77375
281-290-6518; 281-433-0198; tannh3@hotmail.com
(First graduate in PhD Program in Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University/Member of the Texas A&M University System, Fall 2006

Dr. G. Peter Ienatsch, Dean Emeritus, College of Education, University of Texas of the Permian Basin, 100 West Rainbow Drive, Ruidoso, NM 88345

Dr. Donald F. DeMoulin, Professor, Doctoral Program, Argosy University – Atlanta, 980 Hammond Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30328 713-697-8776; Demoulin5853@yahoo.com

Dr. Dan L. King, Vice President of Academic Affairs, Rhode Island College, 600 Mt. Pleasant Avenue, Providence, RI 62908 401-456-8003; dking@ric.edu

Dr. Lloyd Kinnison, Professor, Texas Woman’s University, College of Education, Denton, TX 76204-5769 940-381-0520; 940-898-2270; lkinnison@twu.edu

Dr. Lloyd Korhonen, Director, Center for Distance Learning Research, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-1588 409-862-7125; 409-862-7127

Dr. James D. Laub, Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and Instruction, Poteet Independent School District, P.O. Box 138, Poteet, TX 78065 432-254-8705 Cell; 432-686-0003 Work; jlaub@macharter.org; jameslaubphd@peoplepc.com

Dr. Angus MacNeil, Professor, University of Houston, 15421 Stonehill Drive, Houston, TX 77062 281-286-6731; 713-743-5038; amacneil@uh.edu

Dr. Robert L. Marshall, Professor, Doctoral Program, Department of Educational Leadership, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Horrabin Hall 81, Macomb, IL 61455 Dr. Marshall is Senior National Editor for National FORUM Journals
979-218-6872 rlmarshall@wiu.edu

Dr. M. Paul Mehta, Professor and Dean (Retired), Prairie View A&M University/Member of the Texas A&M University System, The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education, Box 519, Prairie View, TX 77446 Cell: 281-770-7659; Home: 281-855-8633; mpmehta@pvamu.edu
Dr. Allen A. Mori, Provost, California State University, Dominguez Hills, 1000 E. Victoria Street, Carson, CA 90747 310-243-3307; amori@csudh.edu - acadaffairs@csudh.edu

Dr. Lautrice Nickson, Assistant Principal, Conroe Independent School District, 2422 Coachlight, Conroe, TX 77384 936-321-7089; 936-521-5061 - mrsnickson@hotmail.com
Dr. William J. O’Neill, Professor Emeritus, Iowa Wesleyan College, 802 East Pine Place, Mt. Pleasant, IA 52641 319-986-2190; oneillmp@mchsi.com

Dr. Rosemary Papa, Del & Jewel Lewis Endowed Chair for Learner Centered Leadership, Northern Arizona University, College of Education, PO Box 5774, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5774
916-832-1336; 928-523-8741 Rosemary.Papa@nau.edu

Dr. Arthur L. Petterway, Assistant Principal, Houston Independent School District. Home Address: 5300 N. Braeswood, Houston, TX 77096 832-693-2809; 713-748-8303; 713-498-8667

Dr. Thomas A. Rakes, Chancellor, The University of Tennessee at Martin, Administration Building, Office of the Chancellor, Martin, TN 38238 881-587-7010; 731-587-9010; rakes@utm.edu

Dr. Bill Reaves, CREATE, 3232 College Park Drive, Suite 303, The Woodlands, TX 77384
www.createtx.com - 281-893-6918; 936-273-7661; wreaves@uamu.edu
Dr. Louis Reed, (Former Superintendent Port Arthur I.S.D., Port Arthur, TX)
3031 13th Street, Port Arthur, TX 77642 409-718-0812

Dr. Roselia A. Salinas, Director of Human Resources, Clear Creek I.S.D.. 2425 E. Main Street, League City, TX 77573 - 713-572-7928; rosesalinas1@hotmail.com; rsalinas@ccisd.net

Rhodena Townsell, Principal, Madisonville Elementary, Madisonville Consolidated Independent School District, PO Box 879, Madisonville, TX 77864 903-536-3414; 936-348-1877; townsell@windstream.net - rbrooksmadisonvillecisd.org

Dr. Thomas Valesky, Professor, Florida Gulf Coast University, 19501 Treeline Avenue South, Fort Myers, FL 33965-6565 941-590-7793; 941-432-5559; 941-948-0334 Fax

Dr. James Van Patten, Professor Emeritus, University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, 434 Hawthorne Street, Fayeteville, AR 72701 516-278-6572

Monica G. Williams, Director of Development, Rice University, Office of Development, MS81, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251-1892; Cell 832-498-8733; Direct 717-348-4332; Fax 713-348-5166; Mobile: 832-498-8733 monica.williams@rice.edu

Dr. Ben Wilson, Jr., Professor Emeritus, Sul Ross State University/Rio Grande College, HC 34 Box 1016, Uvalde, TX 78801 830-278-7445 nanw@hilconet.com

Dr. James A. Wood, Professor, Sul Ross State University/Rio Grande College, 400 Sul Ross Drive, Uvalde, TX 78801 830-279-3033; jawood@sulross.edu

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

2004 – Present PROFESSOR (Tenured)
Prairie View A&M University
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View, Texas 77446
(Member of the Texas A&M University System)

DISTINGUISHED ALUMNUS (2004)
Central Washington University
College of Education and Professional Studies
Ellensburg, Washington

VISITING LECTURER (2005)
Oxford Round Table
Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England

Taught the Inaugural class in the newly established Doctor of Philosophy
Program in the Educational Leadership (Fall, 2004). Dissertation Chair of
first recipient of PhD. Student graduated in fall, 2006.

PhD Courses Taught at PVAMU (Doctoral Level)
EDUL 7003 Fundamental Components of Strategic Thinking
EDUL 7033 Dynamics of Leadership
EDUL 7043 Organizational Development and Change
EDUL 7063 Philosophy of Leadership
EDUL 7403 School Law for Administrators
EDUL 7083 Internship – Superintendent/Principal/Higher Education
EDUL 7253 Ethical Decision Making
EDUL 7263 Critical Issues in Educational Leadership
EDUL 7273 Human Resources Management
EDUL 7333 Grant Writing
EDUL 8003 Dissertation

Other Graduate Level Courses Taught at PVAMU (Master’s Level)
ADMIN 5513 Superintendent Internship
ADMN 5003 Fundamentals of School Administration
ADMN 5013 Theory, Practice and Research
ADMN 5033 School Business Management
ADMN 5043 The School Principalship
ADMN 5053 Administration of Special Programs
ADMN 5083 Special Topics in Educational Administration
ADMN 5153 Research
CNSL 5163 Research

Member, (Elected by the Faculty) Promotion and Tenure Committee, Prairie View A&M University, Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling, The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education, Member of the Texas A&M University System, Prairie View, TX. 2004 – Present

Member, (Appointed by the Dean of The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education) College of Education Advisory Committee on Post-Tenure Review, Prairie View A&M University, The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education, Member of the Texas A&M University System, Prairie View, TX.. 2006 – Present

Certification of Completion – The NIH Office of Human Subjects Research certifies that William Kritsonis successfully completed the National Institutes of Health Web-based training course “Protecting Human Research Participants”. Date: 03/09/2008
Certification Number: 5765.

Faculty Mentor to New PhD Doctoral Faculty, 2007 – Present - Dr. Tyrone Tanner.

Member, (Appointed by the Dean of The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education) Holmes Partnership Council, Prairie View A&M University, The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education, Member of the Texas A&M University System, Prairie View, TX. 2006 – Present

Member, (Appointed by the Dean of The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education) Task Force
On Grants and External Funding, Prairie View A&M University, The Whitlowe R. Green
College of Education, Member of the Texas A&M University System, Prairie View, TX. 2004-Present

Since joining the doctoral faculty of PVAMU, Dr. Kritsonis has have helped colleagues publish articles at the national and international levels in refereed, peer-reviewed, juried, academic professional journals. Over 300 indexed in ERIC. Teach courses in the superintendent, principal and human resources certification and preparation programs.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis,PhD
National Refereed Publications

2005

Marshall, R., & Kritsonis, W. (2005). School Finance Equity and Adequacy. In Fenwick
W. English (Eds.) Sage Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Marshall, R., & Kritsonis, W. (2005). Rural and Small Schools. In Fenwick W. English
(Eds.) Sage Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Kritsonis, W., (2005). Schwarzenegger Needs Schooling in Precedents.
EDUCATION WEEK, Vol. 25, No. 13, November 20, 2005, Page 39

Kritsonis, W. (2005). FOREWORD: Teaching Latino Students: Effective Strategies for
Educating America’s Minorities: Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press

Kritsonis, W. (2005). William J. Slotnik’s Commentary “Mission Possible: Tying Earning
To Learning” EDUCATION WEEK, Volume 25, Issue 08, October 19, 2005, Page 35

Butler, L., Pachocinski, R., Davidson, B., Kritsonis, W., Van Patten, J., Borman, K.,
Johanningmeirer, E., Orlosfsky, M., & Marshall, R. (2006). Polish Post-Secondary
Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges: International Perspectives.
International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity 8(1)
(ERIC Documentation Reproduction Services No ED492983)

Kritsonis, W. (2005). FOREWORD: Developing Educational Leadership on a National Level.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 22(3)

Kritsonis, W. (2005). FOREWORD: Developing Educational Leadership on a National Level.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 22(2)
Note: This issue featured PhD Students in Educational Leadership from Prairie View A&M
University – Member of the Texas A&M University System.

Kritsonis, W. (2005). FOREWORD: Development of Educational Leadership Nationally.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 22(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2005). FOREWORD: Educational Administration: A National Perspective.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 18(2)
Kritsonis, W. (2005). FOREWORD: How Technology Impacts Education Nationally.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 18(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2005). FOREWORD: National Insights: Educational Aspects and the
Quest for Highly Qualified Teachers. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal,
15(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2005). FOREWORD: National Insights: Educational Aspects for Youth Today.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 15(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2005). FOREWORD. International Journal of Scholarly Academic
Intellectual Diversity, 8(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2005). On-Line Scholarly Electronic Journal Division, National FORUM
Journals – Available daily: www.nationalforum.com

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Mentored Research – 2006
Professor William Allan Kritsonis,
PVAMU, Texas A&M University System

Dr. Kritsonis
Mentoring and Teaching Doctoral Students and Colleagues to Write for Professional Publication - Refereed Articles Published

Edgerson, D., & Kritsonis, W., & Herrington, D. (2006). The Critical Role of the
Teacher-Principal Relationship in the Improvement of Student Achievement in Public
Schools of the United States. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student
Research, 3 (Spring)

Petterway, A., & Kritsonis, W., & Herrington, D. (2006). The Impact of High Stakes
Testing on the Academic Achievement of English Language Learners in Texas Public
Education: National Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of
Student Research, 3(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED491981)

Hughes, T., & Kritsonis, W., & Herrington, D. (2006). The Importance of Learning
Community Ideology in the Transformation of Public Schools in the United States.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 3(Spring)

Salinas, R., & Kritsonis, W., & Herrington, D. (2006). Teacher Quality as a Predictor
of Student Achievement in Urban Schools: A National Focus. The Lamar
University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 3(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED491993)

Nickson, L., & Kritsonis, W., & Herrington, D. (2006). Retaining Special Education
Teachers in Public Education in the United States: A National Crisis. The Lamar
University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 3(Spring)

Parsons, G., Kritsonis, W., & Herrington, D. (2006). Successful African American Males
in Post-Secondary Education: An Examination of Personal Strategies, Attitudes,
and Behaviors. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
3(Spring)

Adams, C., Kritsonis, W., & Herrington, D. (2006). Second School Crisis Management
Preparedness in American Public Schools. The Lamar University Electronic
Journal of Student Research, 3(Spring)
Anderson, A., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). A National Perspective: An Exploration of the Influence
of Principals on School Culture. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student
Research, 3(Spring)

Hughes, T., Kritsonis, W., & Herrington, D. (2006). A National Perspective for Cultivating
Working Relations Between Educational Researchers and Institutional Review Board
Members. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED491999)

Jacobs, K., Kritsonis, W. (2006) National Agenda: Ten Suggestions to Incorporate the Realms of
Meaning as a Decision Making Process to Improve Student Achievement in the United States.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492179)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Immigration and Student Success Communication:
Journey as a Learning Organization. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student
Research, 3(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492118)

Ellison, E., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Considerations: How to Implement the Realms of
Meaning as a Decision Making Process to Improve Student Achievement: Ten
Recommendations. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
3(Spring)

Love, A., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Impact: Change Agents Understand Directional
Changes. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 3(Spring)

Ellison, E., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Imperatives: Restructuring the Configuration of
Tutoring Programs and Transforming Tutoring Groups into Achievement Groups.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 3(Spring)

Branch, R., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Insight: Pragmatism: Proof is in the Results.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 3(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499770)

Smith, Y., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Insight: Yolanda E. Smith’s Philosophy of
Education. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 3(Spring)

Anthony, T., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Outlook: An Epistemological Approach to
Educational Philosophy. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
3(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492240)


Nickerson, G. & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Viewpoint: The Development of a Complete
Person Using a “Realms of Meaning” Styled Curriculum. The Lamar University
Electronic Journal of Student Research, 3(Spring)

Renfro, J. & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Vision: The Educational Philosophy of
Jacqueline McNeir Refro. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
3(Spring)

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Dr. Kritsonis: Major Professor for Completed Graduate Research Thesis, Field Studies and/or Projects: Education Specialist Degree

Education Specialist Degree
McNeese State University, Department of Educational Leadership and Instructional Technology, Burton College of Education (74)

2004

Julie Anne Ambros THE EFFECTS OF CHARACTER EDUCATION ON 8TH GRADE STUDENTS’ DEVELOPMENT IN CALCASIEU PARISH SCHOOLS

Chad Aucoin THE PERCEPTIONS OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AS VIEWED BY THE STUDENT BODY OF STARKS HIGH SCHOOL
Rebecca Chapman A STUDY OF HATHAWAY HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ AND STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF SELECTED FACTORS SINCE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DISCIPLINE REFERRAL POLICY

Karla Desormeaux THE EFFECTS OF STANDARDS-BASED MATHEMATICS CURRICULUMS ON STUDENT MATHEMATICAL ACHIEVEMENT

Pamela I. Dequeant THE EFFECTS OF STAKEHOLDERS’ PERCEPTIONS AND OF THE
& Julie P. Miers EFFECTIVENESS OF THE FOUR-DAY SCHOOL WEEK ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT, BEHAVIOR, AND ATTENDANCE

Christie Guidry THE EFFECTS OF PRE-KINDERGARTEN ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF FIRST GRADE AND THIRD GRADE STUDENTS

Jessica R. Hickman- SCHOOL UNIFORMS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS: ADVANTAGES AND
Zaunbrecher DISADVANTAGES

Dayna Hoffpauir A STUDY ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS USING THE COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION IN JEFFERSON DAVIS PARISH

James Hughes PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES IN COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS

Velma Hypolite & THE EFFECTS OF OUT-OF-ZONE PLACEMENT ON ACADEMIC
Charlotte McCallum PROGRESS OF STUDENTS IN FOUR MIDDLE SCHOOLS OF THE CALCASIEU PARISH SCHOOL SYSTEM

Brenda Joubert THE EFFECTS OF THE FOUR-DAY SCHOOL WEEK ON TEACHER AND STUDENT ATTENDANCE

Loreete LaVergne PUBLIC SCHOOL EDUCATION COMPARED TO ALTERNATIVE SCHOOL EDUCATION AS MEASURED BY THE LOUISIANA EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (LEAP) TEST

Audrette S. Metoyer THE EFFECTS OF CREATING POSITIVE READING ATTITUDES THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COMPUTERIZED MANAGEMENT PROGRAM “STAR”

Vicki Perkins THE EFFECTS OF BLOCK SCHEDULING ON STUDENTS ATTENDANCE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AT DEQUENCY MIDDLE SCHOOL

Sharon Lynn THE EFFECTS OF ADDED AMERICAN HISTORY QUESTIONS IN
Phenice-Richard THE SEVENTH GRADE LOUISIANA HISTORY CLASS ON THE IOWA TESTS OF BASIC SKILLS

Daniel Prather THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY AND COMPUTER AIDED INSTRUCTION ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE AT CHURCH POINT HIGH SCHOOL

Carolyn Smith MATHEMATICALLY PROFICIENT-TEACHING AND LEARNING

Amy L. Veuleman A STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PLAN IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SETTING

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Mentored Research - 2007

Dr. Kritsonis
Mentoring and Teaching Doctoral Students and Colleagues to Write for Professional Publication - Refereed Articles Published

Berkins, C.L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Curriculum Leadership: Curriculum for the At-Risk Student. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED498643)

Nazemzadeh, N., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Postmodernism, Higher Education, and Economics: A Different View. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Nazemzadeh, N., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Economics and the Six Realms of Meaning. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Renfro, J.M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Organization Leadership 101: The Importance pf Identifying and Implementing Character Trait Assessments that Move Educational Leaders to Levels of Excellence. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Cheng-Chieh, L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Five Instructional Strategies for ESL Leaders: Improving ESL Learning through Cultural Activities. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Wawrzyniak, K., Butler, N.L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Brief Summary of a Doctoral Dissertation in Geophysics. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Cheng-Chieh, L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) CALL Application Electronic Portfolio in the Second Language Classroom. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Berkins, C.L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Curriculum Leadership: New Trends and Career and Technical Education. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED498616)

Nickerson G.T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) An Investigation of How the Factors of Time on Task and Study Habits Contribute or Inhibit the Academic Success of Minority Students. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Nazemzadeh, N., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Ayn Rand: The Nonfiction Work. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Maintaining Ethical Leadership and High “Diversity” Standards in Higher Education: A National Issue in Educational Leadership. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Thomas, K., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) What Will It Take to Have an Effective Campusss? National Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Norfleet, S., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Leadership Strategies for Closing the Achievement Gap.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Sands, A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Three Factors Contributing to African American Males Being Placed into Special Education Classes: National Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Muschalek, B., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Insight: 5 Strategies to Reach and Teach at-Risk Students. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Watkins, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Focus: Enhancing Student Achievement and Teacher Efficacy Through Effective Grant Writing and Creative Instructional Programming.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Mroz, L., Butler, N.L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) A Brief Note about the Functions of Discourse Markers in Discourse Coherence. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Butler, N.L., Burbelko, A., Rajzer, I., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) International Education Report: AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland: Noteworthy Doctoral Recipients. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Jacobs, K.D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Utilizing Culture to Improve Communication and School Involvement with Parents from Diverse Backgrounds as a Means to Improve Student Achievements Levels in the United States: A National Focus. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Firebaugh, K.D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Epidemic: Five Benefits of Implementing the CATCH Program into a Physical Education Curriculum in Helping Fight Childhood Obesity.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Fall)

Jacobs, K.D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) An Analysis of Teacher and Student Absenteeism in Urban Schools: What the Research Says and Recommendations for Educational Leaders. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Fall)



Butler, N.L., Griffith, K.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) The School’s Concern with Grades and the
Societal Consequences. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Summer)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED497506)

Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., & Griffith, K. (2007) The School As An Organization and Social
Institution: A Brief Note. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
4(Summer)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495206)

Butler, N.L., Griffith, K.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) International Impact: Agreement or Non-
Agreement: Are Polish Higher School Students in Agreement with a Law that Punishes
People for Encouraging Homosexuality in Polish Primary and Secondary Schools?
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED497437)

Butler, N.L., Davidson, B.S., Pachocinski, R., Griffith, K.G., Kritsonis, W.A. (2007)
International Perspectives: Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools: A Comparison Using An Information Technology Conceptual Model. The Lamar University Electronic Journal Student Research, 4 (Summer)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED497437)

Rajzer, I., Griffith, K.G., Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Investigations into the Use of Fibrous Carbon-
Based Materials as Scaffold for Tissue Engineering by Izabella Rajzer. The Lamar
University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer)

Doucet, G., Grant, L.E., Brown, V.E., Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Update: Zero
Tolerance School Disciplinary Policy and Criminology Theory. The Lamar University
Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer 2007)

Butler, N.L., Griffith, K.G., Kritsonis, W.A. Non-formal Education in Poland and Canada –
Compared: A Brief Commentary. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student
Research, 4 (Summer)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED497368)

Kritsonis, W.A., & Griffith, K.G. (2007) On Writing Well for Professional Publication in
National Refereed Journals in Education. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of
Student Research, 4 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Davidson, B.S., Pachocinski, R., Griffith, K.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007)
Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges: A
Comparison using the School as an Organization and Social Institution as a Conceptual
Framework. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED497362)
Butler, N.L., Griffith, K.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Student Ratings of Faculty Performance
In Polish Higher Schools: A Brief Note. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of
Student Research, 4 (Summer)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED497453)

Wells, W.D., Griffith, K.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) The Achievement Gap between
African-American and Non-minority Students: How Can We Close the Gap?
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Griffith, K.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) The Use of Positive Youth Development
Constructs in Career Development Programs for Incarcerated Juvenile Offenders.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer)

Butler, N.L., Griffith, K.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) The Virtual University: A Brief Note.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer)

Townsell, R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) A National Look at Postmodernism’s Pros and Cons in
Educational Leadership. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
4 (Summer)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED497693)

Skinner, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Bring You Best Self to an Interview. The Lamar
University Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (Summer)

Butcher, J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Human Resource Management: Managerial Efficacy in
Recruiting and Retaining Teachers – National Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer) (ERIC Documentation Reproduction Service No ED497357)

Williams, L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Leaders We Have a Problem! It is Teacher Retention…What Can We Do About It? The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED497436)

Cloud, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Agenda: Development of Best Practices in Human
Resources using Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning as the Framework.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED497363)

Williams, M.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Focus on Postmodernism in Higher
Education. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer)



Evans, L.M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Impact: The Role of Human Resources
Management and Leadership Development in Education and Their Effectiveness on Teacher
Retention. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer)

Duong, R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Implications: Characteristics of Effective
Leadership in K-12. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4
(Summer)

Williams, M.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Implications: Examining Motivational
Factors among Employees in Higher Education. The Lamar University Electronic Journal
of Student Research, 4 (Summer)

Holloway, F.D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Implications: That Was Then, This is Now.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer)

Melvin, S., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Implications: Those Who Care, Teach – Strategies
That Promote the Recruitment and Retention of Classroom Teachers. The Lamar University
Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer)

Watkins, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Implications: Watkins/Kritsonis Guide to Human Resources Management Utilizing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer)

Melvin, S., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Phenomenon – Fenwick English’s Postmodernism
Goes to Hollywood. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4
(Summer)

Collins, C.J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Viewpoint: How to Implement the Ways of
Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning as an Ethical Decision Making Process for
Counselors to Improve Student Achievement. The Lamar University Electronic Journal
of Student Research, 4 (Summer)

White, P.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) The Essence of Effective Administrative Leadership:
National Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
4 (Summer)

Smith, C., Butler, N.L., Hughes, T.A., Herrington, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Observations
On Native vs. Non-native EFL Teachers in Poland. The Lamar University Electronic Journal
of Student Research, 4(Summer)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED495201)

Evans, L.M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) The Moral Project – The Effects of Benjamin Franklin’s
Thirteen Virtues within My Life. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student
Research, 4 (Summer)
Roos, L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) The Use of Positive Youth Development Constructs in
Career Development Programs for Incarcerated Juvenile Offenders. The Lamar University
Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Summer)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (20077) New Strategies for Educational Leaders to Implement
Postmodern Thinking in Public Education in the United States of America: Creating a
National Change Strategy. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction No.ED497435)

Jacobs, K., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Strategies for Implementing Postmodern Thinking ofr
Improving Secondary Education in Public Education in the United States of America:
National Impact. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495312)

Krukiewicz-Gacek, A., Griffith, K., Skrynicka-Knapczyk, D., Butler, N.L., & Kritsonis, W.A.
(2007) Should We Teach English for Work Purposes to Undergraduates at Polish Higher
Schools? The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495376)

Hughes, T.A., Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, David (2007) Primary and Secondary
Education in Canada and Poland Compared: International Implications. The Lamar
University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495075)

Butler, N.D., Davidson, B.S., Mroz, L., Brown, V., Griffith, K., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007)
Do Polish High School Students Prefer Speaking in Person, Listening, Reading or Writing
During EFL Classes? The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service NO.ED495075)

Smith, C., Butler, N.L., Hughes, T.A., Herrington, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007). Native vs Nonnative English Teachers in Polish Schools: Personal Reflections. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring) (ERIC Document Reproduction No ED495069)

Hughes, T.A., Hughes, J.T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007). Brief Reflections on Atlas Shrugged by Ayn Rand: National Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Spring)

Butler, N.L., Hughes, T.A., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. (2007) Native and Non-Native Teachers of English in Polish Schools-Personal Reflections: International Educational Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495206)

Hughes, T.A., Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. Cheating in Examinations in Two Polish Higher Education Schools. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring) (ERIC Documentation Reproduction Service No ED4955076)

Hughes, T.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) A Historical Perspective of National Educational Reform Efforts. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Hughes, T.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Professional Learning Communities and the Positive Effects on Student Achievement: A National Agenda for School Improvement. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Hughes, T.A., Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, M.A., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. (2007) Religious Education in Government-Run Primary and Secondary Schools in Poland and Canada (Ontario and Quebec) - An International Focus. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495110)

Laub, J.D. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) A National Perspective: Transforming Leadership in America’s Rural Public Schools. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Hughes, T.A., Butler, N.L., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. (2007) Education in Canada: A Lecture to the Polish Comparative Education Society. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Hughes, T.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) An Independent Publisher Online’s Highlighted Titles Book Awards and Recognition for Exceptional Teachers. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Anderson, A.C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) The Perspectives of Ayn Rand on the Virtues of Selfishness (1964). The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Anderson, A.C. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Postmodern Philosophical Thinking and Recommendations According to Fenwick English. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Anthony, T.D., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. (2007) Postmoderism and the Implications for Educational Leadership: National Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495291)


Anthony, T.D., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. (2007) National Cry for Help: Psychological Issues as They Relate to Education; A Realistic Approach to Understanding and Coping with the African American Males. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495296)

Anthony, T.D., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. (2007) An Analysis of Human Resource Management: Involving Administrative Leadership as a Means to Practical Applications: National Focus. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495294)

Anthony, T.D., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. (2007) How to Implement the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning in Human Resource Management-Ten Recommendation: National Impact. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED495293)

Scott-Ferguson., B., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. (2007) Human Resource Management and Special Education Administrative Leadership. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Scott-Ferguson., B., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. (2007) The Development of Human Resource Management and School Board Relations: National Considerations. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Branch, R.M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Impact: Strategies for Successfully Implementing Postmodern Theory and Practice in Educational Leadership for Improving Schooling in the United States of America. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Gilliam, J.C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Creative Strategies for Implementing Postmodernism Thinking for University Administrators to Improve Colleges and Universities in the United States: National Possibilities. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Jacobs, K.D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Recommendations: Strategies for Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning for the Development of Professional Personnel. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495313)

Jacobs, K.D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) An Analysis of the Objectivist Ethics in Educational Leadership Through Ayn Rand’s The Virtues of Selfishness (1964). The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495311)
Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Implications for Urban School Systems: Strategic Planning in the Human Resource Management Department in a Large Urban School District. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED497431)

Cloud, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) An Epistemological Analysis of Atlas Shrugged and The Virtues of Selfishness by Ayn Rand: The Ten Most Poignant Points: International Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Brown, D.R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) An Exploration of Ten Salient Ideas as Presented by Ayn Rand’s Atlas Shrugged Supported by Virtues of Selfishness. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Brown, D.R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Brown’s Model of Ethics: National Impact. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Cloud, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) National Implications: Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning for Improvement of Ethical Conduct. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495067)

Butcher, J.T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning for the Improvement of Ethical Conduct: Ten National Recommendations. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495205)

Sturgis, K.K., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) An Analysis of Ayn Rand’s Atlas Shrugged. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Williams, M.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Integrating the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning to Improve National Fundraising Objectives. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Butcher, J.T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) The Impact of Objectivism on Humankind National and International Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Williams, M.G., Herrington, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Oral History: A Viable Methodology for 21st Century Educational Administration Research: National Impact. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Perkins, T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Ten Penetrating Ideas Presented in Ayn Rand’s Atlas Shrugged (1957) The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Demaris, M.C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Residential Learning Communities on Historically Black College and University Campuses. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED495305)

Hart, K.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) The Stigma of Mental Illness: Exploring the Nature and Resolution of Stereotypical Conceptions. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Hughes, T.A., Kritsonis, W.A., & Kritsonis, M.A. (2007) Writing for Professional Publication.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Joshua, A.M., Joshua, M.T., Kritsonis, W.A., & Herrington, D. (2007) Assessment of the Depth of Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Possessed by Secondary School Students in Southern Cross River State, Nigeria. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Springs, M.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Improving Student Self-Concept Through Student Achievement. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Smith, C., Butler, N.L., & Griffith, K.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) The Role of Communication Context, Corpus-Based Grammar, and Scaffolded Interaction in ESL/EFL Instruction. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495290)

Krukiewica-Gacek, A., Griffith, K.G., Skrynicka-Knapczyk, D., Butler, N.L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Should We Teach English for Work Purposes to Undergraduates at Polish Higher Schools? The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Herrington, D., Griffith, K.G., Brown, V.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) “Mixed Methods” Research Designs. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)

Smith, C., Butler, N.L., Griffith, K.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Observations on Native vs. Nonnative EFL Teachers in Poland. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495201)

Webb, P., Kritsonis, W.A., & Griffith, K.G. (2007) Spare the Rod, Destroy the Child: Examining the Speculative Association of Corporal Punishment and Deviant Behavior among Youth: National Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED496203)



Butler, N.L., Griffith, K.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) International Implications: Are Polish
Higher Learners in Favour of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Being Taught in Primary
and Secondary Schools? The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
4 (Spring)

Doucet, G., Herrington, D., Griffith, K.G., Brown, V.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007)
Zero Tolerance School Disciplinary Policy: National Implications for Criminology Theory,
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Spring 2007)

Asotska, J., Butler, N.L., Davidson, B.S., Griffith, K.G., Brown, V.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007)
Are Polish Primary School Pupils in Favour of Wearing Uniforms? Snapshot Comment.
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495988)

Butler, N.L., Davidson, B.S., Griffith, K.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) International Update:
Are the Recent Reforms in Polish Education Making it harder for School Discipline to be
Maintained in Schools? The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research,
4 (Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495956)

Nervis, III, J., Kritsonis, W.A., & Griffith, K.G. (2007) She Is My Teacher. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Spring)

Butler, N.L., Davidson, B.S., Griffith, K.G., Brown, V.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007)
Comparative International Education: Institutions of Higher Education in Poland and
Canadian Universities: A Comparison Using an Information Technology Conceptual
Framework. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495955)

Butler, N.L., Brown, V.E., Griffith, K.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) Polish High School Learners: Are They Studying English To Secure Employment in Great Britain or Ireland?
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED496152)

Butler, N.L., Griffith, K.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) An Ontological Update: Are Polish Higher
School Learners Consistent in Their Agreement with Cheating in Examinations Sessions?
The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED496243)

Butler, N.L., Griffith, K.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2007) An International Perspective: The School
As an Organizational and Social Institution: Current Challenges. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4 (Spring)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED496245)

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Partial Listing of National and International Publication. Dr. Kritsonis teaches in the PhD Program in Educational Leadership at PVAMU, Texas A&M University System

2006

Jacobs, K.D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). How to Implement the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning in Human Resource Management: Ten Recommendations for Selecting Campus Administrators. Doctoral FORUM-Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED494799)

Webb, P., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). Zero-Tolerance Policies and Youth: Protection or Profiling? Doctoral FORUM-Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493837)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). National Implications: Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning in Human Resource Management and Development. Doctoral FORUM-Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Hart, K.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). Critical Analysis of an Original Writing on Social Learning Theory: Imitation of Film-Mediated Aggressive Models. Doctoral FORUM-Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Savoy, E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). National Implications: Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning as an Ethical Decision-Making Process to Improve Academic Achievement-Ten Recommendations. Doctoral FORUM-Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Collins, C.J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). National Viewpoint: The Importance of Hiring a Diverse Faculty. Doctoral FORUM-Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499556)

Watkins, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). Developing a Curriculum for At-Risk and Low Performing High School Students: Teaching Shakespeare to At-Risk Students Through Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning. Doctoral FORUM-Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Skinner, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). How to Implement the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms Of Meaning as an Ethical Decision-Making Process to Improve Academic Achievement-Ten Recommendations. Doctoral FORUM-Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495079

Hart, K.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). A Critical Analysis of John B. Watson’s Original Writing: “Behaviorism as a Behaviorist Views It.” National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 20(3)
Webb, P., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). Controlling Those Kids: Social Control and the Use of Pretrial Detention Among Youth in the United States of America: National Implications. Doctoral FORUM-Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Butler, N.L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). The Impact of Poland’s 1990 Bill on Schools of Higher
Education. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 9(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493620)

Butler, N.L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). Similarities and Differences: Post-Secondary (Grammar) Vocational Schools in Poland and Canadian Community Colleges. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 9(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493569)

Hart, K.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006) Relapse Prevention for Alcoholism. Doctoral
FORUM- Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Hart, K.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006) From Multiple Personality Disorder to Disassociate
Identity Disorder: A Clinical Overview of Diagnosis and Treatment Considerations.
Doctoral FORUM- National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student
Research, 3(1)

Patton, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). The Law of Increasing Returns: A Process for Retaining Teachers- National Recommendations. Doctoral FORUM- National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495298)

Williams, M.G., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). Raising More Money at the Nation’s Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Doctoral FORUM- National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493566)

Belshaw, S.H., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). National Implications in Education and Juvenile Justice: Bridging the Gap Between Court Order Juvenile Mentoring Programs and Secondary Educators. Doctoral FORUM- National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493124)

Skinner, D.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). Educational Leaders as Stewards: Selecting a National Curriculum Guided by the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning. Doctoral FORUM- National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493140)


Cloud, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). National Agenda: A Holistic Approach for the Development of a Campus Improvement Plan using Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning as the Framework. Doctoral FORUM- National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493111)

Townsell, R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). National Insight: A Look at Synnoetics in One African
American Female’s Journey to the Principalship. Doctoral FORUM- National Journal
for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493442)

Demaris, M.C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). A Philosophical Approach to Minority Student Persistence on a Historically Black College and University Campus. Doctoral FORUM- National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493143)

Joshua, M.T., Joshua, A.M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). Use of Student Achievement Scores as a Basis for Assessing Teachers’ Instructional Effectiveness: Issues and Research Results.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 17(3)

Anthony, T.D., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Implications: An Analysis of E- Mentoring Induction Year Programs for Novice Alternatively Certified Teachers. Doctoral FORUM-
National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED493137)

Butler, N.L., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Brief Summary of Doctoral Dissertation: Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 9(1)

Nickson, L., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). A National Perspective: An Analysis of Factors that
Influence Special Educators to Remain in the Field of Education. Journal of the
American Academy of Special Education Professionals, Spring 2006

Anthony, T.D., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Bilingualism and How it Impacts the African American Child. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492546)

Cheng-Chieh L.., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). The Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Technology in Second Language Acquisition. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492159)



Cloud, M., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Crisis: Recognizing the Culture of Eating Disorders in School Settings. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492192)

Ellison, E., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Free Tutoring Programs to Augument Student Success. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Ellison, E., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Making Educational Methods More Lucrative: A Postmodernist’s Perspective. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Gassama, S., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Dropout Prevention Among Urban Minority Students: Program Evaluation and Practical Implications. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Jacobs, K., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). An Assessment of Secondary Principal’s Leadership and Skills in Retaining and Renewing Science Educators in Urban Schools. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492156)

Jacobs, K., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Partially Decentralizing Administrative Practices in Secondary Schools to Develop Collective Staff Efficacy and Improve Student Achievement. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1))
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492155

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Dilemma: African American Students Underrepresented in Advanced Mathematics Courses. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492138)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). The Achievement Gap in Mathematics: A Significant Problem for African American Students. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492139)

Norfleet, S., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). A Postmodern Idea for Improving Schools. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Norfleet, S., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). School Factors that Influence Closing the Academic Achievement Gap for African American Students. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Smith, Y.E., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Recommendations for Implementing Symbolics: Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492099)

Smith, Y.E., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). The Differences in Professional Development with Corporate Companies and Public Education. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492100)

Love, A., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Well Rounded Student Professional Development. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Nickerson, G.T., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). An Analysis of the Factors that Impact Academic Achievement Among Asian American, African American, and Hispanic Students. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Anderson, A.C., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Implications: Factors of Gender Biases Impacting Urban Public Students. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Anderson, A.C., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). A National Exploration of Diversity and Culture in Schools and Corporations. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Wilson, M., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). A Primitive Revelation to Reading. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Gilliam, J.C., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Impact: The Effects of Mentorship on the Level of Retention for African American Freshman Students Attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Gilliam, J.C., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Implications: The Hidden Nature of Doctoral Student Attrition. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Branch, R.M., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Agenda: Minority Teacher Recruitment, Development, and Retention. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499769)



Nickerson, G.T., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). A Global Perspective: A Comparative of Asian and American Educational Systems that Impact Student Academic Achievement. Doctoral
FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Francis, N.H., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). A Brief Analysis of Abraham Maslow’s Original Writing of Self-Actualizing People: A Study of Psychological Health. Doctoral FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1)

Butler, N., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). International and National Perspectives: A Critical
Examination of Polish Education and the Philosophical, Historical, Theoretical
Governmental and Educational Reform Initiatives in Changing Pedagogical Strategies
Impacting Classrooms in the Future. International Journal of Scholarly Academic
Intellectual Diversity, 9(1)

Joshua, M., Joshua, A., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Use of Student Achievement Scores as a Basis
For Assessing Teachers’ Instructional Effectiveness: Issues and Research Results.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 20(3)

Johnson, C.J., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). The National Dilemma of African American Students:
Disparities in Mathematics Achievement and Instruction. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 20(3)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492116)

Salinas, R.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006) All Children Can Learn…To Speak English.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 23(2)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED491994)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006) National Strategies for Educational Leaders to
Implement Postmodern Thinking in Public Education in the United States of America.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 23(4)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492117)

Anthony, T., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Education in a Test Taking Era. National FORUM of
Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 24(4)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492142)

Jacobs, K., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Strategies for Implementing Postmodern Thinking
for Improving Secondary Education in Public Education in the United States of America.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 23(4
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492157)

Smith, Y., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Insight: Toward a Clearer Understanding of
Preparing High School Students for Passing State Examinations for Graduation in the State
of Texas. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 16(3)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.492013)
White, P., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2006).The Analysis of the Influence of the Consciousness of the
History of Various Cultures on Student Achievement. National FORUM of Teacher
Journal, 17(3)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495300)

Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W., & Herrington, D. (2006) National Educational Dilemma:
What Does a Student Need to Know? Answer: Ways of Knowing Through the Realms
of Meaning. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 17(3)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492119)

Smith, Y., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Research Focus: Investigating the Differences in
Professional Development with Corporate Companies and Public Education in the United
States of America. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision
Journal, 24(4)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED492014)

Idaka, I., Joshua, M., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Attitude of Academic Staff in Nigerian Tertiary
Educational Institutions to Student Evaluation of Instruction (SEI). International
Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 9(1)

Herrington, D., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). A National Perspective for Improving Working
Relationships Between Educational Researchers and Institutional Review Board Members.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 19(3)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED49199)

White, P., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). The Analysis of the Influence of the Consciousness of the
History of Various Cultures on Student Achievement. National FORUM of Teacher
Education Journal, 17(3)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED49530

Hughes, T., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Perspective: An Exploration of Professional
Learning Communities and the Impact on School Improvement Efforts. Doctoral
FORUM – National Journal for the Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student
Research, 1(1)
(ERIC Documentation Reproduction Service No.ED491997)

Petterway, A., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Focus: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of the
Impact of High Stakes Testing on English Language Learners in Major Urban High Schools
in Texas. DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for the Publishing and
Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 1(1)
ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED491980)

Salinas, R., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Challenge: Teacher Quality and Student
Achievement in Public Schools. DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for
Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 1(1)

Edgerson, D., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). Analysis of the Influence of Principal-Teacher
Relationships on Student Academic Achievement: National Focus. DOCTORAL FORUM -
National Journal for the Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 1(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED491985)

Nickson, L., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Considerations: An Analysis of Factors That
Influence Special Educators to Remain in the Field of Education. DOCTORAL FORUM –
National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 1(1)

Parson, G., & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Vision: An Assessment of the Habits of African
American Males from Urban Households of Poverty Who Successfully Complete Secondary
Education Programs. DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and
Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 1(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED491986)

Adams, C, & Kritsonis, W. (2006). National Impact: An Analysis of Secondary Schools’
Crisis Management Preparedness. DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for
Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 1(1)
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED491991)

Kritsonis, W. (2006). FOREWORD: Publishing and Mentoring Doctorial Student Research.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 23(3).
Note: This issue featured PhD Students in Educational Leadership from Lamar University’s
College of Education and Human Development, Beaumont, Texas.

Kritsonis, W. (2006) FOREWORD: National Impact: Single Sex Education; Challenges for
Superintendents; Standardized Assessments; Inclusion; Issues and Challenges; Teacher
Retention. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal.
23(2) Note: This issue featured PhD Students in Educational Leadership from Prairie View
A&M University – Member of the Texas A&M University System.

Kritsonis, W. (2006). FOREWORD: A National Study and Analysis of Poverty and
African American Incarceration. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 23(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2006). FOREWORD: Applying Educational Research at the National Level.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 19(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2006). FOREWORD: Leadership in Educational Research: Addressing the
Critical Needs. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 19(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2006). FOREWORD: National Issues Impacting Teacher Education.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 16(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2006). FOREWORD: Development of Relationships to Improve Teacher
Retention. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 16(1)
Kritsonis, W. (2006). FOREWORD. International Journal of Scholarly Academic
Intellectual Diversity, 9(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2006). On-line Scholarly Electronic Journal Division, National FORUM
Journals - Available daily: www.nationalforum.com

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
17603 Bending Post Drive
Houston, TX 77093

(281) 550-5700 Home
(832) 483-7889 Cell
williamkritsonis@yahoo.com


Professor
Doctor of Philosophy Program in Educational Leadership
Prairie View A&M University
(Member of the Texas A&M University System)
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View, Texas 77446

Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
Central Washington University
College of Education and Professional Studies
Ellensburg, Washington

Visiting Lecturer (2005)
Oxford Round Table
Oriel College
University of Oxford
Oxford, England

Editor-in-Chief
NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS
Founded 1983

Over 4,000 professors in higher education have published in NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS
Over 250,000 Guests Visit Our Website Yearly at www.nationalforum.com

PhD, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, 1976
M.Ed. Seattle Pacific University, Seattle, Washington, 1971
B.A. Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington
Visiting Scholar, Columbia University, Teachers College, New York, 1981
Doctor of Humane Letters, School of Graduate Studies, Southern Christian University, 2008

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
National Refereed Publications

1983

Kritsonis, W. (1983). A Proposal for Improving Administrative Preparation and Certification
Program. ERIC Reports (Educational Resources Information Center), National Institute of
Education, ERIC Document Reproduction Services, Computer Microfilm International Corp.
ED 225 292. June 1983

Kritsonis, W. (1983). A Proposal for Improving Administrative Preparation and Certification
Program. Resources in Education (RIE). Clearinghouse on Educational Management,
University of Oregon, National Institute of Education. ED 225 292. June 1983

Kritsonis, W. (1983). How to Improve your Effectiveness as an Elementary School Teacher:
New Answers to Lingering Problems ERIC Reports (Educational Resources Information
Center), National Institute of Education, ERIC Document Reproduction Services, Computer
Microfilm International Corp. ED 220 467. January 1983

Kritsonis, W. (1983). How to Improve your Effectiveness as an Elementary School Teacher:
New Answers to Lingering Problems Resources in Education (RIE) Clearinghouse on
Teacher Education, National Institute of Education, American Association of Colleges for
Teacher Education. ED 220 467. January 1983

Kritsonis, W. (1983). FOREWORD: Roots, Revolutions and the Reshaping of Educational
Administration. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision
Journal, 1(3)

Kritsonis, W. & J. Kariotis (1983). A Study of Selected Court Decisions on the Termination
of Public School Professional Personnel Contracts for Reasons of Declining Enrollment or
Economic Stress In Accordance with the Due Process of Law. National FORUM of
Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 1(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1983). FOREWORD: Educational Leadership and Supervision in American
Education. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 1(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1983). FOREWORD: The Quest for Statesmanship in America’s Schools.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 1(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1983). Staff Reduction: School Administrators and the Courts. National
FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 1(1)

(Note: NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS was founded in 1983. Since, then over 4,000 professors in higher education have published in this group of national refereed periodicals. About 2,000 articles are indexed in ERIC. Dr. Kritsonis has edited over 250 separate issues, written over 300 articles, and 10 books.

Kritsonis, W. (1983). Implementing Mid-Year Motivators. West Virginia Association of
School Administrators, January Issue
Kritsonis, W. (1983). Implementing Mid-Year Motivators (Reprinted). PRISM, Idaho
Association of School Administrators, January Issue

Kritsonis, W. (1983). Implementing Mid-Year Motivators (Reprinted) The S.A.S.D.
Open Umbrella, Monthly Voice of the Administrators of South Dakota, 12(6)

Kritsonis, W. (1983). Toward Better Understanding of Administrators. Associated School
Boards of South Dakota Bulletin, 35(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1983). Implementing Mid-Year Motivators (Reprinted). The Nevada
Administrators, Las Vegas, Nevada, 1(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1983). Principals, Teachers, and Contract Administration: Applying the
Kritsonis Tetter-Totter Model. RECORD in Educational Administration and
Supervision, 3(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1983). Interest Groups Have Little Impact on School Boards. National
Association of Secondary School Principals NASSP News Leader, 30(6)

Kritsonis, W. (1983). Reduction in Force: School Administrators and the Courts. FOCUS-
Journal of the Mississippi Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

Kritsonis, W. (1983). Schools of Today Are Better Than They Were Fifty Years Ago!
Indiana School Boards Association Journal, 29(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1983). School Budget Reforms Succumb to Paperwork and Politics.
Illinois School Board Journal, 51(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1983). Individualized Reading and Methods of Instruction: Suggestions for
Teachers and Administrators. Kentucky Reading Journal, 5(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1983). Tips for Principals in Developing a Successful School Year.
Louisiana Association of Principals, 3(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1983). Solomon Speaks to School Board Members – Fifteen Proverbial Sayings
To Board Members for Better Interaction with Administrators. Ohio School Boards Association Journal, 27(11)

Kritsonis, W. (1983). How Principals Can Motivate Teachers. The Florida School
Administrators, 7(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1983). Solomon Says: Fifteen Proverbial Sayings to Administrators for Better
Interaction with Students. The Florida School Administrators, 7(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1983). Leadership Characteristics for School Superintendents (Reprinted)
The Florida School Administrators, 7(2)
Kritsonis, W. (1983). Implementing Mid-Year Motivators. THRUST for Educational
Leadership, Journal of the Association of California School Administrators, 13(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1983). Steps Principals Can Take to Improve Staff Satisfaction and Moral.
Journal of the School Administrators Association of New York State, 14(2)
1982

Kritsonis, W. (1982). What’s the Best Way To Persuade High School Teachers?
National Association of Secondary School Principals NASSP News Leader, 29(9)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). A Proposal for Improving Administrative Preparation and Certification
Programs. RECORD IN Educational Administration and Supervision, 3(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). The Essential Five for the Elementary School Principalship. Kansas
School Board Journal, 21(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). A Study of Selected State Supreme and District Court Decision on the Non- Renewal of Public School Professional Personnel Contracts. Proceedings of the Eighth
Annual Plennary Session, Louisiana Education Research Association, Alternatives for
The 80’s Conference

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Facts About Delegation. Insights, 26(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Improving Administrative and Supervisory Leadership: What Makes A
Good Chairperson. Insight, 26(4)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Kritsonis Teeter-Totter Model. RECORD in Educational
Administration and Supervision, 2(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Characteristics of Leadership (Reprinted). New York Education
Department, Spring Issue

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Discipline in the Schools. Louisiana Education Journal, 7(8)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Education Is Not Enough For Women. Louisiana Education Journal, 7(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Characteristics of Leadership. Louisiana Education Journal, 6(8)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). The Lecture Method of Teaching. Louisiana Education Journal, 6(7)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). The Adolescents’ Perception of Failure (Revised). Louisiana
Education Journal, 6(6)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Preparing for the Principalship. Louisiana Education Journal, 6(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Staff Reduction: Some Procedural Aspects. Louisiana Education
Research Association Journal, 8(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Termination of Public School Professional Personnel Contracts for Reasons of Declining Enrollment or Economic Stress: An Update. Louisiana Education Research Association Journal, 7(1)

Kritsonis, W. & D. Lyles (1982). Teaching Suggestions: Individualized Reading and Methods.
The Boardman, 37(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Helping New Teachers Reduce Stress. National Association of
Secondary School Principals NASSP News Leader, 30(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Do’s and Don’ts for Improving Communication with Administrators.
FOCUS – Ohio School Boards Journal, 26(10)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Leadership Characteristics for School Principals. Louisiana Association
of Principals, 2(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Leadership Characteristics for School Superintendents. West Virginia
Association of School Administrators, 6(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1982) Ways To Improve Staff Relations. The Reporter-Arkansas School
Boards Association, 1(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Leadership Characteristics for School Superintendents (Reprinted)
Administrator – Ohio Association of School Administrators, 9(12)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Leadership Characteristics for School Superintendents. The S.A.S.D.
Open Umbrella, Monthly Voice of the Administrators of South Dakota, 12(4)

Kritsonis, W. (1982). Leadership Characteristics for School Superintendents (Reprinted)
THRUST for Educational Leadership, Journal for the Association of California School
Administrators, 12(3)

Kritsonis, W. & D. Lyles (1982). Individualized Reading and Methods: Suggestions for Teachers
and Administrators. The Oklahoma Reader, 18(1)

1981

Kritsonis, W. (1981). Innovation and Change. Louisiana Education Journal, 6(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1981). Homework Reviewed. Louisiana Education Journal, 6(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1981). Climbing the Administrative Ladder. Louisiana Education Journal, 6(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1981). The Management Team. The Boardman, 36(4)

1977

Kritsonis, W. (1977, March). The Adolescents’ Perception of Failure. The Advocate

Kritsonis, W. (1977, August). Bad Boards? The American School Board Journal, 165(8)

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge

1990

Kritsonis, W. (1990). FOREWORD: Issues Surrounding Restructuring of Schools. National
FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 8(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1990). FOREWORD: Restructuring of Schools. National FORUM of
Educational Administration and Supervision Journal (Second Printing), 8(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1990). FOREWORD: National Leadership in Administration and Supervision.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 8(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1990). FOREWORD: National View for Educational Reform.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 8(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1990). FOREWORD: National Imperatives for Applying Educational Research.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 5(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1990). FOREWORD: National Perspectives on Restructuring Schools.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 5(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1990). FOREWORD: The Regular Education Initiative. National FORUM
of Special Education Journal, 1(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1990). Problems of Student Discipline in the Schools. Catalyst for Change,
Journal of the National School Development Council, 19(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1990). Computers and Educational Administrators. Catalyst for Change,
Journal of the National School Development Council, 19(3)

1989

Kritsonis, W. (1989). FOREWORD: National Perspectives: Opportunities and Challenges.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 7(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1989). Kritsonis Balanced Teeter-Totter Model. National FORUM of
Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 7(3)

Kritsonis, W. (with S.S. Bailey) (1989). The Myths of School Consolidation. National
FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 7(3)

Kritsonis, W., & P.E. Messner., J.A. Kisch, E.J. Harper (1989). Jungian Theory: Implications
For Educational Leaders. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 7(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1989). FOREWORD: School Leaders: Providing Direction. National
FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 7(2)
Kritsonis, W. (1989). FOREWORD: Improving Education: Challenges for the Future.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 7(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1989). FOREWORD: National Perspectives: Applying Educational Research.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 3(2)

Kritsonis, W., & B.M. Kean, W.J. O’Neill (1989). Do You Treat the Parts or Do You Treat
the Whole? National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 3(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1989). FOREWORD: Applying Research to Practice: A National Goal.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 3(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1989). FOREWORD: Current Theory and Practice in Learning Disabilities.
National FORUM of Special Education Journal, 1(1)

1988

Kritsonis, W. (1988). Invitation Only by Senior Editor Dr. Richard A. Gorton.
Encyclopedia of School Administration & Supervision, Phoenix & New York:
The Oryx Press

Kritsonis, W. (1998). The Adolescent’s Perceptual of Failure. La Plume: The Official
Publication of the England Air Force Base Officer’s Wives Club, 30(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1988). FOREWORD: Leaders Are Improving America’s Schools.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 6(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1988). FOREWORD: Administrative Leadership in Today’s Schools.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 6(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1988). FOREWORD: Improving Schools Through Administrative Leadership.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 6(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1988). FOREWORD: Applying Educational Research: A National Perspective.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 2(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1988). FOREWORD: National Issues: Visions for the Future. National
FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 2(1)

1987

Kritsonis, W. (1987). FOREWORD: National Reforms in Schooling. National FORUM
of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 5(3)



Kritsonis, W. (1987). FOREWORD: Revitalizing Administrative Leadership in School Systems,
Colleges, and Universities. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision, 5(2)

Kritsonis, W. & R. Blackbourn, D. Hare (1987). Recommended Practices in Education
Administration Programs. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 5(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1987). FOREWORD: Improving Educational Leadership Through Research
and Practice. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal,
5(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1988). FOREWORD: National Issues: Practical Perspectives on Schooling.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 1(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1988). Maintaining School Discipline: Preventive Approaches to Dealing with
Student Misbehavior. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 1(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1988). FOREWORD: Applying Education Research to Schools: Linking Theory
to Practice. National FORUM of Applied Education Research Journal, 1(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1987). Applying Research in Educational Administration and Supervision.
National Researcher, 1(1)

1986

Kritsonis, W. (1986). FOREWORD: Educational Leadership through Research and Practice.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 4(3)

Kritsonis, W. & F. Gies (1986). Writing for Professional Publication: Expert Advice.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, (4(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1986). FOREWORD: Research and Development in School Administration and
Supervision. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal,
4(2)

Kritsonis, W. & C. Ryan, F. Gies, F. Parker (1986). Improving Performance of University
Faculty. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 4(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1986). FOREWORD: Experts in Educational Administration and Supervision.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision, 4(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1986). Reduction in Force: School Boards and the Courts. National FORUM
of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 4(1)


Kritsonis, W. (1986). How To End the School Year with a SPLASH of Enthusiasm.
Louisiana Association of Principals, 6(2)

Kritsonis, W. & R. Cooter (1986). The SRPI: An Instrument for Evaluating High School
Reading Programs. Kentucky Reading Journal, 7(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1986). A Principal Must Be Concerned For All Youth In The School.
AASA Professor, American Association of School Administrators, 9(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1986). Needed Administrative Direction and Support. Journal of
Educational Public Relations, 9(3)

Kritsonis, W. & C. Gurerra (1986). How School Principals Can Improve Their Technical
Skills In the Observation and Evaluation Process. The Oklahoma Reader, 21(2)

Kritsonis, W. & M. Dillard (1986). Megatrends: An Educational Revival for School
Administrators. CATALYST for CHANGE, Journal of the National School Development
Council, 15(2)

1985

Kritsonis, W. (1985).FOREWORD: Researchers in Educational Administration and Supervision.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 3(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1985). A Study of Selected State Supreme and District Court Decisions on the
Non-Renewal of Public School Professional Personnel Contracts for Reasons of Declining
Enrollment or Economic Stress in Accordance With the Due Process of Law.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 3(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1985). FOREWORD: The Future of Education Conference. National
FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 3(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1985). FOREWORD: The Role of the Educational Administrator in Changing
Society. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 3(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1985). How To Survive As A School Superintendent. THRUST for Educational
Leadership, Journal of the Association of California School Administrators, 14(6)

Kritsonis, W. & R. Cooter (1985). Helping Teachers Improve the Reading Program.
FOCUS – Journal of the Mississippi Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development, 5(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1985, September). How to Start the School Year: Motivation and Enthusiasm Are
the Keys to success – Tips for Principals. National Association of Secondary School
Principals News Leader

1984

Kritsonis, W. (1984). FOREWORD: Incentives for Excellence in America’s Schools.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 2(3)

Kritsonis, W. (with S. Adams) (1984). School Discipline: Why Do They Act That Way?
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 2(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1984). FOREWORD: Administration and Governance in Higher Education: An
Update. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 2(2)

Kritsonis, W. & S. Adams (1984). School Discipline: Could I Be Part of the Problem?
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 2(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1984). FOREWORD: Understanding Schools is Basic to Improving Them.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 2(1)

Kritsonis, W. & J. Kariotis, R. Capps (1984). How Principals Can Better Motivate Teachers.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 2(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1984) Solomon Says for Administrators Patience is a Virtue. Indiana
School Boards Association Journal, 30(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1984). How Principals Can Motivate Teachers (Reprinted). The Leader-
Published by the Utah Association of Elementary School Principals

Kritsonis, W. (1984). How To Inspire a Positive Mental Attitude Among Teachers. FOCUS -
Journal of the Mississippi Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
4(1)

Kritsonis, W (1984). Solomon Speaks to School Board Members – Fifteen Proverbial Sayings
To School Board Members for Better Interaction with Administrators (Reprinted)
Tennessee School Boards Journal, 1(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1984). Staff Reduction: Some Procedural Aspects. RECORD in
Educational Administration and Supervision, 4(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1984). Profile of an Outstanding Principal. Louisiana Association of
Principals, 4(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1984). How Principals Can Motivate Teachers (Reprinted). Journal of
the School Administrators Associate of New York State, 15(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1984). How Principals Can Motivate Teachers (Reprinted) CALLER –
Published by the South Dakota Association of Elementary School Principals

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Invited Guest Lecturer
OXFORD ROUND TABLE
Oriel College
University of Oxford, ENGLAND

SELECTED PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS (PAST & PRESENT)

National FORUM Society of Educators
University Council on Educational Administration
National Conference of Professors of Educational Administration
Southern Regional Council on Educational Administration
American Association of School Administrators
National School Boards Association
National Association of Secondary School Principals
National Association of Elementary School Principals
American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education
American Association of School Administrators
National Educational Association
Phi Delta Kappa
Mid-South Educational Research Association
Louisiana Reading Association
Iowa Association of School Administrators
Washington Association of School Administrators
Washington Education Association
Iowa State Education Association
Peninsula Education Association
Amana Education Association
Wilton Education Association
Washington Council for the Social Studies
Maryland Association of Teacher Educators
Capitol Area Reading Council
Eastern Educational Research Association
AASA Professor
Louisiana Association of Child Welfare and Attendance Personnel
Louisiana Association of Educational Office Personnel
Louisiana Association of School Administrators of Federally Assisted Programs
Louisiana Association of School Transportation Officials
Louisiana Association of Vocational Administrators
Louisiana Association of Special Education Administrators
Louisiana Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
Louisiana Conference of Professors of Educational Administration
Louisiana Educational Research Association
Louisiana School Public Relations Association
Louisiana Association of School Superintendents
Louisiana School Supervisors’ Association
Louisiana Association of Child Nutrition Programs Supervisors
Louisiana Association of Counselor Educators and Supervisors
Louisiana School Psychological Association
Louisiana State Association of School Personnel Administrators
Phi Delta Kappa, McNeese State University
Phi Delta Kappa, Northwestern State University
Phi Delta Kappa, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Journals – Available daily: www.nationalforum.com

2000

Kritsonis, W. (2000). FOREWORD: Edward W. Chance: A Visionary Leader. National
FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 17(3)

Kritsonis, W. (2000). FOREWORD: Studies for the Technological Era.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 17(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2000). FOREWORD: National Trends in Education: Case Studies Set Aim
for the Future. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision
Journal, 17(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2000). FOREWORD: Teaching Students: A National Challenge to Educators.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 13(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2000). FOREWORD: Teaching Students in “Style”: A National Challenge
to Educators. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 13(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2000). FOREWORD: College Teaching in Higher Education.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 10(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2000). FOREWORD: Facilitating Technology Training for Teacher Educators.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 10(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2000). FOREWORD. International Journal of Scholarly Academic
Intellectual Diversity, 3(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2000). On-Line Scholarly Electronic Journal Division, National FORUM
Journals – Available daily: www.nationalforum.com





1999

Kritsonis, W. (1999). FOREWORD: National Educational Imperatives: Strategies for
Improvement. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision
Journal, 16(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1999). FOREWORD: National Trends in Education: Case Studies Set Aim
for the Future. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision
Journal, 16(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1999). FOREWORD: National Educational imperatives: Improving Today’s
Classroom. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision
Journal, 16(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1999). FOREWORD: Teacher Education: Addressing the Necessity of Reform
and Restructuring at the National Level. National FORUM of Applied Educational
Research Journal, 12(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1999). FOREWORD: Teacher Education: Addressing the Necessity of Reform
and Restructuring at the National Level. National FORUM of Applied Educational
Research Journal, 12(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1999). FOREWORD: Improving the Quality of Teacher Education Programs.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 9(4)

Kritsonis, W. (1999). FOREWORD: Enhancing Mathematics through the Summer Bridge
Program. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 9(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1999). FOREWORD: Respecting Diverse Urban Cultures. National FORUM of
Teacher Education Journal, 9(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1999). FOREWORD. International Journal of Scholarly Academic
Intellectual Diversity, 2(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1999). On-Line Scholarly Electronic Journal Division, National FORUM
Journals – Available daily: www.nationalforum.com

1998

Kritsonis, W. (1998). FOREWORD: Preparing Educational Leaders: National Agenda.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 15(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1998). FOREWORD: Looking Toward the Future: National Imperatives for
School Administrators. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 15(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1998). FOREWORD: National Imperatives for School Administrators: Looking
Toward the Future National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision
Journal, 15(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1998). FOREWORD: Field-Centered Teacher Education: Addressing the
Challenges in Reform and Restructuring. National FORUM of Applied Educational
Research Journal, 11(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1998). FOREWORD: Teacher Education: Addressing the Necessity of Reform
and Restructuring at the National Level. National FORUM of Applied Educational
Research Journal, 11(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1998). FOREWORD: Learning Styles and Student Achievement. National
FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 8(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1998). FOREWORD: Field Based Programs at the University of Hawaii at
Manoa. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 8(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1998). FOREWORD. International Journal of Scholarly Academic
Intellectual Diversity, 1(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1998). On-Line Scholarly Electronic Journal Division, National FORUM
Journals – Available daily: www.nationalforum.com

1997

Kritsonis, W. (1997). The Psychology of Leadership in Educational Institutions. Leadership
for the Twenty-First Century, Moscow, Russia. (Article published in Russian in Affiliation
with the Russian Academy of Sciences

Kritsonis, W. (1997). FOREWORD: Strategic Educational Planning: Responding to National
Issues. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 14(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1997). FOREWORD: National Leadership Resources: Building the Future.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 14(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1997). FOREWORD: National Focus on Leadership: Education’s Future.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 14(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1997). FOREWORD: National research Implications Enhance Education.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 10(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1997). FOREWORD: Educational Theories Applied Nationally Improve
Classroom Structure. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 10(1)


Kritsonis, W. (1997). FOREWORD: Teacher Performance: Implications for Urban School
Administrators. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 7(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1997). FOREWORD: International Student Teaching. National FORUM of
Teacher Education Journal, 7(1)

1996

Kritsonis, W. (1996). FOREWORD: National trends: Planning for Education’s Future.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 13(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1996). FOREWORD: National Philosophies: Planning Education’s Future Role.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 13(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1996). FOREWORD: National Perspectives: Thinking into the Future.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 13(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1996). FOREWORD: Applying Effective Educational Theories: A National
Imperative. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 9(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1996). FOREWORD: Applying Educational Research. National FORUM of
Applied Educational Research Journal, 9(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1996). FOREWORD: Initiatives for Educational Renewal. National FORUM of
Teacher Education Journal, 6(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1996). FOREWORD: Learning Styles in Culturally Diverse Nations. National
FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 6(1)

1995

Kritsonis, W. (1995). FOREWORD: National trends: Planning for Education’s Future.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 13(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1995). FOREWORD: National Philosophies: Planning Education’s Future Role.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 13(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1995). FOREWORD: National Perspectives: Thinking into the Future.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 13(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1995). FOREWORD: Applying Effective Educational Theories: A National
Imperative. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 9(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1995). FOREWORD: Applying Educational Research. National FORUM of
Applied Educational Research Journal, 9(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1995). FOREWORD: Helping Teachers Improve Student Success in the Urban
Classroom. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 5(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1995). FOREWORD: National Award Winning Teachers Instructional
Techniques. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 5(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1995). FOREWORD: National Programs Shape Special Education in Schools.
National FORUM of Special Education Journal, 5(1,2)

Kritsonis, W. (1995). The Psychology of Leadership in Educational Organizations.
RECORD in Educational Administration and Supervision, 15(2)

1994

Kritsonis, W. (1994). FOREWORD: National Actions that Enhance Educational Leadership.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 12(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1994). FOREWORD: National Issues Concerning Educational Leadership.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 12(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1994). FOREWORD: Educational Leadership Agenda for the 90’s.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 12(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1994). FOREWORD: Applying Educational Research in Schools: The First 100
Days. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 8(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1994). FOREWORD: Applying Educational Research. National FORUM of
Applied Educational Research Journal, 9(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1994). FOREWORD: National Trends in Teacher Education. National FORUM
of Teacher Education Journal, 4(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1994). FOREWORD: Transforming Teachers: Keys to Successful Reform.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 4(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1994). FOREWORD: National Trends in Special Education.
National FORUM of Special Education Journal, 4(1,2)

1993

Kritsonis, W. (1993). FOREWORD: National Focus on Strategies for Higher Education.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 11(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1993). FOREWORD: National Leadership in Education. National
FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 11(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1993). FOREWORD: National Concerns in Education. National
FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 11(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1993). FOREWORD: Applying Educational Research in Schools.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research, 8(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1993). FOREWORD: National Issues in Educational Research Trends.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 8(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1993). FOREWORD: National Perspectives for Improving Teacher Education.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 3(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1993). FOREWORD: National Implications: Discovering Principals’ Knowledge
about Special Education. National FORUM of Special Education Journal, 3(1,2)

Kritsonis, W. (1993). Writing for Professional Publication: Advice from the Professionals.
Louisiana Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dan Journal,
57(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1993). Comparing Grades in Education and Non-Education Classes: Fact or
Fiction? EDUCATION, 113(4)

Kritsonis, W. (1993). Drugs in Our Schools. EDUCATION, 114(1)

1992

Kritsonis, W. (1992). FOREWORD: National Concerns in Educational Administration and
Supervision. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal,
10(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1992). FOREWORD: National Issues in Educational Administration and
Supervision. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal,
10(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1992). FOREWORD: National Issues: Restructuring – TQM - Family Issues -
Sex Education – School Funding – Politics. National FORUM of Educational
Administration and Supervision Journal, 10(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1992). FOREWORD – SPECIAL EDITION: National Leaders in Educational
Administration. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision
Journal, 10(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1992). FOREWORD: National Impact: Practical Research Applications for
Education. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 7(2)


Kritsonis, W. (1992). FOREWORD: National Impact: Applying Educational Research to
Practice. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 7(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1992). FOREWORD: National Issues for Improving Teacher Education.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 2(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1992). FOREWORD: National Trends in Special Education. National FORUM
of Special Education Journal, 2(2)

Kritsonis, W. & J. Brown (1992). 13 Ways Not to Be Part of the Discipline Problem.
The Education Digest, 58(4) (89,000 Circulation) Featured in Abstracts Magazine
Summaries, Primary Search, Social Sciences Sources, and University Microfilms Inc., Ann
Arbor, Michigan

1991

Kritsonis, W. (1991). FOREWORD: School Leadership: A Blueprint for Reform. National
FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 9(3)

Kritsonis, W. (1991). FOREWORD: National Agenda: Improving Administration and
Supervisory Leadership in Colleges and Schools. National FORUM of Educational
Administration and Supervision Journal, 9(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1991). FOREWORD: National Leadership: Thoughts for restructuring and
Improving Managerial Productivity. National FORUM of Educational Administration
and Supervision Journal, 9(1)

Kritsonis, W. & R. Eisenman (1991). Availability of Drugs in our Schools as Related to
Student Characteristics: Information from the National Crime Victimization Survey. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 6(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1991). FOREWORD: Researching Education Trends in the Late 1990’s.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 6(2)

Kritsonis, W. (1991). FOREWORD: Applying Educational research in the 1990’s.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 6(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1991). FOREWORD: National Imperatives for Improving Teacher Education.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 1(1)

Kritsonis, W. (1991). FOREWORD: Developing Self-Concepts in Disabled Students. National
FORUM of Special Education Journal, 2(1)

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor (Tenured)
PhD Program in Educational Leadership, PV, Texas A&M University System

2004

Kritsonis, W. (2004). FOREWORD: National Initiatives Directed to Redesigning Educational
Leadership Programs Impacts School Leaders. National FORUM of Educational
Administration and Supervision Journal, 21(3)

Kritsonis, W. (2004). Basic Procedures in Educational Research and Design for Field Settings.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 21(3)

Kritsonis, W. (2004). FOREWORD: National Education: Implications in our Learning
Environment. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 21(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2004). FOREWORD: Continuing Education: A Necessity at the National Level.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 21(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2004). FOREWORD: National Impact of Education Versus Technology.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 17(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2004). FOREWORD: Impacts of Education on the National Scale.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 17(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2004). FOREWORD: Special Tribute to Dr. Ben Wilson, Jr.
Dithyrambic Musings of Benson O’Lottie. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 14(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2004). FOREWORD: National Issues: Student Performance; Instructional
Practices; Teaching Methods; Art Education; Bilingual Flexibility. National FORUM of
Teacher Education Journal, 14(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2004). FOREWORD. International Journal of Scholarly Academic
Intellectual Diversity Journal, 7(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2004). FOREWORD: Multicultural Issues and Trends. National FORUM of
Multicultural Issues Journal, 2(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2004). On-Line Scholarly Electronic Journal Division, National FORUM
Journals – Available daily: www.nationalforum.com

2003

Kritsonis, W. (2003). FOREWORD: Educational Leadership: National Concerns. National
FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 20(3)

Kritsonis. W. (2003). FOREWORD: New Directions in Educational Leadership. National
FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 20(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2003). FOREWORD: National Issues in Today’s Schooling. National
FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 20(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2003). FOREWORD: National Perspective of Diversified Educational Elements.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 16(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2003). FOREWORD: Diversified Elements of Our National Education System.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 16(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2003). FOREWORD: Unique Needs of Higher Education in Rural America.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 13(3)

Kritsonis, W. (2003). FOREWORD. Multiple Intelligences and the Learner’s Mind. National
FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 13(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2003). FOREWORD: Collaboration in Teacher Education Programs.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 13(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2003). FOREWORD. International Journal of Scholarly Academic
Intellectual Diversity 6(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2003). FOREWORD: The Importance of Multicultural Education. National
FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal, 1(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2003). On-Line Scholarly Electronic Journal Division, National FORUM
Journals – Available daily: www.nationalforum.com



2002

Kritsonis, W. (2002). FOREWORD: School Reform for Our Modern Era of Technology.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 19(3)

Kritsonis, W. (2002). FOREWORD: Today’s School Children: Adjusting to the Changing
Environment of Schools. National FORUM of Educational Administration and
Supervision Journal, 19(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2002). FOREWORD: School Leadership: National Issues and Imperatives.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 19(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2002). FOREWORD: Educational Developments: How to Structure Today’s
Educational Needs. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 15(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2002). FOREWORD: Educational Problems: Developed Situations in Schools
Today. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 15(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2002). FOREWORD: Exploring Structural Options in Teacher Education.
National FORUM of Teacher Education, 12(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2002). FOREWORD: NCATE – Meeting the Needs of National Standards.
National FORUM of Teacher Education, 12(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2002). FOREWORD. International Journal of Scholarly Academic
Intellectual Diversity, 5(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2002). On-Line Scholarly Electronic Journal Division, National FORUM
Journals – Available daily: www.nationalforum.com

2001

Kritsonis, W. (2001). FOREWORD: The Changing Environment for Today’s School Children.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 18(3)

Kritsonis, W. (2001). FOREWORD: How Technology Innovates Classrooms Today.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 18(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2001). FOREWORD: School Leaders of America: A Call to Arms.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 18(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2001). FOREWORD: Teaching Students: A National Challenge to Educators.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 14(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2001). FOREWORD: School Reform: A National Perspective. National
FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 14(1)
Kritsonis, W. (2001). FOREWORD: Creativity and Accountability in Teacher Education.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 11(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2001). FOREWORD: New Approaches to Teacher Preparation. National
FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 11(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2001). FOREWORD. International Journal of Scholarly Academic
Intellectual Diversity, 4(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2001). On-Line Scholarly Electronic Journal Division, National FORUM
Journals – Available daily: www.nationalforum.com

2000

Kritsonis, W. (2000). FOREWORD: Edward W. Chance: A Visionary Leader. National
FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 17(3)

Kritsonis, W. (2000). FOREWORD: Studies for the Technological Era.
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 17(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2000). FOREWORD: National Trends in Education: Case Studies Set Aim
for the Future. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision
Journal, 17(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2000). FOREWORD: Teaching Students: A National Challenge to Educators.
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 13(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2000). FOREWORD: Teaching Students in “Style”: A National Challenge
to Educators. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 13(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2000). FOREWORD: College Teaching in Higher Education.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 10(2)

Kritsonis, W. (2000). FOREWORD: Facilitating Technology Training for Teacher Educators.
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 10(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2000). FOREWORD. International Journal of Scholarly Academic
Intellectual Diversity, 3(1)

Kritsonis, W. (2000). On-Line Scholarly Electronic Journal Division, National FORUM
Journals – Available daily: www.nationalforum.com

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Dr. Kritsonis Recognized as Distinguished Alumnus

In 2004, Dr. Kritsonis was recognized as the Central Washington University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus for the College of Education and Professional Studies. Final selection was made by the Alumni Association Board of Directors. Recipients are CWU graduates of 20 years or more and are recognized for achievement in their professional field and have a positive contribution to society. For the second consecutive year, U.S. News and World Report placed Central Washington University among the top elite public institutions in the west. CWU was 12th on the list in the 2006 On-Line Education of “America’s Best Colleges.”

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

In 2005, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis lectured at the Oxford Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England. His lecture was entitled Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

In 2005, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis lectured at the Oxford Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England. His lecture was entitled Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
National FORUM Journals
SLUGGERS Softball Teams - Traveling Tournament Team

18U & 16U & 14U & 12U

COACHING EXPERIENCE

Since 1997, the National FORUM Sluggers Softball Team had 164 wins, 32 defeats, and 6 ties.
Three Undefeated State Championship in 2000 and 2001

SOFTBALL COACH, National FORUM Journals SLUGGERS, Girls Fast-Pitch, 18U Southwest Louisiana, Spring/Summer 2001. Traveling Tournament Team. ASA 2001 Undefeated Louisiana State Champions, Sulphur, Louisiana. Since 1997 the SLUGGERS have had 164 wins, 32 defeats, and 6 ties

HEAD SOFTBALL COACH, National FORUM Journals SLUGGERS, Girls Fast-Pitch 16U Southwest Louisiana, Spring/Summer 2000. Traveling Tournament Team. ASA 2000 Undefeated Louisiana State Champions, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

HEAD SOFTBALL COACH, National FORUM Journals SLUGGERS, Girls Fast-Pitch 16U Southwest Louisiana, Spring/Summer 2000. Traveling Tournament Team. USSSA 2000 Undefeated Louisiana State Champions, St. Amant, Louisiana

COACH, National FORUM Journals FIREBALLS, Girls Fast-Pitch, Amateur Softball Association, 14 & Under, Sulphur, Louisiana. Spring/Summer/Fall 1999. Traveling Tournament Team. Played numerous tournaments

HEAD SOFTBALL COACH, National FORUM Journal SLUGGERS, Girls Fast-Pitch, Amateur Softball Association, 14 & Under, Lake Charles, Louisiana. Fall 1998. Traveling Tournament Team. Played in several fast-pitch tournaments in Texas and Louisiana during the fall

ALL-STAR SOFTBALL COACH, LAKE CHARLES WILDCATS, Girls Fast-Pitch, Amateur Softball Association, 12 & Under, Lake Charles, Louisiana. Summer 1998. Finished 4th in the state of Louisiana

HEAD SOFTBALL COACH, National FORUM Journal SLUGGERS, Girls Fast-Pitch, Amateur Softball Association, 12 & Under, Lake Charles, Louisiana. Spring/Summer 1998.
Lake Charles City League Champions.

HEAD SOFTBALL COACH, National FORUM Journals SLUGGERS, Girls Fast-Pitch, Amateur Softball Association, 12 & Under, Lake Charles, Louisiana. Fall 1997. Traveling Tournament Team. Played in several fast-pitch tournaments in Texas and Louisiana during the fall.

ALL-STAR SOFTBALL COACH, LAKE CHARLES ROCKETS, Girls Fast-Pitch, Amateur Softball Association, 12 & Under, Lake Charles, Louisiana. Summer 1997. Finished 12th in the state of Louisiana

HEAD SOFTBALL COACH, National FORUM Journals SLUGGERS, Girls Fast-Pitch, Amateur Softball Association, 12 & Under, Lake Charles, Louisiana. Spring/Summer 1997. Finished Second Place

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge - Department of Administrative and Foundational Services, College of Education

OFF CAMPUS AND COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT (PAST)

VOLUNTEER, Picture Day, S.J. Welsh Middle School, Calcasieu Parish, Lake Charles, Louisiana. ( October 1990)

SPECIAL OLYMICS VOLUNTEER, Phi Delta Kappa, 1983 International Special Olympics “People Power” Pool. (July 1983)

VOLUNTEER TUTOR, La Salle Elementary School, East Baton Rouge Parish, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. (1981-1983)

PARLIAMENTARIAN (Elected), Parent-Teacher Organization, La Salle Elementary School, East Baton Rouge Parish Schools, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. (1982-1984)

PRESIDENT (Elected) Parent-Teacher Organization, La Salle Elementary School, East Baton Rouge Parish Schools, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. (1981-1984)

MEMBER, Parent Association for C-G Gymnastics Club, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. (1981-1984)

DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC RELATIONS & PUBLICITY, The Green Orthodox Community of the Eastern Shore, Salisbury-Ocean City, Maryland. (1980-1981)

MEMBER, Parent Association for Salisbury Gymnastics Club, Salisbury, Maryland. (1980-1981)

BOARD OF TRUSTEES, The Greek Orthodox Community of the Eastern Shore, Salisbury-Ocean City, Maryland. (1980-1981)

VOLUNTEER SOCCER COACH, “The Driller’s” Salisbury Community Soccer Association. (1980-1981)

SPONSOR, SOCCER TEAM, “WAK” Salisbury Community Soccer Association. (1980-1981)

EXECUTIVE BOARD MEMBER, CETA Youth Programs, Ellensburg, Washington. (1978- 1980)

FACULTY YOUTH ADVISOR, Circle-K International Club, Central Washington University, Kiwanis of Ellensburg, Washington. (1978-1980)

VOLUNTEER, Kittitas County United Way Campaign, Ellensburg, Washington. (1978-1980)

MEMBER, Fund Raising Parent Campaign Drive, Ellensburg Windy-City Gymnastics Club, Ellensburg, Washington. (1980)

CHAIRPERSON, National Family Week Planning Committee, Preston, Iowa. (1978)

DIRECTOR, Community Adult Education Program, Preston, Iowa. (1978)

MASTER OF CEREMONIES, Community Spring Musical Variety Show, Wilton, Iowa. (1977)

PROGRAM COORDINATOR, Eastern Iowa 1976 Political Rally for “Let’s Meet the Candidates” seeking election to public office in Eastern Iowa. (Fall 1976)

MEMBER, Planning Board, Community Bicentennial Parade Commission, Wilton, Iowa, (1976)

VOLUNTEER, American Cancer Society Drive, Wilton, Iowa. (1975)

VOLUNTEER, American Cancer Society Drive, Amana, Iowa. (1974)
BAND MEMBER, Amana Octoberfest Polka Band, Amana Colonies, Amana, Iowa. Player Accordion. (1973-1974

BASEBALL COACH, Amana Colonies, Pony and Little League Baseball Teams, Amana, Iowa. (Summer 1974)

VOLUNTEER BASEBALL COACH, Lincoln High School, Seattle, Washington. (Spring 1968)
BASEBALL COACH, North Central Little League Association, Seattle, Washington. (Summer 1968)

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Editor-in-Chief
National FORUM Journals

www.nationalforum.com
Over 250,000 Guests Visit the Website Yearly

SELECTED CONSULTIVE AND WORKSHOP INVOLVEMENT (PAST & PRESENT)

INVITED GUEST, University of Oxford, Department of Education Studies, Oxford, England. Topic: Publishing in Scholarly Journals. (Summer 1997)

Invited by Dr. John Petry, former editor of NEA TODAY (National Educational Journal), (November 1993)

INVITED PRESENTER, “Writing and Getting Published” Publishing Symposium at the Mid-South Educational Research Association’s Annual Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana. Presentation focused on problems associated with writing and publishing manuscripts in refereed professional journals.

Appointed by Sponsored Programs at McNeese State University to assist in recruiting top students from across the United States. (1993-1997)

GUEST PRESENTER, Calcasieu Parish School System, Chapter 1 Teachers “Motivating Students to Learn,” (August 1993)

“Writing for Professional Publication” Publishing Symposium at the Mid-South Educational Research Association’s Annual Conference, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. Invited Presenter. Presentations by editors of major scholarly refereed, peer-reviewed professional journals. Invited by Dr. Thomas Petry, former editor of NEA TODAY (National Education Association Journal Today). (November 1991)

“Teaching Techniques: Focusing on Those Techniques Needed to Conduct a 90-Minute Class Period” Faculty Inservice, Saint Louis High School, Calcasieu Center for Catholic Studies, Lake Charles, Louisiana. (August 1992)
“Writing for Professional Publication” Publishing Symposium at Annual Conference of the Eastern Educational Research Association. Marriott’s Copley Palace, Boston, Massachusetts. Invited Presenter. Presentations by major publishing company editors, scholarly book publishers, editors of scholarly journals, and authors of educational research and textbooks. Invited by Dr. Jeffrey S. Kaiser, Program Chairperson. (February 1991)

“Dealing Effectively with the Obstinate Teacher” LEAD PROJECT, McNeese, Department of Administration and Supervision, Burton College of Education, Lake Charles, Louisiana. (Fall 1990, Spring 1991)

MEMBER, NCATE Committee, Department of Administration and Supervision, McNeese State University. (1990-92)

MEMBER, McNeese State University Student Activity Committee. (1992-1997)

CHAIRPERSON, Search Committee for two faculty positions in the Department of Administration and Supervision, McNeese State University. (1992)

ADVISOR, Student Louisiana Association of Educators. McNeese State University. (1990-1997)

LEAD Program, McNeese State University, Burton College of Education. (1990-1995)

“Dealing Effectively with the Obstinate Teacher” LEAD Project, McNeese State University, Department of Administration and Supervision, College of Education, Lake Charles, Louisiana. Deals with a variety of topics that are specifically identified by practicing school administration. (Fall 1990, Spring 1991)

“How to Put Enthusiasm Into Teaching Before Christmas Vacation” Parkview Elementary School, East Baton Rouge Parish Schools, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Fall 1990

FACULTY DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP, “Writing for Professional Publication in Refereed/Peer-Reviewed Journals” McNeese State University, College of Education, Lake Charles, Louisiana. (Fall 1990)

VISITING GUEST PROFESSOR, Wright State University, Department of Educational Leadership, College of Education and Human Resources, Dayton, Ohio. (March 1990-June 1990)

WORKSHOP, “Writing for Professional Publication in Refereed and Non-Refereed Journals” West Virginia College of Graduate Studies, Institute, West Virginia. (February 1989)

EDUCATIONAL CONSULTANT, Louisiana Association of Educators/National Education Association, (1988-1989)

SCHOLAR IN RESIDENCE, Wright State University, College of Education and Human Resources, Dayton, Ohio. Follow-up sessions with faculty to discuss the publication of manuscripts, manuscript proposals, and ideas. (May 1988)

SCHOLAR IN RESIDENCE, Wright State University, College of Education and Human Services, Dayton, Ohio. Worked with faculty members on preparing manuscripts for publication in refereed and non-refereed journals. (October 1987)

CONSULTANT REVIEWER, Kathleen Wright Award, Nova University, Center for the Advancement of Education, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. (Spring 1986)

TEXTBOOK CONSULTANT REVIEWER, Personnel Administration Texts for Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company, Columbus, Ohio. (1986-1990)

WORKSHOP, “Managing Conflict in School and Society” Rapides Parish School Board, Alexandria, Louisiana. (June 1986)

WORKSHOP, “Managing Conflict in School and Society” Caddo Parish School Board, Shreveport, Louisiana. (January 1986)

WORKSHOP, “Managing Conflict in School and Society” Natchitoches Parish School Board, Natchitoches, Louisiana. (September 1985)

WORKSHOP, “Managing Conflict in School and Society” Vernon Parish School Board, Leesville, Louisiana. (September 1985)

CONSULTANT, “Motivating College Students to Actively Participate in the Learning Process” for the faculty of Southern University, Shreveport, Louisiana. (August 1985)

CONSULTANT, “Fantastic Folders for Fantastic Readers” Louisiana Reading Association Eighth Annual Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana. (October 1983)

WORKSHOP, “Activities Aimed at Avid Readers” East Baton Rouge Parish Schools, Staff Development Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. (August 1983)

CONSULTANT, “School Discipline: Some Practical Alternatives for Teachers and Principals” Redemptorist Senior High School, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. (August 1982)

WORKSHOP, “Parents Aiding in Reading: Parental Involvement in the Schools” East Baton Rouge Parish Schools, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. (August 1982)

CONSULTANT, Bekins Able Moving & Storage, Inc., Baton Rouge, Louisiana. “Practical Application of McGregor’s Theory X and Y.” (Spring 1982)

WORKSHOP, “Student Teachers: Cooperating Teacher Responsibilities” for Cooperating Teachers from Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, Salisbury State College, Maryland. (Fall 1980, Spring 1981)

CONSULTANT, “Effective Practices for School Administrators” Wicomico Board of Education Association of School Administrators, Salisbury, Maryland. (Spring 1981)

CONSULTANT, “Improving Parent-Teacher Communication” Wicomico County, Parent-Teacher Association North Salisbury Elementary School, Maryland. (Spring 1981)

CONSULTANT, “Responsibilities of LEA’s” in the Student Teaching and Field Experiences Program in Higher Education Worcester County Board of Education Association of School Administrators, Princess Anne, Maryland. (Spring 1981)
CONSULTANT, “Motivation for Change” First Annual Training Institute, State of Washington Adult Corrections Division, Department of Social & Health Services (DSHS), Ellensburg, Washington. ( Fall 1979)

CONSULTANT, “Problems of Adult Motivation” American Heart Association Annual State Conference, Seattle, Washington. (Winter 1979)

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

REGIONAL ACCREDITATION INVOLVEMENT (PAST)

MEMBER, Visiting Commission of Secondary Schools of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools for Review and Self-Evaluation of Sulphur High School in Calcasieu Parish School System. Louisiana State University Representative. Responsible for Evaluating: School and Community; Philosophy and Objectives; Emerging and Unique Programs; Home Economics Preparatory Food Services; Photography; Drama; Data Processing; Community Service Leadership Training; Art and the Elementary Student; SAPE (Substance Abuse Prevention in Education). (Spring 1983)

MEMBER, Visiting Commission of Secondary Schools of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools for Review and Self-Evaluation of Jeanerette High School in Iberia Parish School System. Louisiana State University Representative. Responsible for Evaluating: School, Staff and Administration; Student Auxiliary Programs. (Spring 1982)

MEMBER, Visiting Commission of Secondary Schools of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools for Review and Self-Evaluation of Robert E. Lee High School in East Baton Rouge Parish School System. Louisiana State University Representative. Responsible for Evaluating: School, Staff and Administration; School and Community; Emerging New Programs. (Spring 1982)

MEMBER, Visiting Commission of Secondary Schools of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools for Review and Self-Evaluation of DeRidder Junior High School in Beauregard Parish School System. Louisiana State University Representative. Responsible for Evaluating: Student Auxiliary Services; School Plant and Facilities; Served on Editing Committee. (Fall 1981)

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

UNIVERSITY COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION (UCEA)

MEMBER, UNIVERSITY COUNCIL FOR EDUCTAIONAL ADMINISTRATION (UCEA) Program Center for Educational Public Relations Committee-at-Large. 1985-1995

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Editor-in-Chief
NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS
www.nationalforum.com

NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS
On-Line Scholarly Electronic Journal Division
Over 56,000 Guests Visit Website Yearly – www.nationalforum.com
FOCUS-Focus on Colleges, Universities, and Schools
DOCTORAL FORUM – The Official Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research
International Journal of Management, Business and Administration
International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal
National FORUM of Special Education Journal
National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Editor-in-Chief
NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS

www.nationalforum.com

EDITORIAL DUTIES – NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS

Since 2007-Present EDITOR
FOCUS – Focus On Colleges, Universities, and Schools

Since 2006-Present EDITOR
DOCTORAL FORUM - The Official Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research

Since 2005-Present EDITOR
International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration (IJ MBA)

Since 2003 – Present EDITOR
National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal (NFMI JOURNAL)

Since 1998 – Present EDITOR
On-Line Scholarly Electronic Journal Division, National FORUM Journals – Over 56,000 Guests Visit Website Yearly

Since 1997 – Present EDITOR
International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity (IJ SAID)

Since 1990 – Present EDITOR
National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal (NFTE JOURNAL)

Since 1989 – Present EDITOR
National FORUM of Special Education Journal (NFSE JOURNAL)

Since 1987 – Present EDITOR
National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal (NF AERJ)

Since 1983 – Present EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal (NFEAS JOURNAL)

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD - Invited Dissertation Committee for Norman L. Butler, Institute of Educational Research, Warsaw, Poland.


Norman Butler POLISH POST-SECONDARY VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS AND
CANADIAN COMMUNITY COLLEGES DEGREE GRANTING INSTITUTIONS: Institute for Educational Research, Warsaw, Poland (PhD Granted Fall 2005

Doctoral Dissertation Committee:
Stefan M. Kwiatkowski (Chair) Institute for Educational Research,
Warsaw, Poland; Rafal Piwowarski (Reviewer) Institute for Educational Research, Warsaw, Poland; Andrzej Janowski (Reviewer) Deputy Minister of Education, Republic of Poland; Barry Davidson (Invited Outside Reviewer); Troy University, Troy, Alabama; William Allan Kritsonis (Invited Outside Reviewer) Prairie View A&M University (Member of the Texas A&M University System)

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Graduate Advisor for Master of Education Degree Projects/Thesis


Master of Education Degree
McNeese State University, Department of Educational Leadership and Instructional Technology, Burton College of Education (120)

2004

Deana M. Cole HOW DID A SMALL, RURAL SCHOOL IMPROVE
ASTRONOMICALLY IN JUST A SINGLE YEAR?

Mary Claire Cormier EFFECTS OF COMPUTERS ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
& Robin C. Primeaux

Donna R. Duhon THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOOPING ON SECOND GRADE STUDENTS AT SOUTH CROWLEY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: DOES LOOPING AFFECT STANDARDIZED TEST SCORES IN MATHEMATICS AND LANGUAGE ARTS
Joy Fox EFFECTS OF BLOCK SCHEDULING ON STUDENTS’ ATTENDANCE AT LEBLANC MIDDLE
Jerome Goodly SCHOOL ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Christina Elaine TECHNOLOGY AND CURRICULUM DESIGN: A PROJECT FOR
Harris ENHANCING TECHNOLOGY IN THE CREATIVE ARTS AT BARBE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN CALCASIEU PARISH SCHOOLS

Marcia Miller EFFECTS OF SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY ON TEACHER JOB SATISFACTION IN IOWA HIGH SCHOOL

Wynetta Proctor THE EFFECTS OF PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT ON THE ACADEMIC SUCCESS OF STUDENTS

Angela Setton CONTRIBUTIONS OF PHILOSOPHERS TO EDUCATION

2003

Angela McManemin THE EFFECTS OF ATTENDANCE OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS AT LEBLEU SETTLEMENT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL FOR THE 2002-2003 SCHOOL YEAR

Stephen Brown A STUDY ON SCHOOL CONSOLIDATION

Carolyn Conner KINDERGARTEN READINESS: FACTORS THAT DETERMINE A CHILD’S READINESS TO ENTER KINDERGARTEN
Mitchell Fontenot HELPFUL HINTS FOR A FIRST YEAR ADMINISTRATOR

Mark S. Freshley THE EFFECTS OF SCHOOL VOUCHES ON OUR EDUCATION SYSTEM

Christie Guidry THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PRE-KINDERGARTEN ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF FIRST GRADE STUDENTS

Kelli Heckerd & THE EFFECTS OF YEAR-ROUND SCHOOL ON STUDENT
Chester Ellender LEARNING

Margaret Hieronymus THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF STAFF DEVELOPMENT ON TEACHER PERCEPTIONS ON INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGY INTO CLASSROOM CURRICULUMS IN BEAUREGARD PARISH

Benita January THE EFFECTS INCLUSION ON REGULAR EDUCATION

Brenda Joubert THE EFFECTS OF THE FOUR-DAY SCHOOL WEEK ON TEACHER AND STUDENT ATTENDANCE

Pamela R. March THE EFFECTS OF FAMILY STRUCTURE ON STUDENT ACHIEVE- MENT
Bobby Matt EFFECTS OF GRADE RETENTION IN ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOLS

David Pool EFFECTS OF BLOCK SCHEDULING ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVE- MENT AT SULPHUR HIGH SCHOOL

Dave Rhodes STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS

Jeptha M. Wall THE EFFECTS OF A CIRCUIT WEIGHT TRAINING PROGRAM ON PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS AT CHURCH POINT HIGH SCHOOL

Donna Woods THE EFFECTS OF CLASS SIZE ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

2002

Phyliss R. Arndt THE EFFECTS OF TEAM TEACHING ON TEACHER JOB
SATISFACTION WITHIN A DEPARTMENTALIZED ENVIRON- MENT

Dielle S. Barrentine FOREIGN LANGUAGE IMMERSION AND UNIVERSITY
& Robert L. PREPAREDNESS: A STUDY OF SPANISH IMMERSION STUDENTS
Barrentine IN SULPHUR LOUISIANA

Dwain Ducote & CECP COACHES: A STUDY OF LOUISIANA’S ALTERNATE
John Cryer COACHING CERTIFICATION PROGRAM

Christopher S. YEAR ROUND EDUCATION: HISTORY, BACKGROUND,
Fontenot IMPLICATIONS AND PRE-SERVICE (NON-YRE) TEACHER PERCEPTIONS

Willie M. Golden, Jr. THE EFFECTS OF MOTIVATION, LEARNING, AND COMPUTERS
& Catherine Smith

Gregory Guillory DIRECT INSTRUCTION AND DISTANCE LEARNING AT MCNEESE
& Lori Guillory STATE UNIVERSITY

Starlette D. Guillory THE EFFECTS OF THE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT SCHOOL MODEL ON 6TH GRADERS AT OAK PARK MIDDLE SCHOOL

Arlene Hobaugh COMPONENTS OF FIELD STUDY RESEARCH

Wyonna Jeane THE EFFECTS OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS ON STUDENT ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND BEHAVIOR

Belinda Keller, THE EFFECTS OF ZERO TOLERANCE ON SCHOOL DISCIPLINE
Renee LeJeune, REFERRALS AND SUSPENSIONS
& Kirk Meche

Lorette M. LaVergne PUBLIC SCHOOL EDUCATION COMPARED TO ALTERNATIVE SCHOOL EDUCATION AS MEASURED BY THE LOUISIANA LEAP TEST

Brett LeBeouf PHONEMIC AWARENESS: A BUILDING BLOCK OF READING

Belinda Morse HIGH SCHOOL INCLUSION AT CROWLEY HIGH SCHOOL

Scott Nunez THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON STRESS IN UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

Doreen H. Pearson EFFECTS OF POSITIVE DISCIPLINE ON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

Stephanie Rogers THE IMPACT OF SCHOOL STARTING TIME AT SOUTH CAMERON HIGH SCHOOL

Cornelia A. Sanford NEEDS OF SCHOOL COUNSELORS IN THE ROLE OF SCHOOL CRISIS TEAM MEMBER

Wayne D. Wells A STUDY OF AFRICAN AMERICAN, ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED, AND MINORITY STUDENTS IN BEAUMONT INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT’S GIFTED AND TALENTED PROGRAM

Nancy B. Willis A STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF YEAR-ROUND EDUCATION ON THIRD AND FOURTH GRADE STUDENTS AT SHREVE ISLAND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Jessica R. Hickman- ADVANTAGES VS. DISADVANTAGES OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS IN
Zaunbrecher PUBLIC SCHOOLS

2001

Dorrie Adolph INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION VERSUS GROUP INSTRUCTION FOR LEARNING DISABLED STUDENTS IN GRADE FIVE

Tim Brannon, A COMPARISON OF FOUR-DAY SCHOOLS AND FIVE-DAY
Gary Lockhart, SCHOOLS IN BEAUREGARD PARISH
& Eddie Joslin


Donald Courville, Jr. THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES AS OPPOSED TO
& Neal C. Young TWO-PARENT FAMILIES ON ACADEMIC ACHIVEMENT OF CHILDREN

Valerie Cox EFFECTIVENESS OF THE LASIP MATHEMATICS PROJECT ON THE PERFORMANCE-BASED PROBLEMS OF THE FOURTH GRADE LEAP21

Margaret Davis THE EFFECTS OF RESEARCH AND EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Wanda DeVille THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ARITHMETIC LEAP REMEDIATION ON PARTICIPATING STUDENTS IN CALCASIEU PARISH

Elliot Ford THE ROLE OF THE PRINCIPAL IN THE FOSTERING OF GOOD CHARACTER

Janet Gilpin THE EFFECTS OF MUSIC IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Melinda D. Hardy THE EFFECTS OF COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT AT JESSIE D. CLIFTON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL WITH THIRD GRADE STUDENTS
Marc Jardell STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS: A SURVEY OF J.R. WATSON MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS

Christina Richard GENDER DIFFERENCES IN MATHEMATICS
Lantz

David LeJeune THE EFFECTS OF STRESS ON AVERAGE FRESHMEN AT LAFAYETTE HIGH SCHOOL

Sheryl LeJeune AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING POOR TEST PERFORMANCE ON THE IOWA TEST OF BASIC SKILLS

Sandy Matthews THE EFFECTS OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS AT FAIRVIEW ELEMENTARY

Shonda Mhire THE EFFECTS OF PROBLEM BEHAVIORS ON A CHILD’S LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Daniel R. Miller THE EFFECTS OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS ON TEACHER PERCEPTIONS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN’S BEHAVIOR

Delores D. Miller THE EFFECTS OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS ON TEACHER PERCEPTIONS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN’S BEHAVIOR

Jonathon R. Powers USING WRITING PORTFOLIOS AND COOPERATIVE LEARNING AS METHODS OF ASSESSING ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

James Brad EFFECTIVENESS OF BLOCK SCHEDULING ON STUDENTS AND
Prudhomme LEARNING IN ERATH HIGH SCHOOLS

Janet Ritchie TEACHING SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS IN CALCASIEU PARISH: INCLUSION VERSUS SELF-CONTAINED

Tonya Ryder THE EFFECTS COCAINE HAS ON A CHILD’S BEHAVIOR WHEN TAKEN PRENATALLY

Sanders J. Senegal THE RETENTION OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS ATTENDING LOUISIANA TECHNICAL COLLEGE GULF AREA CAMPUS

Janet Shields PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGE VERSUS THE NON-PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT

Sarah LeBouef THE EFFECTS OF SIGNING BONUSES ON THE RECRUITMENT
Single AND RETENTION OF TEACHERS IN THE BEAUREGARD SCHOOL DISTRICT

Terrie Smith IMPROVING TEST SCORES: DOES COMPUTERIZED INSTRUCTIONAL INTERVENTION MAKE A DIFFERENCE?

Gerald W. Treme, Jr. THE EFFECTS OF COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL REFORMS

Deborah Vidrine THE EFFECTS OF PLACING CHILDREN BY CHRONOLOGICAL AGE IN KINDERGARTEN

Valeria Welsh STUDENTS’ OPINIONS ABOUT SCHOOL UNIFORMS: A SURVEY OF LAGRANGE HIGH SCHOOL

2000

Kimberly D. Bertrand THE EFFECTS OF THE D.A.R.E. PROGRAM IN THE ELTON, LOUISIANA SCHOOLS

Evette R. Broussard THE CORRELATION BETWEEN ACT SCHORES AND TEST PREPARATION AT LAKE ARTHUR HIGH SCHOOL

Dianne Brown IMPROVING SCHOOL READINESS: DOES PRESCHOOL MAKE A DIFFERENCE?

Todd Brown THE EFFECTS OF SCHOOL VIOLENCE ON CULTURE

Shauna Savant LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF READING RECOVERY INTERVENTION
Burkhead ON THE COGNITIVE BEHAVIORS OF SECOND GRADE CHILDREN AND THE PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR TEACHERS

Claude James THE EFFECTS OF LEARNING STYLES AND ACADEMIC
Courville ACHIEVEMENT

Doug DeVillier THE IMPACT OF POWERPOINT AND INSPIRATION SOFTWARE ON CLASSROOM TEST SCORES

Julia M. Dickerson THE EFFECTS OF INCLUSION ON ATTITUDES OF TEACHERS AT LITTLE CYPRESS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Darlene Dosman THE EFFECTS OF BLOCK SCHEDULING AND LACASINE HIGH SCHOOL AFTER ONE YEAR

Elizabeth Harson LOOPING OR TRADITIONAL PROGRESSION: DOES LOOPING IMPROVE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT?

Cindy M. Istre A COMPARISON OF JOB SATISFACTION IN PUBLIC AND PAROCHIAL HIGH SCHOOLS IN ACADIA PARISH, LOUISIANA

Carola K. Jolivette BLOCK SCHEDULING: IS THERE A HAPPY MEDIAN FOR CHURCH POINT HIGH SCHOOL

Ette Lampkin A STUDY TO DETERMINE THE PERCEPTIONS AND BELIEFS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENTS TAUGHT BY CAUCASIAN AMERICAN TEACHERS

Shirley Leger A STUDY TO DETERMINE THE PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHERS ON THE DEPARTMENTALIZATION OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

Tiffany Manuel A HANDS-ON INTERDISCIPLINARY TEACHING APPROACH TO IMPROVE LEAP TEST SCORES

Ocie P. McGuire THE EFFECTS OF BLOCK SCHEDULING IN RELATION TO STUDENT ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN MIDDLE SCHOOLS
Julie Hebert Ortego A COMPARISON OF MALES AND FEMALES ACADEMIC ABILITIES IN THE LANGUAGE ARTS CURRICULUM

Pat Schooler A PROACTIVE APPROACH TO RAISING TEST SCORES FOR ACCOUNTABILITY: EFFECTIVENESS OF LA SIP TRAINED STANDARDS-BASED INSTRUCTION FOR THE LEAP INTERVENTION II MATHEMATICS PROJECT

Holly S. Vidrine THE EFFECTS OF MATH IOWA SCORES BASED ON GENDER

Jennifer S. White COOPERATING TEACHERS REFLECTIONS REGARDING STRATEGIES FOR FUTURE SUPERVISORY ASSIGNMENTS

1999

Kim Brannon A COMPARISON OF 4-DAY SCHOOLS AND 5-DAY SCHOOLS

Charlene Cobb TEACHING DIVERSITY AT SCHOOL

Tammy Fontenot THE EFFECTS OF TEACHING YOUR CHILD GIFTED
Robert L. Goodly MANIPULATIVES AND MATHEMATICAL ACHIEVEMENT IN UPPER-ELEMENTARY GRADE STUDENTS

Rico Guillory RESEARCH ON DESEGREGATION

Lorie A. LeDoux THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND THE LANGUAGE MINORITY STUDENTS

Frances LeMaire COMPARISON OF WHOLE-LANGUAGE METHODS AND PHONICS-BASED METHODS IN READING

Dena Marks A STUDY OF THE LOUISIANA EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (LEAP) FOR THE 21ST CENTURY EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM

Jack Albert Miller THE EFFECTS OF SCHOOL CONSOLIDATION AND SCHOOL CLOSURE

Linda C. Newmiller THE EFFECTS OF BLOCK SCHEDULING ON ACHIVEMENT IN MATH

Vicki Perkins COMPARING LEAP TEST ITEMS WITH TEACHER TEST ITEMS

James E. Ray THE EFFECTS OF DECISION MAKING SITE-BASED VERSUS TOP-DOWN

Elroi J. Simon THE EFFECTS OF STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION ON ACADEMICS

Jeanette Hudson A STUDY OF THE TEACHERS IN ORANGE COUNTY, TEXAS TO
Stanley DETERMINE FACTORS THAT ARE AFFECTING JOB SATISFACTION AND JOB DISSATISFACTION

Pam Williamson THE EFFECTS OF INCLUSION AT PEARL WATSON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Jo Anne Winfrey COLLABORATION VERSUS ISOLATION ON NEW TEACHERS OF CALCASIEU PARISH

Melissa G. THE EFFECTS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION ON
Zaunbrecher TEACHING STRATEGIES IN BLOCK SCHEDULING

1998

Tracey Churchman EFFECTS ACTION RESEARCH IN TODAY’S EDUCATION SYSTEM

Casey P. Delhomme A STUDY OF BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG ATHLETIC STUDENTS AND NON-ATHLETIC STUDENTS IN HIGH SCHOOL

Willliams Goodly LOUISIANA TEACHER ASSISTANCE AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: DOES IT REALLY WORK?

Robert C. Greene A STUDY OF THE PERCEPTION OF PBESITY FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF NINTH GRADE STUDENTS

Amy Hebert IMPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY IN THE CLASSROOM

Linda Kimberly THE EFFECTS OF PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN SCHOOLS
McCullough

Julie A. Parham IMPLICATIONS FOR TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Lawrence A. ART AS A CENTRAL SUBJECT FOR AN INTEGRATIVE
Rybicki CURRICULUM DESIGN

Greg Theriot MULTIDIMENSIONAL LEARNING STYLES AND THE MODERN CLASSROOM

Quint West THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MENTOR TEACHERS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD was invited to lecture at the OXFORD ROUND TABLE in Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England, Summer 2006.

Dr. Kritsonis: Major Professor for Completed Graduate Research Thesis, Field Studies and/or Projects: Education Specialist Degree

Education Specialist Degree
McNeese State University, Department of Educational Leadership and Instructional Technology, Burton College of Education (74)

2004

Julie Anne Ambros THE EFFECTS OF CHARACTER EDUCATION ON 8TH GRADE STUDENTS’ DEVELOPMENT IN CALCASIEU PARISH SCHOOLS

Chad Aucoin THE PERCEPTIONS OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AS VIEWED BY THE STUDENT BODY OF STARKS HIGH SCHOOL
Rebecca Chapman A STUDY OF HATHAWAY HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ AND STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF SELECTED FACTORS SINCE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DISCIPLINE REFERRAL POLICY

Karla Desormeaux THE EFFECTS OF STANDARDS-BASED MATHEMATICS CURRICULUMS ON STUDENT MATHEMATICAL ACHIEVEMENT

Pamela I. Dequeant THE EFFECTS OF STAKEHOLDERS’ PERCEPTIONS AND OF THE
& Julie P. Miers EFFECTIVENESS OF THE FOUR-DAY SCHOOL WEEK ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT, BEHAVIOR, AND ATTENDANCE

Christie Guidry THE EFFECTS OF PRE-KINDERGARTEN ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF FIRST GRADE AND THIRD GRADE STUDENTS

Jessica R. Hickman- SCHOOL UNIFORMS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS: ADVANTAGES AND
Zaunbrecher DISADVANTAGES

Dayna Hoffpauir A STUDY ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS USING THE COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION IN JEFFERSON DAVIS PARISH

James Hughes PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES IN COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS

Velma Hypolite & THE EFFECTS OF OUT-OF-ZONE PLACEMENT ON ACADEMIC
Charlotte McCallum PROGRESS OF STUDENTS IN FOUR MIDDLE SCHOOLS OF THE CALCASIEU PARISH SCHOOL SYSTEM

Brenda Joubert THE EFFECTS OF THE FOUR-DAY SCHOOL WEEK ON TEACHER AND STUDENT ATTENDANCE

Loreete LaVergne PUBLIC SCHOOL EDUCATION COMPARED TO ALTERNATIVE SCHOOL EDUCATION AS MEASURED BY THE LOUISIANA EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (LEAP) TEST

Audrette S. Metoyer THE EFFECTS OF CREATING POSITIVE READING ATTITUDES THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COMPUTERIZED MANAGEMENT PROGRAM “STAR”

Vicki Perkins THE EFFECTS OF BLOCK SCHEDULING ON STUDENTS ATTENDANCE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AT DEQUENCY MIDDLE SCHOOL

Sharon Lynn THE EFFECTS OF ADDED AMERICAN HISTORY QUESTIONS IN
Phenice-Richard THE SEVENTH GRADE LOUISIANA HISTORY CLASS ON THE IOWA TESTS OF BASIC SKILLS

Daniel Prather THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY AND COMPUTER AIDED INSTRUCTION ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE AT CHURCH POINT HIGH SCHOOL

Carolyn Smith MATHEMATICALLY PROFICIENT-TEACHING AND LEARNING

Amy L. Veuleman A STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PLAN IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SETTING

2003

Sandra Bushnell A STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROFESSIONAL LEARNING COMMUNITIES IN ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AT OBERLIN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Shirlene Vidrine EFFECTS OF THE PERCEPTION OF LOUISIANA TEACHERS AND
Clark FORMER LOUISIANA TEACHERS TOWARD THE LOUISIANA FRENCH PROGRAMS OFFERED TO STUDENTS IN LOUISIANA

Christopher S. DEFINITION AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TEACHER AND
Fontenot ADMINISTRATOR PERCEPTIONS CONCERNING YEAR ROUND EDUCATION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

Marie Therese A STUDY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ACADIA PARISH
Janise TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE LOUISIANA TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM

Sandy Matthews PERCEPTIONS OF THE IMPACT OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS: A SURVEY OF FAIRVIEW ELEMENTARY STUDENT, TEACHERS, AND PARENTS

Stephanie Rogers THE EFFECTS OF SCHOOL STARTING TIME AT SOUTH CAMERON HIGH SCHOOL

Wendy Stoute THE EFFECTS OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS ON BEHAVIOR, ATTENDANCE, AND ACHIEVEMENT AT J.H. WILLIAMS MIDDLE SCHOOL

Holly Vidrine A SURVEY OF EDUCATORS’ PERCEPTIONS CONCERNING THE IMPACT OF THE MENTORING PROGRAM IN ACADIA PARISH SCHOOLS

Bobbi Yancey A STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF THE ARTS AND THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

2002

Alicia Caesar THE EFFECTS OF THE LOUISIANA EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT PROGRAM-ALTERNATE ASSESSMENT ON SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS AT LAFAYETTE HIGH SCHOOL FROM 1999-2001

Marlene P. Courvelle EFFECTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF INTECH INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES IN ACADIA PARISH, LOUISIANA


Maria Arlene TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THE EFFECTS OF SCHOOL
Hobaugh UNIFORMS

Katie Jolivette THE EFFECT OF BLOCK SCHEDULING ON ACT SCORES AT CHURCH POINT HIGH SCHOOL

Shonda Mhire BEHAVIOR IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: LANGUAGE IMPLICATIONS

James Brad EFFECTIVENESS OF BLOCK SCHEDULING ON STUDENTS AND
Prudhomme ON ACT SCORES AT ERATH HIGH SCHOOL

Janet Ritchie TEACHING SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS IN CALCASIEU PARISH: INCLUSION VERSUS SELF-CONTAINED

Lisa Serice A STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WHOLE FACULTY STUDY GROUPS FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

2001

Valeria Welsh STUDENTS’ OPINIONS ABOUT SCHOOL UNIFORMS: A SURVEY OF LAGRANGE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

Virginia Baudry A STUDY OF JEFFERSON DAVIS PARISH HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ AND PRINCIPALS’ PERCEPTIONS OF SELECTED FACTORS SINCE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BLOCK SCHEDULING

Rico Guillory AN ANNOTATED REVIEW AND BACKGROUND OF CALCASIEU PARISH SCHOOL NAMES IN CALCASIEU PARISH SCHOOLS

Yasmin Malone DOES TEACHER-ASSISTED COMPUTER INSTRUCTION HAVE AN EFFECT ON CHILDREN’S ACHIEVEMENT?

Ocie P. McGuire THE EFFECTS OF BLOCK SCHEDULING ON STUDENTS AND TEACHERS IN CALCASIEU PARISH HIGH SCHOOLS AFTER ONE YEAR

Julie Hebert Ortego A COMPARISON OF STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN THE LANGUAGE ARTS CURRICULUM AT COLLEGE OAKS ELEMENTARY (FIRST THROUGH THIRD GRADES)

Christy Papania- STANDARDIZED TEST SCORES: PUBLIC SCHOOLS VERSUS
Jones PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS

James E. Ray CLOSING THE ACHIEVEMENT GAP IN AMERICAN SCHOOLS
Lawrence A. Rybicki PRE-TENURE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THE EXTENT OF PREPARATION FOR THE CLASSROOM RECEIVED FROM UNDERGRADUATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION COURSE WORK: A SURVEY OF CALCASIEU PARISH MIDDLE SCHOOLS

Debra A. Siebert A SURVEY OF EDUCATORS’ PERCEPTIONS CONCERNING THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTABILITY ON TEACHING AND LEARNING IN ACADIA PARISH HIGH SCHOOLS

Deborah C. EVALUATING THE INCLUSION PROGRAM IN THE BEAUMONT
Washington INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT, TEXAS

Frank J. Wesley INTERNET USE BY ADULT LEARNERS: AN INVENTORY SCALE STUDY IN A LOCAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANY (US UNWIRED)

2000

Katherine D. A STUDY ON GENDER BIAS OF ELEMENTARY CLASROOM
Deshotel TEACHERS IN FIRST GRADE THROUGH SIXTH GRADE AT OBERLIN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Suzzanne P. Doucet PERCEPTIONS OF THE IMPACT OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS IN JEFFERSON DAVIS PARISH SCHOOLS: A SURVEY OF ELTON HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS, EDUCATORS, AND PARENTS

Randy Esters A COMPARISON OF LANGUAGE IOWA TESTS OF BASIC SKILLS SCORES RELATIVE TO EXPOSURE TO THE SHURLEY METHOD OF TEACHING ENGLISH IN ALLEN PARISH SCHOOLS

Tammy Fontenot SCHOOL-TO-WORK PROGRAM

Mitzi George RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEARNING STYLES, PERSONALITY TRAIT PREFERENCE, AND SPIRITUAL STYLES

Michael B. Juneau A STUDY ON THE PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHERS IN CALCASIEU PARISH SCHOOL DISTRICT CONCERNING TEAMING AT THE ELEMENTARY LEVEL

Jennifer Kershaw HOW DO THE CHANGES IN RELATIONSHIPS OF IDEA 97 AFFECT VARIOUS MEMBERS OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM?

Dinah M. Robinson IN-SCHOOL SUSPENSION PROGRAMS: AN ALTERNATIVE TO FAILURE AND STUDENT DROPOUT


1999

Lee R. Crick IMPACT OF BLOCK SCHEDULING ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

Linda Dahlquist A COMPARISON OF ACHIEVEMENT TEST SCORES FOR NON-PROMOTED STUDENTS ENROLLED IN OAK PARK MIDDLE SCHOOL

Cord Ensminger A STUDY OF ALTERNATIVE SCHOOLS WITH MAIN FOCUS BEING THE BEAUREGARD ALTERNATIVE SCHOOL

Anita Freeland A STUDY TO DETERMINE THE PERCEPTIONS OF PRINCIPALS AND THE PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHERS ON COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN VERMILLION PARISH

Keith Leger EFFECTS OF COMPUTER BASED EDUCATION ON LEARNING

E. Carleen Mahaffrey THE IMPACT OF PARTICIPATION IN A PUBLIC PRE-KINDERGARTEN PROGRAM ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF CHILDREN FROM FIRST THROUGH FOURTH GRADE

Louise Morris A STUDY TO DETERMINE IF VISION THERAPY IS AN EFFECTIVE METHOD IN TREATING DYSLEXIA

Ralph D. Thibodeaux ALTERNATIVE SCHEDULING: A PERSPECTIVE OF ERATH HIGH SCHOOL IN THE VERMILLION PARISH SCHOOL SYSTEM

1998

Barbara Barnickel POTENTIAL APPLICANTS FOR ADMINISTRATIVE POSITIONS FOR FOUR SOUTHWESTERN RURAL LOUISIANA PARISHES REQUIRING PRINCIPAL CERTIFICATION WITH DISCUSSION CONCERNING WOMEN AND MINORITIES

Tracey l. Crump PARENTAL ATTITUDES ON PARENT INVOLVEMENT

Tracey Reed Odom THE EFFECTS OF THE SPALDING METHOD OF PHONICS PROGRAM USED IN COMBINATION WITH A LITERATURE-BASED MACMILLAN BASAL READER AT KINDER ELEMENTARY SCHOOL FROM 1995-1998

1997

Richard A. Bagget THE INFLUENCE OF JOHN DEWEY ON EDUCATION

David Brian Fontenot A SURVEY OF THE USAGE OF THE PROPOSED STATE BENCHMARKS BY THE MIDDLE SCHOOL SCIENCE TEACHERS OF CALCASIEU PARISH PUBLIC SCHOOL S

Clarice M. Goodly A REVIEW OF HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS’ ACT COMPOSITE SCORES IN THE HONORS CURRICULUM AND IN THE GENERAL CURRICULUM AT MAMOU HIGH SCHOOL FROM 1988-1997

Keye Hackett WOMEN CERTIFIED IN ADMINISTRATION: BARRIERS TO MOVING UP

Gary D. Kratzer A SURVEY OF EDUCATORS’ PERCEPTIONS CONCERNING THE IMPACT OF STARLAB PLANETARIUM ON TEACHING AND LEARNING

Jean Odom DIFFERENCE IN STANDARDIZED SCIENCE TEST SCORES IN THE OAKDALE, LOUISIANA SCHOOL

1996

Glenetta B. Shuey CHARTER SCHOOLS IN LOUISIANA

Mary-Lucille Andrus WORK-RELATED STRESS AMONG TITLE I AND NON-TITLE I K-3
Sims TEACHERS IN CALCASIEU PARISH PUBLIC SCHOOLS: CAUSES, MANIFESTATIONS, AND MANAGEMENT

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Writing for Professional Publication in National Refereed Journals: A Session for Faculty
and Doctoral Students

University of California, Lost Angeles
June 2008

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
Prairie View A&M University/The Texas A&M University System

1. Professional reasons for writing for publication - Promotion; tenure; recognition by peers; seeing name in print; making a contribution to written knowledge – advancing knowledge; clarifying thoughts; writing is a liberating experience; improving teacher; teaching aide; inform theory; inform practice; reflect on practice; invite help/criticism from colleagues; income/consulting opportunities.

2. Personal reasons for writing for publication - For fun and growth; to relax and “recreate”; personal satisfaction; improve communication skills; ego building; sharpen your inquiry skills; define and refine new ideas.

3. How real writers behave - Reading extensively and picking up vocabulary and sentence patterns; develop a sense of style from reading; reading aloud from paying attention to the sounds of words; writing and revising work that really means something to them; soliciting opinions from trusted, truthful colleagues; getting feedback from those who write; belonging to a learning community of writers.

4. Writer’s write for the following reasons - Communicate important ideas; to tell the stories of their professional lives and share their wisdom of practice; to connect with a wider audience; to make a contribution to their chosen field; to obtain tangible rewards (e.g., promotion, consulting work; to enlarge, extend, and organize thinking; to maintain and enhance learning about a topic of interest; to establish and participate in professional networks of like-minded individuals; to be heard and engage in the discourse of the professional community; to develop expertise and be recognized for specialized competence in their field.

5. How to get started - Write, write, write, write, and write; be doing things; be active and alive; have colleagues; cooperative; offer to read papers and manuscripts; offer to do book reviews; critique and edit; read attentive; be observant; be courteous; be helpful; use technology; do short but interesting pieces; do vignettes (to describe or sketch briefly); do anecdotes (short narrative, interesting amusing incident); write, write, write, write, write; have writers tolls: dictionary, thesaurus, style manuals, library access, publication directory; read critically; be busy doing; write, write, write, write, and write.

6. What will “sell” the editor on your work? What beginners often miss is that, after you have identified an area of interest, the best ideas are most likely to surface during writing rather than prior to writing.

7. Formula: Brilliant Ideas + Good Luck + Knowing the Right People = Publication - Many newcomers to the task of writing articles would produce a formula like this to explain success in writing and publishing in professional journal articles.

8. On scholarly work - Requires a high level of disciplined-related expertise; breaks new ground, is innovative; can be replicated or elaborated; provides documentation of results; is subjected to peer review; has significance or impact; pursuing these goals of scholarship and publication all begins with reading.

9. Reasons to write and publish journal articles - Affirmation from peers; potential influence on the field; staying current in the field; fulfilling the mentoring role.

10. Writing and publishing journal articles enables you to… Disseminate your ideas to a wider audience that typically is possible through conference presentations; establish a reputation in the field as an expert on a particular subject; master the content at a more sophisticated level, thereby enhancing your teaching; expand your teaching role to include anyone who happens to read your work (e.g., students who are conducting library research, scholars in other countries searching for information on the Internet); provide evidence of your competence as an author and persuade a publisher that you have potential as a book author.

11. Three basic types of articles: practical, review or theoretical, and
research - Practical Articles: Written for practitioners in the field. Purpose: To explore the practical implications of theory and research and improve professional practice. Format: Often centered on questions or issues of concern to those in the field. Remember, practical articles deal directly with the situation facing practitioners in the field. Often they take the “how to” approach. They keep readers abreast of new developments in the field.
Review or Theoretical Articles: Review theory and research. Purpose: To synthesize previously published research. Format: They are often organized around themes or trends in the research literature identified by the author. Remember, review or theoretical articles synthesize and critically evaluate materials that have already been published. They tend to be “think pieces” that urge readers to reflect on issues of some concern.
Research Articles: Reports of original research that include data collected by authors. Purpose: To provide sufficient information for other researchers to understand how they might replicate the study. Format: Typically follows a format such as background, review of literature, research, purpose, questions, subjects, methods, procedures, findings, results, recommendations, and conclusions.

12. Quantitative Studies - When writing quantitative research articles, think about reliability and validity and keep in mind the overarching goals of empirical research: generalization and replication. In empirical research, authors tend to say a little about a lot of participants (e.g., national survey). You will need to provide at least enough detail for readers to decide if your conclusions were warranted.

13. Qualitative Research - Qualitative studies are typically organized by headings such as background/problem statement, subjects, method/procedures, results, discussion, and recommendations and conclusions. Qualitative research more often takes the form of case studies, interviews, narrative research, and various types of enthnography. When writing qualitative research articles, think about key words and phrases from your participants that demonstrate how you arrived at patterns and themes from the mass of words you recorded. Keep in mind the goals of qualitative research: rich description of individuals or cases that have the power to illuminate larger issues. In qualitative research, you will tend to say a lot about a few individuals or cases. You will need to be credible – in qualitative research, this means you went deep and the sheer amount of information collected over time is compelling. Your readers need to be structure by the “slice of life” quality of your work that is captured in rich detail.

14. On writing books – Writing a book is like driving a car at night. You only see as far as your headlights go, but you can make the whole trip that way; after basic needs are met, human beings naturally strive for belongingness and the esteem of others they admire.

15. Four phases of book publishing: Fun, Drudgery, Torture, and Waiting - Fun: Talking about your idea, getting a proposal put together, signing the contract and going out to celebrate with your editor, colleagues, friends, family; Drudgery: Getting up (or staying up) in the middle of the night, responding to all of the criticism of reviewers, and struggling to write in addition to everything else you have to do or want to do; Torture: Proofreading for errors; responding to a copy editor’s questions about clarity, spelling, consistency, and missing references; helping with the advertising and promotion; Waiting: Watching for the publisher’s catalog, ripping open the carton to see the finished product (that always looks so pitifully small in comparison to the time expended); hoping for a respectable showing on the royalty statement, and wondering why on earth you made such a paltry pay off. Given the sobering view, why would anyone agree to write a book?

16. Some reasons to write a book – Authors learn from writing books; book authors can make a contribution o their fields; book authors are invited to speak at conferences and often paid to speak; book authors get to know other book authors.

17. Where does the dollar go after a book is published? Printing 10%; Distribution: 40-65%; Author Royalty 5-10%; Ongoing Promotion 10-15%; Overhead and Profit 20-35%.

18. What do editors and reviewers really want? Answer: Manuscripts they don’t have to edit.
19. Earning approval from reviewers and editors - Principle 1: Make your manuscript irresistible to reviewers and editors. Write and think clearly. The chief difference between good writing and better writing is the number of hesitations the reader experiences as they read. Reviewers expect writing to flow so that they can read it smoothly, without reading over or puzzling over what the writer intends. The number one thing that editors and reviewers respond is the quality of the writing and thinking on the printed page. Become familiar with the publishing outlet. Know the journal and its readership. Respect the publisher’s role. Most reviewers for scholarly journals are published authors themselves. They are well acquainted with the pains and pleasures of writing. Reviewers and editors are neither secretaries nor public servants. They are required to render a decision of yes, no, or maybe. They are not even obligated, strictly speaking, to say why. Principle 2: Don’t waste editors’ and reviewers’ time. What follows are the most common ways authors waste an editor’s time: a) Failing to do the necessary homework; b) Refusing to revise; c) Protesting fair appraisals of work; d) Being impatient. Principle 3: Accept responsibility for finding a suitable publishing outlet. The typical journal takes about 3 months to review a manuscript. Multiple submissions – sending the same article to different journals at the same time are not acceptable. Principle 4: Grow up about criticism. One way to defuse the explosive potential of criticism from editorial boards is to conduct an in-house edit of any materials you write before you submit it. Those who can be of the greatest assistance are intelligent and outspoken people, including members of the following groups: Well-read individuals outside your field or who are novices in your field. They can offer a check on clarity. Content experts who have in-depth knowledge of your subject. They can offer a check on accuracy. Readers of the outlet you seek to publish. They are members of the intended audience who can offer an opinion on whether your work is well suited for the particular publication. Authors and editors who are sticklers for details and have mastered the style sheet (e.g., American Psychological Association Style) and format of published works. Principle 5: Understand the evaluation criteria. Editors are knowledgeable about writing in ways that most authors are not. The process of evaluating a manuscript’s relative worth is fundamental to peer - review. Principle 6: Volunteer to become a reviewer. Peer reviewing is worth doing, for the things you learn about yourself as a writer. Every time you provide a thoughtful response to another’s work, whether the manuscript is publishable or not, you gain additional insight into organizing manuscripts. Reviewing also will enable you to glimpse the world of publishing from the inside out as you work with an editor. Reviewers usually are chosen on the basis of commitment to the aims and philosophy of the organization; specialized credentials, competence, and reputation in the field; demonstrated skills as an author/editor; consistency in providing a prompt review; willingness to provide constructive feedback. Remember, a bad section of writing in a manuscript is like a log in the middle of your living room. If you leave it there, you will have to keep stumbling over it or walking around it. You could wait for it to decompose but it is far more efficient to chop it into firewood or haul it outside as soon as you notice it. Principle 7: Use editorial feedback to improve the work. When editors first skim through your article, they tend to seek affirmative answers to three questions related to the accuracy, creativity, and significance of the article – at their simplest, these questions are: Is it true? Is it new? Is it important? Principle 8: Used editorial feedback to improve the work. When a manuscript is review, three basic decisions are possible: ACCEPTANCE – The manuscript requires only minimal revisions, changes that can be made during the normal editorial process. CONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE – The manuscript has merit but requires more substantial revision. REJECTION – An outright rejection is often signaled by a form letter. Principle 9: Regard reviewers and editors as allies. The best editors know how to balance priorities and manage people. The editor is expected to consider the quality of the product and the performance of the workers while remaining accountable to those who hold the purse strings. Remember, editors like nothing better than identifying good writers who will be a source of high-quality manuscripts. When you communicate with editors, strive to be professional and business-like. Politeness counts, persistence pays, listening skills are important, and learn to take criticism well. Follow directions. Match the style of work to the journal, but conservative (editors will be), reviewers disagree, and editors make mistakes. Principle 10: Joseph Pulitzer advised writers to, “Put it before them briefly so they will read it, clearly so they will appreciate it, picturesquely so they remember it, and, above all, accurately so they will be guided by its light.”

20. What to remember about bad writing - It takes little effort.

21. How to get fired as a reviewer - Lose the manuscript or let it sit on your desk; suggest that the author include something that already appears in the manuscript; criticize the author for making errors, then write a review that contains mistakes; go off on a tangent and write a two-page response to one sentence while ignoring the rest of the manuscript; pass the manuscript on to someone else to review or quote from it prior to publication without permission; write a treatise on how you would have written the article or book; treat anonymous peer review as a way to punish with impunity.

22. Publish or perish or teach or impeach - You become a better teacher from your writing. You become a better writer from writing.

23. I’ve been rejected many times - should I give up? Rejection is an inescapable part of writing; rejection should not be taken as an indication that you are unsuited to the writing life; make a writing appointment with yourself that will not be cancelled except in a real emergency; where rejections are concerned, remember, keep trying, no matter what, try again, fail gain, and fail better

24. In writing, how you read is important - A civilian readers for entertainment, information, solace. A writer reads for all these, and for craft and technique and tricks of the trade. A writer reads critically, noting what works and what does not work. A writer is always watching, even when he’s reading.

25. How teachable is writing? Writing can be taught. The person has to have motivation to write and take on the task with persistence. Willingness to work at it over a period of time until something like a pattern of success has been built.

26. “I can’t seem to tell how my writing is going while I am doing it. Can you help? Writing is usually a matter of feeling your way, line by line and page by page. Much of the time you simply will not know whether something will work until after you have written it. Remember, try out many different styles and combinations; then, select the best one for yourself.

27. Remember your purpose in writing - Your purpose in writing, even when you are writing as an expert on a topic, is not to show off but to share your ideas in a spirit of generosity.

28. What differentiates ordinary writing from writing with style - Effective writing, academic or otherwise, has a certain unpredictability and element of surprise. To write with style, first be “a good date for your reader.” Create something of interest and value. Get below the surface which is really the writer’s job. Never write a bad sentence if you can help it.

29. It must get somewhat easier to write; otherwise, how would some authors become so prolific? Writers are comparable to athletes in training. At first, it may seem torturous to spend an hour composing, but, with practice and encouragement, you will learn to tolerate longer stints of writing. No matter how well conditioned you may be, you will always break a sweat. A trained writer has built up the endurance to take on more demanding writing tasks and complete them. But whether you are a marathon writer or a marathon runner, the measure of your success is doing more, not doing less. Another distinction between the more or less experienced is the determination and confidence to go the distance.

30. If writing for publication does not prove to be lucrative, why bother? Think about the things that you have written already. How did the act of writing shape your ideas? Creative work is worthwhile because it is good for your mind in the same way that being healthy is good for your body. With every sentence you write, you have learned something. It has done you good. It has stretched your understanding. Show respect for your writing. It is about what the readers should know. If this puts a strain on a professional relationship, then so be it.

31. Why creative work is worthwhile - Because it offers you freedom.

32. Show respect for your writing - It is about what the readers should know. If this puts a strain on a professional relationship, then so be it.

33. “Why I Write” (Orwell) - Sheer egoism, aesthetic enthusiasm, historical impulse, and political purpose.

34. What really makes an academic write? If it is only a necessity of the education profession, no wonder one’s fingers get tired. No human activity can sap the strength from body and life from spirit as much as writing in which one does not believe.

35. The Writer’s Essential Tools – Words and the power to face unpleasant facts.

36. No human activity can sap the strength from body and life from spirit as much as writing in which one doesn’t believe. It should be an exhilarating thought for anyone who sits before the keyboard day after day, the idea that writing is a way of continuing to be. And writing is what scholars do. There are worse ways to spend a life than climbing your own mountain.

37. “Because it was there” (Edmund Hillary) - With this comment he supplied generations with a ready-made and unanswerable defense for any new undertaking even writing.

38. Why we write - Nothing really explains why we write, but it’s a sure thing that we try to put words together because of who each of us is.

39. Climbing Your Own Mountain – Writers are a minority of gifted, willful people who are determined to live their own lives to the end, and writers belong in this class.

40. Be yourself - Have fun writing. “Chance favors those in motion.” (Zen)


References

Bernstein, J. (1998). How and why. In L. Gutkind (Ed.), The essayist at work: Profiles of creative nonfiction writers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Brande, D. (1981/1934). Becoming a writer. New York: Tarcher/Putnam.
Edelstein, S. (1999). 100 things every writer needs to know. New York: Perigree.
Jalongo, M.R., (2002). Writing for publication: A practical guide for educators. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Incorporated.
Kerr, M.E. (1998). Blood on the forehead: What I know about writing. New York: Harper-Collins.
King, S. (2000). On writing: A memoir of the craft. New York: Scribner.
Kritsonis, W.A., & Griffith, K.G. (2007). On writing well for professional publication in national refereed journals in education. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4(Summer). Retrieved March 15, 2008, from http://dept.lamar.edu/lustudentjnl/
Lamb, B. (1997). Booknotes. New York: Times.
National Book Award Authors (1995). The writing life. New York: Random House.
Provost, G. (1985). 100 ways to improve your writing. New York: Mentor/New American Library.
Safire W., & Safir, L. (Eds.) (1994). Good advice on writing. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Steard, J.B. (1938). Follow the story: How to write successful nonfiction. New York: Touchstone/Simon & Schuster.
Ueland, B. (1987/1938). If you want to write: A book about art, independence and spirit. St. Paul, MN: Graywolf Press.
Winokur, J. (1999). Advice to writers. New York: Vintage Books.
Zinsser, W. (1998). On writing well (6th ed.). New York: Harper Perennial.

Formatted by Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis, National Research and Manuscript Preparation Editor, National FORUM Journals, Houston, Texas www.nationalforum.com

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Writing for Professional Publication in National Refereed Journals
A Session for Faculty and Doctoral Students

University of Washington
Graduate Students, Doctoral Studies
June 2008

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
Prairie View A&M University/The Texas A&M University System

1. Professional reasons for writing for publication
2. Personal reasons for writing for publication
3. How real writers behave
4. Writer’s write for the following reasons
5. How to get started
6. What will “sell” the editor on your work?
7. Formula: Brilliant Ideas + Good Luck + Knowing the Right People = Publication
8. On scholarly work
9. Reasons to write and publish journal articles
10. Writing and publishing journal articles enables you to…
11. Three basic types of articles: practical – review or theoretical – research
12. Quantitative Studies
13. Qualitative Research
14. On writing books
15. Four phases of book publishing (Fun – Drudgery – Torture – Waiting)
16. Some reasons to write a book
17. Where does the dollar go after a book is published?
18. What do editors and reviewers really want?
19. Earning approval from editors and reviewers
20. What to remember about bad writing
21. How to get fired as a reviewer
22. Publish or perish or teach or impeach
23. I’ve been rejected many times – should I give up?
24. In writing, how you read is important
25. How teachable is writing?
26. “I can’t seem to tell how my writing is going while I am doing it. Can you help?
27. Remember your purpose in writing
28. What differentiates ordinary writing from writing with style
29. It must get somewhat easier to write, otherwise, how would some authors become so prolific?
30. If writing for publication does not prove to be lucrative, why bother?
31. Why creative work is worthwhile
32. Show respect for your writing. It is about what the readers should know. If this puts a strain on a professional relationship, then so be it.
33. “Why I Write” (Orwell) Sheer egoism, aesthetic enthusiasm, historical impulse, and political purpose.
34. What really makes an academic write?
35. The Writer’s Essential Tools – words and the power to face unpleasant facts.
36. No human activity can sap the strength from body and life from spirit as much as writing in which one doesn’t believe.
37. “Because it was there.” Edmund Hillary. And with this comment he supplied generations with a ready-made and unanswerable defense for any new undertaking even writing.
38. Why we write.
39. Climbing Your Own Mountain
40. Be yourself. Have fun writing.

Please list any other topics you want Dr. Kritsonis to discuss.
281-550-5700 Home; Cell: 832-483-7889 – williamkritsonis@yahoo.com

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Effective Teaching in the Elementary School

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Mary Ann Springs

Price: $12.00 United States; $15.00 Canada; 20.00 All Others
(Add $3.00 for shipping, handling, and postage)

To order, make payment to National FORUM Journals and send to:

National FORUM Journals
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Houston, Texas 77095

Published by
The Alexis Group
Murrieta, California 92562

Distributed by National FORUM Journals

Published in the United States of America

ISBN 977-1-5130-5741-0 Paper

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Attorney General Greg Abbott – A Model of Success and Determination

Attorney General Greg Abbott was the commencement speaker on Saturday, May 10th at Prairie View A&M University. As most people know, Greg Abbott is in a wheelchair. All of us attending the graduating ceremony were captivated by his remarks, professionalism, and physical effort. This was the largest graduating class, over 800, in the history of PVAMU, which was founded in 1868.
Greg Abbott greeted each of our graduates with a radiating smile, personal handshake, and called each graduate by their first name. I know this as a fact because I sat in the front row, as one of my students received her doctorate at the ceremony. It was inspiring to see Attorney General Abbott’s physical effort. He moved his wheelchair forward with three arm motions to shake the hand of each graduate, and then moved backwards with the same motions to allow the graduate to retreat from the platform. If my calculations are somewhat accurate, Mr. Abbott made approximately 4,800 movements in his wheelchair, along with personally congratulating each of the 800 graduates by their first names.
Attorney General Abbott displayed outstanding listening skills by recalling each graduate’s name and exhibited tremendous physical endurance. His commencement address will be remembered by all of us in attendance for the rest of our lives.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
Prairie View A&M University

Distinguished Alumnus
Central Washington University
College of Education and Professional Studies
Ellensburg, Washington

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Doctoral Dissertation Advising: Keys to Improvement of Completion Rates

William Allan Kritsonis
Professor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
Prairie View A&M University
The Texas A&M University System
Distinguished Alumnus
Central Washington University
College of Education and Professional Studies
Invited Guest Lecturer
Oxford Round Table
University of Oxford, England

John I. Goodlad
Director
Center for Educational Renewal
University of Washington
Seattle, Washington

Robert L. Marshall
Professor
Doctoral Program
Western Illinois University
Invited Guest Lecturer Macomb, Illinois
Invited Guest Lecturer
Oxford Round Table
University of Oxford, England


ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to provide suggestions for doctoral dissertation advisors. The content was developed from discussions with colleagues, doctoral candidates, recipients of advanced degrees, and reviewing literature pertaining to doctoral studies. This article provides some general guidelines and practical functions for doctoral dissertation advisors.


Introduction

T
hose who succeed in academic scholastic writing at the advanced levels typically write an excellent doctoral dissertation. In writing a dissertation, there appears to be an enjoyment of the constant flowing of ideas. At the doctoral level, mentors are critically important in helping their students complete the dissertation, and later in getting graduates published at the national level in refereed, juried, peer-reviewed scholarly journals.


Purpose of the Article

The purpose of this article is to establish some basic functions of the doctoral dissertation advisor. Hopefully, the suggestions will help others in the doctoral advisement process.
Basic Functions of the Doctoral Dissertation Advisor

The following suggestions are functions of a doctoral dissertation advisor:

1. Keep a folder for each doctoral student. This will give you the opportunity to review previous and current work completed by the student. It will give you the opportunity to review your own comments. Reviewing the folder periodically enables you to firmly grasp the student’s concerns with conducting research.

2. Answer all email correspondence with doctoral students in a timely manner. Keep track of emails that you send and other correspondence. Make certain that you communicate to students frequently. Not communicating with doctoral students is condescending and shows disrespect.

3. Establish a personal, but professional relationship with your doctoral student advisees. Being a mentor is a very serious responsibility. See each of your students first as people. They have goals and aspirations just as you do.

4. Develop your own style in dissertation advising. The best way to develop your own style is simply by doing it.

5. Be positive in working with doctoral students on their dissertation. Make certain to provide feedback that is constructive and useful. Always strive to be positive and enthusiastic in working with doctoral students on their dissertations. Be cheerful, optimistic, and helpful. Direct advisees to relevant sources of information.

6. Serve as the key person in guiding the production of an acceptable high quality dissertation.

7. The chair is the leader of the committee and its liaison with the student. Assume the primary responsibility of assuring that the dissertation committee works effectively as a collaborative team.

8. Expectations of both service to the student and service to the academic discipline and professional field

9. Continually monitor students’ progress with the dissertation from start to finish

10. Know your own strengths, attributes, weaknesses, counter productive tendencies and limitations.

11. Do you homework in working with each advisee. Make certain to study the dissertation topic your advisee is interested in developing.

12. Think about your own dissertation experience. Avoid any mistakes that were made. Incorporate effective strategies that work.

13. Encourage advisees to document what they want to do as a dissertation topic.

14. Strive to make a difference as an advisor to your advisee. Model appropriate behavior.

15. Make your presence matter in the life of the doctoral student.

16. Accept the fact you know more about writing a dissertation than your advisee. A high quality job of directing is an expectation.

17. As an advisor, recognize the time when the dissertation topic must be revised or changed. Do not be afraid to tell an advisee when they are wasting time on something that will not work or is not relevant.

18. Be ready to suggest to your advisee the need to shift the research time to other areas of the dissertation if you see the advisee bog down.

19. Do not hesitate to tell the advisee to put more effort into the dissertation.

20. Make certain to realize as an advisor there are many different strategies for writing a doctoral dissertation.

21. Encourage doctoral students to talk with others who are writing their dissertation. They often can provide practical feedback and encouragement.

22. Encourage doctoral students to communicate with others in different colleges or departments who are writing their dissertation.

23. Encourage advisees to explore ideas beyond your suggestions.

24. Tell your advisees how you like to work with them. If you need to work from an outline – tell the advisee. Let advisees know your own work habits.

25. Remember, it is the advisee’s dissertation – not yours. They must do the work.

26. If you are an inexperienced dissertation advisor, try to work with a colleague who has successful experience. As an advisor, you are there to help. Help as much as you possibly can.

27. Be supportive of the advisee’s work. Use specific examples in telling advisees their work is good or not acceptable. Point out where the work needs improvement.

28. Make certain you develop the habit of getting things back to students in a timely manner; hopefully, within five - ten business days. Through being diligent in your efforts, the advisee will keep focused. Read dissertation chapters at your earliest convenience. Do not let too much time elapse. Remember, you are a busy person and so is your advisee. Establish timelines with the advisee and meet them.

29. Give your doctoral students the responsibility of meeting deadlines.

30. Be accessible to the student. Keep appointments with students and be present at all committee meetings that involve working with students and dissertations.

31. Encourage students to contact you if you have taken too long to respond to them.

32. As an advisor, give lots of suggestions. Be specific, exact, concise, detailed, and comprehensive in all aspects of your advising.

33. Encourage your doctoral students to talk with their committee members throughout the entire process. Other committee members might suggest different approaches or a new study altogether. When this happens, meet with the advisee. Perhaps you will agree or disagree. Keep the dialogue open and positive.

34. It is your duty to encourage your advisees to do the work that must be done to have a quality and professionally satisfying dissertation.

35. Be available. If this means meeting with a doctoral student at a location other than the university, do it. Some advisees need a lot of attention, guidance, and direction. Others are self-directive. Be flexible and adaptable.

36. The advisee should not hear major changes for the first time at the proposal defense.

37. In giving guidance to your advisees, constantly prepare them for their proposal defense and ultimately defending their dissertation. This will keep them focused.

38. Do not take on the job of advisor if you do not intend to make it a priority. Dissertation advisement takes an enormous amount of time and commitment. During the entire process, it will be necessary for you to meet with the other members of the dissertation committee to discuss the progress of the doctoral student.

39. You want your students to tell you “I like the way you are always available, keep up the good work.”

40. The doctoral student and advisor should consult someone other than the student’s committee members for special advising or expertise.

41. Help your advisee when there is a need to clarify the dissertation topic.

42. Try to obtain adequate funding for your advisee’s research.

43. Link students with similar dissertation topics together.

44. During the advisement process, dissertation advisors should mentor students by helping them to prepare manuscripts for publication in national, refereed, peer reviewed journals.

45. Consider or recommend doctoral students for university responsibilities, such as facilitating classes when professors are unavailable, and giving examinations at distance learning facilities. This gives them experiences in higher education.

46. Involve doctoral students with coordinating orientation sessions for new students. Assign experienced students in the program as mentors to incoming students. Develop a social student group with regular meeting times.

47. As a dissertation advisor, develop an approval form for both the proposal and dissertation defense that must be signed by all committee members prior to scheduling a formal meeting. By doing so, the committee members agree the student is ready to present and defend.

48. Prompt and encourage students regularly to complete the dissertation and the program in a timely manner. Assist the student with a graphic timeline and make it your mission in life to see that your advisees become completers.

49. Facilitate the use of related resources of the university at large.

50. Again…Be Available to the Student!


Concluding Remarks

In conclusion, the purpose of this article was to establish some general duties of a dissertation advisor. There are numerous responsibilities of a dissertation advisor and these are only a few. In addition, our intention was to provide some general guidelines for thoughtful consideration. Perhaps, you can add to the list give below.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

FOCUS on Colleges, Universities, and Schools
VOLUME 2 NUMBER 1, 2008

Functions of the Doctoral Dissertation Advisor

John I. Goodlad
Center for Educational Renewal
University of Washington
Seattle, Washington

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
The Texas A&M University System
Prairie View, Texas
Invited Visiting Lecturer
Oxford Round Table
Oriel College in the University of Oxford
Oxford, England
Distinguished Alumnus
Central Washington University
College of Education and Professional Studies
Ellensburg, Washington


ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to provide suggestions for doctoral dissertation advisors. The content was developed from discussions with colleagues, doctoral candidates, recipients of advanced degrees, and reviewing literature pertaining to doctoral studies. This article provides some general guidelines and practical functions for doctoral dissertation advisors.


Introduction

Those who succeed in academic scholastic writing at the advanced levels typically write an excellent doctoral dissertation. In writing a dissertation, there appears to be an enjoyment of the constant flowing of ideas. At the doctoral level, mentors are critically important in helping their students complete the dissertation, and later in getting graduates published at the national level in refereed, juried, peer-reviewed scholarly journals.




Purpose of the Article

The purpose of this article is to establish some basic functions of the doctoral dissertation advisor. Hopefully, the suggestions will help others in the doctoral advisement process.


Basic Functions of the Doctoral Dissertation Advisor

The following suggestions are functions of a doctoral dissertation advisor:

1. Keep a folder for each doctoral student. This will give you the opportunity to review previous and current work completed by the student. It will give you the opportunity to review your own comments. Reviewing the folder periodically enables you to firmly grasp the student’s concerns with conducting research.

2. Keep track of emails that you send and other correspondence. Make certain that you communicate to students frequently. Not communicating with doctoral students is condescending and shows disrespect.

3. Establish a personal, but professional relationship with your doctoral student advisees. Being a mentor is a very serious responsibility. See each of your students first as people. They have goals and aspirations just as you do.

4. Develop your own style in dissertation advising. The best way to develop your own style is simply by doing it.

5. Be positive in working with doctoral students on their dissertation. Make certain to provide feedback that is constructive and useful. Always strive to be positive and enthusiastic in working with doctoral students on their dissertations. Be cheerful, optimistic, and helpful. Direct advisees to relevant sources of information.

6. Know your strengths, attributes, weaknesses, and limitations.

7. Do you homework in working with each advisee. Make certain to study the dissertation topic your advisee is interested in developing.

8. Think about your own dissertation experience. Avoid any mistakes that were made. Incorporate effective strategies that work.

9. Encourage advisees to document what they want to do as a dissertation topic.

10. Strive to make a difference as an advisor to your advisee. Model appropriate behavior.
11. Make your presence matter in the life of the doctoral student.

12. Accept the responsibility of doing a good job.

13. Accept the fact you know more about writing a dissertation than your advisee.

14. As an advisor, recognize the time when the dissertation topic must be revised or changed. Do not be afraid to tell an advisee when they are wasting time on something that will not work or is not relevant.

15. Be ready to suggest to your advisee the need to shift the research time to other areas of the dissertation if you see the advisee bog down.

16. Do not hesitate to tell the advisee to put more effort into the dissertation.

17. Make certain to realize as an advisor there are many different strategies for writing a doctoral dissertation.

18. Encourage doctoral students to talk with others who are writing their dissertation. They often can provide practical feedback and encouragement.

19. Encourage doctoral students to communicate with others in different colleges or departments who are writing their dissertation.

20. Encourage advisees to explore ideas beyond your suggestions.

21. Tell your advisees how you like to work with them. If you need to work from an outline – tell the advisee. Let advisees know your own work habits.

22. Remember, it is the advisee’s dissertation – not yours. They must do the work.

23. If you are an inexperienced dissertation advisor, try to work with a colleague who has successful experience. As an advisor, you are there to help. Help as much as you possibly can.

24. Be supportive of the advisee’s work. Use specific examples in telling advisees their work is good or not acceptable. Point out where the work needs improvement.

25. Make certain you develop the habit of getting things back to students in a timely manner; hopefully, within five - ten business days. Through being diligent in your efforts, the advisee will keep focused. Read dissertation chapters at your earliest convenience. Do not let too much time elapse. Remember, you are a busy person and so is your advisee. Establish timelines with the advisee and meet them.

26. Give your doctoral students the responsibility of meeting deadlines.

27. Encourage students to contact you if you have taken too long to respond to them.

28. As an advisor, give lots of suggestions. Be specific, exact, concise, detailed, and comprehensive in all aspects of your advising.

29. Encourage your doctoral students to talk with their committee members throughout the entire process. Other committee members might suggest different approaches or a new study altogether. When this happens, meet with the advisee. Perhaps you will agree or disagree. Keep the dialogue open and positive.

30. It is your duty to encourage your advisees to do the work that must be done to have a quality and professionally satisfying dissertation.

31. Be available. If this means meeting with a doctoral student at a location other than the university, do it. Some advisees need a lot of attention, guidance, and direction. Others are self-directive. Be flexible and adaptable.

32. The advisee should not hear major changes for the first time at the proposal defense.

33. In giving guidance to your advisees, constantly prepare them for their proposal defense and ultimately defending their dissertation. This will keep them focused.

34. Do not take on the job of advisor if you do not intend to make it a priority. Dissertation advisement takes an enormous amount of time and commitment. During the entire process, it will be necessary for you to meet with the other members of the dissertation committee to discuss the progress of the doctoral student.

35. You want your students to tell you “I like the way you are always available, keep up the good work.”

36. The doctoral student and advisor should consult someone other than the student’s committee members for special advising or expertise.

37. Help your advisee when there is a need to clarify the dissertation topic.

38. Try to obtain adequate funding for your advisee’s research.

39. Link students with similar dissertation topics together.

40. During the advisement process, dissertation advisors should mentor students by helping them to prepare manuscripts for publication in national, refereed, peer reviewed journals.

41. Consider or recommend doctoral students for university responsibilities, such as facilitating classes when professors are unavailable, and giving examinations at distance learning facilities. This gives them experiences in higher education.

42. Involve doctoral students with coordinating orientation sessions for new students.

43. As a dissertation advisor, develop an approval form for both the proposal and dissertation defense that must be signed by all committee members prior to scheduling a formal meeting. By doing so, the committee members agree the student is ready to present and defend.


Concluding Remarks

In conclusion, the purpose of this article was to establish some general functions of a dissertation advisor. There are numerous functions of a dissertation advisor and these are only a few. In addition, my intention was to provide some general guidelines for thoughtful consideration. Perhaps, you can add to the list.


References

Dave, R. (2007 December). Quality time with your dissertation. Retrieved December 4,
2007, from the Association for Support of Graduate Students Website: http://www.asgs.org/
Eastwood, J.S. (2000). Comprehensive editing. Retrieved December 2, 2007, from
www.jeastwood.com
Jensen, S. (2000). Dissertation news. Retrieved December 3, 2007, from
http://www.dissertationdoctor.com
________________________________________________________________________
Formatted by Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis, National Research and Manuscript Preparation Editor, National FORUM Journals, Houston, Texas www.nationalforum.com

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Educational and Supervisory Leadership ONLINE
Fall 2008

Now and Again: How Ayn Rand’s Objectivist Theory Shapes Present-Day Ethical Controversies


Misti M. Morgan
PhD Student in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View A & M University
Assistant Principal
Houston Independent School District
Houston, Texas

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor and Faculty Mentor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View A&M University
Member of the Texas A&M University System
Prairie View, Texas
Visiting Lecturer
Oxford Round Table
University of Oxford, Oxford, England
Distinguished Alumnus
Central Washington University
College of Educational and Professional Studies


________________________________________________________________________

ABSTRACT

In this sensitive time of war, poverty, and crisis, Ayn Rand reaches across the years to offer a solution so fundamental and yet extremely controversial: save yourself. True to her Objectivist ideals, Ayn Rand examines the romantic ideals of self-sacrifice and individualism in the pursuit of man’s highest moral purpose, the pursuit of his own happiness.
________________________________________________________________________

Introduction

War is hell. Ayn Rand knew this best, as the war of ideas and philosophies pushed her constantly to the front of the firing line. Often, Rand’s Objectivist theory was met with skepticism by the masses, forcing her on the defensive of her very personal views. Yet Rand’s conviction to her ideals alone sets her apart from a crowd of many modern-day philosophers, and in her collection of essays in The Virtue of Selfishness (1964), she plainly outlines her beliefs about how we as individuals should govern ourselves in times of sacrifice, crisis, and change. While Ayn Rand makes almost premonitory warnings about the consequences of sacrifice and selflessness, it is my opinion that her solution to racism is unfortunately shortsighted and wholly unrealized some forty years later. Nevertheless, in these times we live in where indecision and uncertainty rule, one has to give tremendous credit to Rand for her firm sense of beliefs, and her unwavering devotion to her ideals.

Purpose of the Article

The purpose of this article is to examine Ayn Rand’s Objectivist philosophy against present-day ethical controversies of altruism, sacrifice, and racism. Current events serve as a litmus test for Rand’s convictions, determining if a philosophy written over three decades ago is still applicable to present-day conflicts.


In Case of Emergency, Check Your Premises

In The Ethics of Emergencies, Ayn Rand reiterates her rejection of altruism, defining sacrifice as “the surrender of a greater value for the sake of a lesser one or of a nonvalue” (Rand, 1964, p.50). In her opinion, any man who would freely give his life in place of another has no real regard for his own. Rand’s philosophy triggered a thought that had recently taken root in my consciousness. I watched this past week as President George W. Bush openly wiped away tears at a posthumous Medal of Honor ceremony for a fallen war hero. Navy SEAL Petty Officer Michael Monsoor was killed in Iraq in September of 2006 when he fell on a grenade to save his comrades during insurgent fighting in Ramadi. Monsoor was praised throughout the ceremony for his selflessness during a time of crisis. Mike and two teammates had taken position on the outcropping of a rooftop when an insurgent grenade bounced of Mike’s chest and landed on the roof. Mike had a clear chance to escape, but he realized that the other two SEALs did not. In that terrible moment, he had two options – to save himself, or to save his friends. For Mike, this was no choice at all. He threw himself onto the grenade, and absorbed the blast with his body. One of the survivors put it this way, “Mikey looked death in the face that day and said, ‘You cannot take my brothers. I will go in their stead” (Duck, 2008, p. 2).
While I pondered what must have been a scene wrought with emotion, I couldn’t help but step inside Ms. Rand’s shoes and see this event as she might have – as a tremendous waste of life. To Rand, Petty Officer Monsoor needlessly sacrificed himself, thereby forfeiting the Objectivist ethic that his “life’s highest moral purpose” is the achievement of his own happiness (Rand, 1964, p. 51). Rand even outlines the reason why a person would sacrifice him or herself so willingly – in summary it is due to a lack of self esteem on the part of the willing. While I may not support the argument that self esteem propelled Petty Officer Monsoor to his death, I do agree with Rand to the extent that an underlying psychological crisis may have caused Monsoor to respond so “heroically”. The horrors of war are real, and none would know that better than the soldiers themselves. For those who are fighting the battle, I can only imagine that the war seems as depressing and as endless as a season of night. I believe that it is entirely plausible that when faced with the choice of a future riddled with post-traumatic stress disorder or death, Petty Officer Monsoor and countless other dead soldiers chose the relief that only death could bring from such an insidious war.
Rand further expounds on the appropriateness of sacrifice in times of emergency only: “It is on the ground of that generalized good will and respect for the value of human life that one helps strangers in an emergency—and only in an emergency” (Rand, 1964, p. 54). Rand defines an emergency as “an unchosen, unexpected event, limited in time, that creates conditions under which human survival is impossible” (Rand, 1964, p. 54). Hurricane Katrina and its decimation of the Gulf Coast, specifically New Orleans, came to mind as an “emergency sacrifice”. While many died, more lives would have been lost had the government not initiated a massive, albeit delayed, response. Thousands of Katrina evacuees were displaced and relocated; they were given provisions and an opportunity to return to a semblance of their former lives. Yet as the months after Katrina passed, the milk of human kindness began to evaporate amidst a wave of Katrina survivor-related violence, unemployment, and in the minds of many, ingratitude towards the helping hand that had been previously extended. Rand makes a clear, and in my opinion, a precise distinction between a metaphysical emergency and a normal risk of existence.

It is only in emergency situations that one should volunteer to help strangers, if it is in one’s power. For instance, a man who values human life and is caught in a shipwreck, should help to save his fellow passengers, but this does not mean that after they all reach shore, he should devote his efforts to saving his fellow passengers from poverty, ignorance, neurosis or whatever troubles they might have. (Rand, 1964, p. 55)

What many volunteers failed to take into account in the aftermath of Katrina was that many of the victims lived in abject conditions prior to the storm (residents who were not living in abject conditions before the storm were more able to right themselves after Katrina). By offering the displaced new homes, jobs, and financial assistance, these self-sacrificing do-gooders were establishing a dependency that would eventually result in a thankless attitude of entitlement. It is difficult to speculate on how an historic event could have been altered, but it is my sincere belief that the Katrina experiment was a failure due in large part to the lack of understanding that Rand projected: that help should be given in an emergency only, and that it should be withdrawn once the crisis has passed and before a social dependency is established.
The Katrina experience returned another long-standing issue to the forefront – the question of the United States’ overinvestment in foreign aid. The “guns or butter” debated fueled some of the post-Katrina backlash, insisting that the United States could have more readily responded to the disaster if our resources and manpower had not already been stretched in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other countries. As Rand succinctly states, “The principle that one should help men in an emergency cannot be extended to regard all human suffering as an emergency and to turn the misfortune of some into a first mortgage on the lives of others” (Rand, 1964, p. 55). Given the vast atrocities of our own nation; poverty, crime, joblessness, illiteracy, homelessness, and other plights, it is improbable that we as a nation should invest so much of ourselves with such a small return on investment; many of the countries which the United States occupies or assists could not or would not assist us if we suddenly became the needy. Rand’s position on emergency assistance is absolute – man should never subordinate the moral purpose of his life to the “welfare of others”(Rand, 1964, p. 56) and given the dire consequences for Petty Officer Monsoor and the Katrina controversy, I am inclined to agree.


On Racism – Forgetting February

Ayn Rand abhors racism, associating it with the much-maligned collectivism to which she is also opposed. In particular, Rand indicts modern racists for attempting “to prove the superiority or inferiority of a given race by the historical achievements of some of its members” (Rand, 1964, p. 148). This opinion formed a profound question in my mind that subsequently initiated a personal debate – if I am to accept Rand’s philosophy, then I as an African-American woman should reject the notion of Black History Month, a brief celebration of our ancestral accomplishments. While initially stupefied by Rand’s suggestion, I do find validity in her argument – as individualists, it is not our right as a race to stake our claim to the accomplishments of others. Instead, we should focus more on blazing our own trail as individuals, without regard for the color of our skin or for the goal of becoming a credit to our race. I am even more convinced of Rand’s position when I consider the treatment by my fellow African-Americans of Black History Month. The significance seems to be lost on the present generation. The spirit of entrepreneurship and creativity that drove many of our black progenitors to be the individuals that they were has been replaced with a reverence for following some of the most destructive trends of today: “gansta” mentality and a dereliction of personal responsibility. Though I am not ready to renounce Black History Month altogether, I do see relevance in Rand’s argument that man is to be celebrated as an individual, and we as individuals owe it to ourselves to write our own histories.
Rand excoriates civil rights leaders for their push for affirmative action. She writes,

Instead of (Negro leaders) fighting against racial discrimination, they are demanding that racial discrimination be legalized and enforced…instead of fighting for ‘color-blindness’ in social and economic issues, they are proclaiming that ‘color- blindness is evil and that ‘color’ should be made a primary consideration. (Rand, 1964, p. 154)

Rand is not alone in her argument. Affirmative action has been sanctioned, repealed, and reconsidered in many arenas (employment and higher education are prime examples) for the past two or more decades. The prevailing sentiment at present is that race should not be a factor in areas of promotion, and that persons should be considered solely on their own merit. As I see it, the error in Rand’s logic is that the very racism that Rand condemns is what should prevent the abolishment of affirmative action “until further notice.” There are few examples in the annals of modern history where people did the “right thing” just because it was the right thing to do; minorities gaining an equal number of early college admissions as their majority counterparts, employees having a racially balanced workforce, minority business owners garnering an equal number of contracts as “other” companies. Such instances are rare or nonexistent. As a society, there is a disingenuous effort on the part of affirmative action opponents to make us believe that the playing field is being leveled on its own, when in fact it very much remains unbalanced and intact.
Rand is also deluded in her support of capitalism as an “antidote to racism” (Rand, 1964, p. 150). Capitalism is defined as “an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations” (Capitalism, 2006, p. 1). While well meaning, here again, capitalism does not make allowances for the well-intentioned minority businessman who cannot get his foot in the door of opportunity for the cronyism and back scratching that denies equal opportunity. That denial, coupled with the undeniable undercurrent of institutionalized racism that still exists today, dooms the capable and qualified minority capitalist to a marginal or failed career. Rand fails to recognize that her romantic ideals of a society equal in opportunities and achievement is a fallacy and remains one to this day.


Concluding Remarks

In conclusion, Ayn Rand makes a brilliant case for why America should rethink its position on foreign and domestic aid in times of crisis and need. Rand suggests that we as a nation have stretched ourselves thin with playing hero to other distressed countries, and in this manner, we have indeed mortgaged innocent lives both at home and abroad. In times of war, our nation’s heroic persona may also mislead others to see themselves as heroes, making worthless altruistic sacrifices to their own detriment.
Rand’s philosophy on racism seems to be predicated on the assumption that racism would cease to exist by the sheer will of men, yet many of these same men perpetuate the racism that Rand detests. Her position on affirmative action and her view of capitalism as the great equalizer are romantic ideals that have yet to find a place in this post-Civil Rights era of ever-present racism and discrimination.






References
Duck, Jennifer (2008, April 8). Bush emotional at medal ceremony for fallen Navy
SEAL. Retrieved April 10, 2008, from abcNEWS Website:
http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalradar/2008/04/bush-emotional.html
Rand, A. (1964). The virtue of selfishness. New York: Signet.
Capitalism (2006). In Random House Unabridged Dictionary [Web]. New York:
Random House, Incorporated. Retrieved April 11, 2008, from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/capitalism

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Administrative and Supervisory Leadership, Online, Fall 2008

Atlas Shrugged but Stumbled: A Layman’s Look at Rand’s Objectivism

Donna Charlton
PhD Student in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View A&M University
Prairie View, Texas
Assistant Principal
Cypress-Fairbanks Independent School District
Houston, Texas


William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor and Faculty Mentor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View A&M University
Member of the Texas A&M University System
Prairie View, Texas
Visiting Lecturer (2005)
Oxford Round Table
University of Oxford, Oxford, England
Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
College of Education and Professional Studies
Central Washington University
_____________________________________________________________
Abstract
Atlas Shrugged (1964) is Ayn Rand’s commentary on the rational, thinking man’s reaction to societal ills. Rand’s solution is Objectivism; she uses the characters and plot to expound on its tenets, which are grounded in epistemology, metaphysics, ethics and axiology (aesthetics). Her arguments work to advance the plot but fail in practical application.
________________________________________________________________________
Introduction
Objectivism, a school of thought realized by Russian immigrant Ayn Rand in the late 20th century, is the product of a mind seeking justice, equality and valuation in the wake of a childhood marred by the enslaving effects of communist Russia. According to Brian Patterson, Rand stated:

Even at that age, I could see what was wrong with communism. It meant living for the State. I realized they were saying that the illiterate and the poor had to be rulers of the earth because they were illiterate and poor. (Communism) was the demand for the sacrifice of the best among men, and for the enshrinement of the commonplace, that I saw as the unspeakable evil of communism. (Patterson, n.d., par.5)

Objectivism expresses Rand’s ideal and holds that individuals are responsible for their own happiness which they achieve primarily through the actualization of their rational thoughts. Ideally, man’s rational thoughts should crystallize into tangible, productive achievement. This, in turn, should motivate his consensual existence by satisfying his ego, or need for self-esteem, which, according to Rand, fuels man’s reason to live. Objectivism boasts proponents and critics alike who either cloak themselves completely within her postulates or deride her commentary as more of a “movement” than a fully credentialed philosophy. To quell the argument over its validity, Rand herself wrote, “My philosophy, in essence, is the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute” (Rand, n.d.).
Yet, the argument continues, especially in political and financial arenas of democratic societies. Her philosophies are embraced and practiced by such notables as Alan Greenspan, American economist and former Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States. Dr. Leonard Peikoff, founder of the Ayn Rand Institute, is Rand’s anointed legal and intellectual heir (Patterson, n.d., par.7) and is, thereby, Objectivism’s “keeper of the flame”. As founding members of “The Collective”, a group of intellectuals assembled by Rand to champion her thoughts during Objectivism’s formative stages, both men have been roundly criticized for the ironies evinced in their own lives as well as for their inabilities to apply the principles of Objectivism consistently. Regardless of the nature of the description, Rand’s writings evoke thought that one may neither readily dismiss nor reconcile relative to his own beliefs.

Purpose of the Article

The purpose of this article is to examine the philosophy of Objectivism as expressed through the prominent themes in Atlas Shrugged (Rand, 1964) and to evaluate its plausibility in twenty-first century society.




Themes

Atlas Shrugged (Rand) was written in 1957, born of the inner strife created by Rand’s early experiences under an oppressive communist regime. Its every element is presented in praise of Objectivism. Character, plot and setting advance the salient themes that gird Objectivism’s core.
The first of these is Rand’s idea of moral obligation. In the traditional sense, morality involves judgment relative to rules of conduct or behavior and whether an entity or action is “good” (moral) or “bad” (immoral). Society’s perception of good and bad has historically been based upon the relationship between the entity or action and its impact on man. In religious societies, these perceptions are manifest partly in terms of biblical beliefs and teachings. Obligation denotes an irresistible, internal urge to perform some action and, in terms of man’s relationship to man, usually involves unilateral sacrifice. The traditional moral paradigm tacitly seeks outside judgment of the interaction by which the individual then judges himself. In shocking contrast, Rand’s idea of moral obligation concerns man’s responsibility to himself and forms the ethical foundation for Objectivism. She redefined morality to encompass “…the pursuit of one’s own happiness...” (Rand, n.d.) without considering how the individual’s pursuit would impact anyone or anything else. This idea of moral obligation crystallizes in the objectivist concept of rational individualism, a theme that plays out through the characters of Dagny Taggert, Hank Rearden, and John Galt.
To be clear, rational individualism demonstrates the philosophy by which man justifies every decision he makes for himself and can be applied as a two-pronged test: 1) is the decision/action fundamental to the enhancement of his life, and, 2) does the decision/action encroach upon the rights of another. One could argue that an individual could use such a test as justification for any action. Rand, however, anticipated this misinterpretation and offers from The Fountainhead:

Man’s first duty is to himself…provided his wishes do not depend primarily upon other men. This includes the whole sphere of his creative faculty, his thinking, his work. But it does not include the sphere of the gangster, the altruist, and the dictator. (Patterson, n.d., par. 20)

The characters in Atlas Shrugged (Rand, 1957) are spirited, intriguing, purpose-driven characters who authentically portray objectivist ideals. Dagny Taggert is the very embodiment of rational individualism as the vice-president of Taggert Transcontinental. Unlike her brother Jim, she has no pseudo-altruistic motives and navigates every dramatic conflict by using truth, reason and self-interest. She contracts with Hank Rearden because he can deliver what Orren Boyle cannot; she is true to her convictions when she unapologetically proclaims that she makes business decisions in order to make money, and she publicly and unconventionally revels in her successes by openly acknowledging them as products of her own talents and by having an affair with the married Hank Rearden.
Unlike Dagny, Rearden struggles to abandon his initial beliefs before he can accept objectivist reality. He is consumed by his work and it is this passion, in part, that estranges him from his family who resent his achievements while welcoming their benefits. Rearden, who is first introduced in Chapter II: The Chain, is depicted as an accomplished businessman heralding the creation of his masterpiece – Rearden Metal. Yet, it is a lonely celebration as he seems hesitant to share the news with his family. His malaise persists until Chapter VI: The Non-Commercial, when he is approached by Francisco d’Anconia at his anniversary party. d’Anconia, has a cryptic conversation with him about his parasitic relationship with his family and it is this encounter that begins Rearden’s transformation. This metamorphosis is convincingly dramatized in the court scene in which Reardon refuses to be ruled as he states: “…I do not recognize this court’s right to try me…I do not recognize my action as a crime…I do not recognize your right to control the sale of my Metal…” (Rand, 1957, pp. 441-442).
Rand further illuminates the issue of rational individualism through the judges’ editorializing. After chastising Rearden about his attitude toward “the public good”, one of the judges asks, “Are we to understand…that you hold your own interests above the interests of the public?” to which Rearden replies, “I hold that such a question can never arise except in a society of cannibals” (Rand, 1957, p. 442). With these words Rearden affirms himself as a Randian hero.
Neither Dagny nor Rearden embody the objectivist ideal as completely as John Galt. In the initial pages of Atlas Shrugged (Rand, 1957), John Galt is already the stuff of legend which infers that the action to come is predicated upon some a priori chain of events that has already been acknowledged as significant and symbolic. Various characters ask rhetorically, “Who is John Galt” without truly knowing the origin of the question or why they utter it. Throughout the book, minor characters spread tales of his achievements like urban legends. And when, in the last third of the novel, Galt finally appears, he is Randian perfection, without blemish to his person, his philosophy or his actions.
Many of the hanging threads, so to speak, now form connections for the characters when Galt is presented: Dagny and Rearden learn that Galt is, indeed, real and that the fantastic tales told about him are true; the origin of the motor is revealed; the mystery behind the disappearances of the world’s great minds is solved; and Francisco d’Anconia’s behavior and motives are explained. Each of these connections exemplifies a theme or combination of themes exalting some aspect of Objectivism. Galt’s abandonment of the magnificent motor, as well as the sinking of his own ship represent rational individualism and the rejection of altruism or the sanction of “the public good” as discussed earlier regarding Rearden’s court scene. The fact that the world’s most talented creators have joined Galt in his secession from the world further undergirds these themes. And d’Anconia, initially perceived as a worthless playboy, is made heroic when the reader understands the depth of his cunning and his devotion to Galt.
Still, Galt is the most impressive character as the father of the movement because he has broached extremes in thought and behavior unrivaled by any of the others. Unlike Dagny and Rearden, who attempt to straddle both worlds, Galt realizes the futility of attempting to reconcile that which is so philosophically incompatible and founds Galt’s Gulch, Rand’s concept of the Utopian ideal. Galt’s action is precisely the point Rand wished to convey in explaining Objectivism’s metaphysical foundation when she wrote: “A leaf cannot be all red and green at the same time, it cannot freeze and burn at the same time. A is A” (Rand, n.d.).
This explains why Dagny and Rearden are constantly thwarted in their attempts to find success and satisfaction within society. Both Galt and Galt’s Gulch are symbols of Objectivism’s metaphysical element. They are purely objectivist manifestations exclusive of any other influences. Further support of this assertion is when Dagny encounters an inscription while in Galt’s Gulch that reads, “I swear by my life and my love of it that I will never live for the sake of another man, nor ask another man to live for mine” (Rand, 1957, p. 670).
This quote is the sum total of everything Ayn Rand championed in her efforts to defend the beliefs that she felt should be the overarching foundation of man’s life on earth. Galt’s every word and action are engendered from this oath and he is impervious to the conflicts and distractions that confound Dagny and Rearden. This elevates him to far more than a Randian hero; he and Galt’s Gulch are the objectivist ideal.


Additional Themes

The epistemological foundation of Objectivism is reason and is embodied by Rand’s view of the value of the human mind. This is the general theme of Atlas Shrugged (Rand, 1957). Rand’s message here is that man’s greatest ability is that of reason and that the quality of his existence is wholly dependent upon it. The “mind on strike” is the thematic expression by which she makes her case by illustrating the conflict between the “exploiters and the exploited.”
Rand’s view of religion is also expressed thematically in Atlas Shrugged (1957). Objectivism holds that man gains knowledge primarily through reason and “…rejects faith and “feeling” as means of attaining knowledge” (Rand, n.d.). According to Rand, one must first perceive or become aware of something through the senses. This assertion categorically dismisses the idea of a higher, unseen, mystical power as real and concludes that knowledge is an empirical product. Dagny and Rearden embody this attitude as they are clearly inspired only by what they can observe, achieve or create. Dagny makes the bold decision to use Rearden Metal only after she has evaluated convincing data that it will help achieve her goals. She and Rearden consort to build the bridge with “faith” based on perceptual knowledge and their own self confidence.
The view of productive work is another controlling theme in Atlas Shrugged (Rand, 1957) and provides the axiological or aesthetic foundation of Objectivism. As mentioned earlier, man’s rational thoughts should crystallize into productive achievement which should satisfy his ego. In the context of the novel, it is necessary to incorporate Rand’s view of governmental constraints on the individual to understand fully the objectivist definition of the aesthetic ideal. In Chapter II: The Chain, Hank Rearden presents his wife, Lillian, with a bracelet made of Rearden Metal. As he witnesses its making, Rearden savors the moment as the culmination of his life’s work and his greatest achievement. The bracelet becomes the symbolic representation of his brilliant mind. From a “producers” vantage point, the bracelet has aesthetic value because it is the crystallization of his rational thought in his attempt to live on earth; making rational decisions to ensure his mortality. The fact that the bracelet assuages his ego supports that Rand offers it as an aesthetic symbol. Likewise, Dagny is driven to make Taggert Transcontinental the best railroad in the country and the realization of that goal is her aesthetic. Similarly, Galt’s motor, d’Anconia’s copper mines, Wyatt’s oil fields, Halley’s Fifth concerto, and Kellogg and Mulligan’s intellect and expertise symbolize the aesthetic element that gives meaning and value to each character’s life. When governmental entities threaten to benefit from their talents and inventions without their consensual agreement, each character devises a way to withdraw his contributions from the world. Productive work, objectivist aesthetics and governmental power are themes that are inextricably interwoven to explain the characters’ motivation and behavior and to lend credence to Objectivism as the guiding principle of a plausible social system.


Objectivism vs. Reality

Atlas Shrugged (Rand, 1957) makes for riveting fiction and is a didactic prediction of what can occur when outside interests take precedence over man’s individual desires. It illustrates the tenets of Objectivism in a setting of optimal conditions for perfect, yet predictable plot development. After all, Ayn Rand wrote screenplays before coming into her own as a novelist. She was skilled at weaving tales, creating intrigue and sparking controversy. Her skill at designing a blueprint for man and society is not as laudable. The themes presented in the novel work for the sake of plot development. In reality they are naïve, implausible, and sometimes dangerous solutions for problems that are far more complex than the conflicts presented in the book.
Rand was a staunch advocate of Objectivism and showcases it well within the chapters of Atlas Shrugged (1957). In a rational sense, it is difficult to find fault with her position that man must be responsible for himself. By extension, many in today’s society would applaud the dismantling of the IRS and the dissolution of other government entities that have forced the able to be financial supporters for all. The possibility that the able could secede from society to live in their own communities by their own principles is appealing indeed, for who would prefer to answer to another before himself? Though attractive on the surface, the scenario illustrates one of Objectivism’s primary flaws – the separation of the “haves and have nots.” Rand would have the reader believe that man’s use of reason is the panacea for society’s woes. This conclusion is based upon the assumption that men have equal intellectual abilities, talents and opportunities. Atlas Shrugged (Rand, 1957) stumbles here because it relegates those who don’t realize their own aesthetic to the status of the looter. This is not altogether true. Many factors influence man’s fate and the “all or nothing” characterization is not an accurate assessment of man’s nature. Modern application of her philosophy could be disastrous. Present day conditions reinforce the fact that when groups of people, whether distinguished along racial, cultural or economic lines, are in some way disenfranchised, extreme societal discord results.
Rand admits that Objectivism works best under normal circumstances. It stumbles again when Objectivism is applied to abnormal situations. Rand attempts to mitigate the inconsistencies by offering a philosophy to address emergencies. Ironically, these emergencies advocate man becoming a “looter” or murderer in order to save his own life, even if at another man’s expense. She gave an interview at Columbia University in the early 1960s, titled “Morality, And Why Man Requires It” in which she discussed circumstances under which Objectivism would consider killing to be a rational, and therefore, acceptable decision: “… Rand explains how it is proper, under certain emergency conditions, to violate the rights of innocent men, or even to kill them” (Ayn Rand on Emergencies, n.d.).
To further illustrate the irony, consider Francisco d’Anconia’s words in the famous “money speech”: “Money is the barometer of a society’s virtue…when you see corruption being rewarded and honesty becoming a self-sacrifice---you may know that your society is doomed” (Rand, 2002).
Rand clearly values individual rights above all else, even when it means taking an innocent human life to preserve them. Not only is this ironic but it directly contradicts Objectivism’s own principles at its core. d’Anconia’s words are ominous examples of Objectivism’s implausibility. By all accounts, a man must value the lives of others if his own life is to be worth anything at all.


Concluding Remarks

Through the themes presented in Atlas Shrugged (1957), Ayn Rand successfully depicts a perfect world in Galt’s Gulch and a cast of characters who capture Objectivism’s principles in their fullest sense. Objectivism embodies ideas that evoke contemplation and ignite spirited philosophical discussions on talk shows and in coffee houses around the country. Rand’s ideas, however, buckle under the pressure of practical application. Ultimately, Atlas Shrugged (Rand, 1957) stumbles because of its implausibility in a practical society.


References

Ayn Rand on emergencies (2008, March 6). Retrieved March 6, 2008, from
jeffcomp: http://www.jeffcomp.com
Patterson, B. (n.d.). Objectivism expository speech. Retrieved March 4, 2008, from http://www.cs.iastate.edu/patterbj/misc/ObjectivismOr.pdf
Rand, A. (1957). Atlas shrugged. New York: Signet.
Rand, A. (2002). Francisco’s money speech. Capitalism Magazine. Retrieved March 2, 2008, from http://www.capmag.com
Rand, A. (n.d.) Objectivism. In Wikipedia [Web]. Retrieved March 4, 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Objectivism

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Journal of Religious Studies, 25 (3) 2008wyqd

Christianity vs. Ayn Rand: An Exploration of Objectivism through Atlas Shrugged

Christopher Rashard O’Brine
PhD Student in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View A&M University
Prairie View, Texas
School Facilitator
Houston Independent School District
Houston, Texas

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor and Faculty Mentor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View A&M University
Member of the Texas A&M University System
Prairie View, Texas
Visiting Lecturer (2005)
Oxford Round Table
University of Oxford, Oxford, England
Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
College of Education and Professional Studies
Central Washington University

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to discuss Objectivism, the philosophy of Ayn Rand through the use of Atlas Shrugged, a book written by her in 1957. To better facilitate this discussion examples from the 21st century will also be utilized to add an additional photographic picture of her ideas. These ideas are vivid in her book and through this explanation of her philosophy you will experience many emotions. Objectivism allows us to take a look into metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and politics, all which are components of this philosophy.
______________________________________________________________________________
Introduction

There is only one person capable of holding up the world and when you look in the mirror you see his/her reflection every time according to Ayn Rand. But for those of use who are believers in something greater than man, this deity is much different; he is someone we all strive to be like in our daily lives. Even though we want to be like him we realize that we are not capable, because sin entered into the world over 2,000 years ago; however, we still keep trying.
Alisa Rosnbaum, Ayn Rand, was born in Russia, in 1905. At the age of six, she taught herself to read and decided that she wanted to become a writer. Those vital years of ones life that helps shape their beliefs and values were engulfed in war for her. Her family had to flee their home for their safety. As a child, preteen, and young adult she witnessed communism first hand. Returning to Russia, she studied philosophy and history. Rand believed America was a true model of a nation that could represent what free men could be and in 1925 she left for America. Despite many obstacles, Ayn Rand was able to live the dream that she believed was possible, becoming a writer. Through her writings her personal philosophy, shaped from her experiences, became her focal point. Her philosophy is known as “Objectivism” (Townsell, 2008).


Purpose of the Article

The purpose of this article is to discuss Objectivism, the philosophy of Ayn Rand through the use of Atlas Shrugged, a book written by her in 1957. To better facilitate this discussion examples from the 21st century will also be utilized to add an additional photographic picture of her ideas. These ideas are vivid in her book and through this explanation of her philosophy you will experience many emotions. Objectivism allows us to take a look into metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and politics all which are components of this philosophy. In order to truly understand her philosophy, Objectivism, we must first know what it means. “Objectivism is an integrated system of thought that defines the abstract principles by which a man must think and act if he is to live the life proper to man” (Ayn Rand Institute, 2008a, p. 1). Objectivism can be summarized into the following components: metaphysics, epistemology, human nature, ethics, politics and esthetics. In discussing each of these components, as they relate to Atlas Shrugged (1957), we will also have an opportunity to see how they would look in today’s society.


Metaphysics

Reality, the external world, exists independent of man’s consciousness, independent of any observer’s knowledge, beliefs, feelings, desires or fears. This means that A is A, that facts are facts, that things are what they are and that the task of man’s consciousness is to perceive reality, not to create or invent it. Thus Objectivism rejects any belief in the supernatural—and any claim that individuals or groups create their own reality. (Any Rand Institute, 2008a, p. 1)

In the story, we see metaphysics at work. For example, when Hank Rearden wanted to offer a gift to his wife, a bracelet from the first batch of Rearden Medal, the reality was that he was very proud of this new metal he invented. For his wife, she really did not understand the value it had to him, because it was his blood sweet and tears that allowed for this new invention to come to fruition. On the other hand, Hank did not understand his wife’s idea of a wonderful gift was not a bracelet made from Rearden Medal. She would have preferred a diamond or gold bracelet.
In regards to rejecting any belief in the supernatural – John Galt, did not think of man when he decided to allow his work to die. The invention of the steam engine would have offered much to the world during that time. Many companies depended on trains to transport artifacts and/or precious commodities. Had he thought about the value it would have had to the world, he would have understood the principle of giving, which is a spiritual principle. The scripture “Behold how good and pleasant it is for brethren to dwell in unity,” would have also had significant meaning to him as well. For John Galt, spirituality did not play a part in his life; he only sought to live for himself and not for others regardless of the consequences. Because of his actions as well as others in the story, one is lead to believe that Rand wasn’t a Christian. Despite her not being a Christian, from her work one can conclude that she believe in something greater than herself. In Atlas Shrugged (Rand, 1957), John Galt is looked upon as the possible savor of the world. The government felt he had all the answers to the world’s problems and for him to be viewed in that manner leads one to believe that he possess characteristics parallel to that of Jesus Christ. The world exists independent of man’s consciousness, signifies to me that in spite of how we feel as individuals about situations our feelings do not have any place in the world, because regardless of how we feel the world is still going to exist; the world does not need our approval.
When Mr. Danneskjöld came to Rearden and informed him of the money he had collected from the looters that stole it from him; Rearden did not want any part of it; however, the reality was that it was his money and Danneskjöld was not going to spend it. “What is that? Your income tax, Mr. Rearden. What? Your income tax for the last twelve years. You intend to refund that? In full and in gold, Mr. Rearden” (Rand, 1957, p. 534). This too is an example of metaphysics, facts being facts. In everyday life we are often said to create our own reality; however, Rand disagrees with that. She feels that reality is what it is; not created or invented. So for one to say that he or she has created their reality through hard work, dedication and perseverance; Rand’s philosophy would negate that.


Epistemology

Dagny Taggart, a woman who believed in herself and her abilities, understood the fact of reality, because she knew that if individuals found out that she and John Galt were lovers he would have been killed; therefore, she choose to keep that information to herself in order to spare his life toward the end of the story. Additionally, John Galt knew that his invention of the steam engine could be utilized; however, the government would have established regulations and possibly required him to sell his invention. Now rejecting mysticism, Objectivism states that acceptance of faith or feeling as a means of knowledge is not possible, this ties back to metaphysics in which man rejects any belief in the supernatural. For one to really acquire knowledge he or she has to live life. Living day by day is the focus in objectivism; however, Christians believe to become knowledgeable one has to live life but live it accordingly to the word of God, but there is no place for God in objectivism.
Epistemology in today’s society would say if you can not perceive it with your senses then it is not real. To say that you believe in a God would not be epistemological. The only reason according to epistemology that students desire to obtain a PhD is for them to gain knowledge; however, we realize that is not always the case in many instances. It is also used a stepping stone to greater things or a means to an end or beginning.


Human Nature

Man is a rational being. Reason, as man’s only means of knowledge, is his basic means of survival. But the exercise of reason depends on each individual’s choice.

Man is a being of volitional consciousness. That which you call your soul or spirit is your consciousness, and that which you call ‘free will’ is your mind’s freedom to think or not, the only will you have, your only freedom. This is the choice that controls all the choices you make and determines your life and character. Thus Objectivism rejects any from of determinism, that belief that man is a victim of forces beyond his control (such as God, fate, upbringing, genes, or economic conditions). (Ayn Rand Institute, 2008a, p. 2)

Rand explains herself very clearly in Atlas Shrugged. For example, it was not by any chance that Hank Rearden developed Rearden Metal; it came from years and years of work. Boyle did not like the idea that Rearden was unable to keep up with the demand that was needed of Rearden Metal. “How long, for instance, are we going to put up with the disgraceful shortage of Rearden Metal? There is a crying public demand for it, which Rearden has failed to supply. “Why should Rearden be the only one permitted to manufacture Rearden Metal?” (Rand, 1957, p. 503) Boyle’s reason told him that in order for people to survive more Rearden Metal needed to be produced and produced by others to meet the demand. Boyle never took a moment to realize that Rearden’s reason would tell him that it was his invention and no one else should be able to produce it, especially after people saying in the industry that is was worthless. Galt also had dealt with human nature. It was his means of knowledge and thinking, which allowed him to not conform to that of the world when they wanted him to figure out how to save it. It was Gault that said, every man is for himself, he works for himself not the betterment of others or his country.
It is often said that if you expect to survive in the world you have fight, this doesn’t mean a physical battle. It refers to a spiritual battle or one in which you have to work for what you want. As individuals, we can not expect things to be given to us on a silver platter; we have to work for them. Your will controls your choices in the world. If there is something that you really and truly want your will informs you how to go about getting it; thus determining your life and character. For example, one would say that if a person steals for the sake of their child, because they are starving, that would be seen not as negatively as one stealing for the sake of stealing. The individual that stole for the sake of stealing would be looked upon as an individual without any morals. It is not the crime in this instance that is judged but the intent and/or reason for it being committed. If you are one who continually makes bad choices: getting in to bad marriages, spending money unwisely and conforming to the world, your life will reflect that according to Rand.
Sociologists have said that children will also become a part of the same class system as their parents when they reach adult hood; however, the philosophy of objectivism rejects this. It also rejects the belief that fate plays a part in a human being’s life; what we accomplish has been destined since the beginning. Objectivism once again rejects any form of determinism. You can not be judge by your genes, economic condition, fate, or upbringing. Man in himself decides the course of life that he takes and the methods he chooses to utilize on his journey. There is nothing that can alter that but man himself. Parents are those individuals who are thought to love their children unconditionally and would do anything for them; however, Rand says your only reason for living is to gain knowledge. To say that an individual continues to live for the sake of their child would go against her beliefs. On a deeper note, how do we explain a woman that has suffered for over 11 years and the last two months of her life have being extremely painful for her? How do we deal with doctors telling you and your family that they do not understand what is keeping her here. Unable to talk, we began communicating with her by asking questions and she responds by blinking her eyes if she agreed or wanted to answer yes. In this scenario to ask her, two week prior to her death, if she was wants to see here grandson before she leaves this world and she blinked her eyes numerous times. To your dissatisfaction, you are unable to locate him and she passed on March 5, 2008. On the day that she passed, you are able to get in touch with the grandson that she has not seen in over 8 years. So for Rand to say that people only live to gain knowledge I respond, “What knowledge was the lady in this scenario gaining by wanting to see her grandson one more time?”


Ethics

Reason is man’s only proper judge of values and his only proper guide to action. The proper standard of ethics is: man’s survival qua man—i.e., that which is required by man’s nature for his survival as a rational being (not his momentary physical survival as a mindless brute). (Ayn Rand Institute, 2008a, p. 2)

Centralization destroys the blight of monopoly, said Boyle. It destroys the blight of monopoly. It leads to the democratization of industry. It makes everything available to everybody. Now for instance, at a time like this, when there’s such a desperate shortage of iron ore, is there any sense in my wasting money, labor and national resources on making old-fashioned steel, when there exists a much better metal that I could be making. A metal that everybody wants, but no body can get. (Rand, 1957, pp. 502-503)

Through this example we come to understand that Rand knew of a world where man’s ethics dealt with his survival and for him to survive he was not concerned with the interested of others; selfishness or inconsideration. Rand would say,

Rationality is man’s basic virtue, and his three fundamental values are: reason, purpose, self-esteem. He must live for his own sake, neither sacrificing himself to others nor sacrificing others to himself; he must work for his rational self-interest, with the achievement of his own happiness as the highest moral purpose of his life. (Ayn Rand Institute, 2008a, p. 2)

Throughout the story we hear the phrase, “Who is John Galt?” (Rand, 1957) This was the question that was on the minds of those who worked in the railroad industry. The name had more meaning than what any of those who spoke it could realize. As stated earlier, John Galt was a man who sought to halt the world, to make it stand still, because he would not finish the greatest invention of his time. With his insurmountable knowledge, he would rather keep his knowledge/invention to himself than to give it up or share it with the world. John Galt worked for his own pleasures, not the pleasures of the world. If he had been an individual that pursued happiness from the world he would have given his steam engine to the world. Hank Rearden, another individual in the story, worked for his own satisfaction. Rearden was not concerned with the concerns of the world; when others felt that his steel would not be beneficial, he continued to work, because he saw the value in his work. Like Galt, he did not need the approval of the world; he just needed his own. Galt and Rearden are two individuals that reject any form of altruism. In the world today these gentlemen would be viewed as selfish men, because of their lack of care or consideration for their fellow man.


Politics

According to Rand’s philosophy no man has the right to seek value from others by force; meaning that a man should not initiate the use of physical force against another. To use force a man must be threatened and feel that he needs to defend himself from one who has initiated force (Ayn Rand Institute, 2008b). It is the job of the government to protect men from those who seek to use physical force.
In the 21st Century, government is involved with protecting this country as well as other countries when there are issue of social injustices and threats of violence and war. Currently, American troops are stationed all over the world ready in a moment notice to serve and protect others. Days after September 11, 2001; the U.S. militaries were deployed to serve this country after the planes crashed into the World Trade Center. Our government thrives on the idea of Rand’s politics as it relate to the use of force. Furthermore, it is equally important to remember that this country was built on the back of numerous of wars and battles.
Ayn Rand philosophy, additionally, rejects the notion that government should regulate the economy and redistribute wealth.

Those bastards—who use to give use loans in the old days with no security at all except our own railroads—now refuse to let me have a measly few hundred-thousand, on short-term, just to take care of a few payrolls when I have the entire plant of all the railroads of the country to offer them as security for my loan! (Rand, 1957, p. 834)

Another example of Rand’s view of government deals with Mr. Rearden. After receiving the notice that all of his property had been attached to satisfy a delinquent judgment, Rearden told his Lawyer not to take any action. His lawyer felt that they had left him, Rearden, helpless; however, he did not feel the same way, because he had a bar of gold in his safe (Rand, 1957). Rearden knew he had done no wrong; therefore, he was not worried. The next day he receive a call “whose voice seemed to come sliding down a wire on its knees in protestations of apology” (Rand, 1957, p. 883). They were calling to inform him that a mistake was made and he received several different apologies.
Each year around December 31 people start to become overly anxious about the money they will be getting at income tax time. As part of our economy all employed individual are required to pay income tax on the money they earn minus deductions they had during that year. In Ayn Rand’s world, this is an example of government gone to far.


Esthetics

To Ayn Rand, “the purpose of art is to concretize the artist’s fundamental view of existence. Rand’s approach is ‘Romantic Realism’” (Any Rand Institute, 2008a, p. 3). She presents men as they ought to be an end in himself—not as a means to any further end. As Galt states so eloquently, he will not give up his life for man nor does he expect man to give up his life for him. Being that man is the “Supreme Being” in Rand’s mind there is nothing or no one higher than man; Rand is the artist in Atlas Shrugged (1957).
In this country as stated earlier, there are individuals that give up their life on a daily basis for something greater than themselves and that is the love of their country and countrymen. In addition, over 2000 years ago, Jesus, the son of God, gave up his life for all man kind. His father, God Jehovah, was so loving and forgiving of mankind that he allowed his son to die for the sins of the world. There is no greater love than a man who would lay down his life for a friend. To Rand these ideas are preposterous; man should only be worried about himself not the betterment of his kinship, countrymen, or country.


Concluding Remarks

In conclusion, there will never be one supreme philosophy that all men can truly agree upon. At best we can take those points that we agree with from several philosophies and utilize them for the betterment of our lives; however, what will work for one individual might not work for another. Living by the “Golden Rule,” do unto other as you will have them do unto you, may be just the place to start when developing your own personal philosophy. For Ayn Rand to not let man determine her life and dictate to her what she was capable of achieving, she should be commended. I must agree with Rand, because I am a believer that what we get out of life we have earned, because we have worked for it; we can’t expect it to be given to us on a silver platter. More equally important, when looking at her philosophy and all that she stood for, one must ask, why did she have to come to America to make her philosophy known? For her to have done that she had to believe in something better, meaning people. She had to believe and know that in this country one would be able to speak their mind and not have to worry about persecution. So, I ask this question again, if she really and truly believed in her philosophy why did she not voice it in Russia and why did she have to come to America to make it known and express it. There are individuals that will say she came here because in a communist society, where she lived, they would have killed her for speaking her mind. The communist government would have seen this as disobedience. It is my belief that when an individual really and truly believes in something they will be willing to die for it, like Galt was willing to die for his beliefs and just as Jesus Christ died for the sins of the word, because he believed in us a humans and wanted to give us another chance. Lastly, in her own words, “Wishing won’t make it so” (Ayn Rand Institute, 2008b, p. 1). Just because you wish to win the lottery, it is not going to happen unless you play. It is easy for a man to wish for things but it is much harder for him to work and earn them for himself, in doing that he will build character. As humans, we are the authors and finishers of our fate. Regardless if we agree with her or not, we have to applaud her for having the courage to speak her mind when she new people would truly disagree.

References

Ayn Rand Institute (2008a). Essentials of objectivism. Retrieved March 3, 2008, from Website: http://www.aynrand.org/site/PageServe?pagename=objectivism_essentials
Ayn Rand Institute (2008b). Introducing objectivism. Retrieved March 2, 2008, from Website:
http://www.aynrand.org/site/PageServe?pagename=objectivism_intro
Rand, A. (1957). Atlas shrugged (50th Anniversary ed.). New York: New American Library.
Townsell, R., & Kritsonis, W. (n.d.). Who in the world is Ayn Rand? Retrieved March 1, 2008, from Website: http://www.eric.ed.gov

Formatted by Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis, National Research and Manuscript Preparation Editor, National FORUM Journals, Houston, Texas. www.nationalforum.com

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

DOCTORAL FORUM
NATIONAL JOURNAL FOR PUBLISHING AND MENTORING DOCTORAL STUDENT RESEARCH
VOLUME 6 NUMBER 1, 2009

Ayn Rand versus the Public School Systems of America:
The Case against Objectivism in Public School Education

Misti M. Morgan
PhD Student in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View A & M University
Assistant Principal
Houston Independent School District
Houston, Texas

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor and Faculty Mentor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
Prairie View A&M University
Member of the Texas A&M University System
Visiting Lecturer
Oxford Round Table
University of Oxford, Oxford, England
Distinguished Alumnus
Central Washington University
College of Educational and Professional Studies
______________________________________________________________________________

ABSTRACT
Ayn Rand’s Objectivist philosophy is a complete antithesis to the present-day public education system, particularly in the areas of metaphysics, ethics, and politics. Rand’s philosophy, if implemented, would further erode an already troubled system, seeking only to educate the more affluent (those who could pay for their own education) in a selfish, elitist manner. While there can be no argument that public education is in a state of crisis, the answer is not a reversal of the tenets upon which it was founded; free and appropriate education should still be for all. A more feasible solution lies within the return of the men of the mind, those who have left public school and urban education in favor of more lucrative or less frustrating pursuits. When educational innovators establish a collective to repair our broken schools, excellence will be restored.
______________________________________________________________________________
Introduction
Are we our brother’s keeper? It is the question that Ayn Rand sought to answer in her philosophy of Objectivism and her magnum opus of Atlas Shrugged (1957). Rand’s Objectivist philosophy is very clear in its celebration of the individual and his or her personal pursuit of enlightenment, and she is particularly opposed to the current state of public school education. Upon reviewing the Objectivist position on public school education, one is struck by the idea that Objectivists do not view the current educational system as repairable; in fact, it would appear that they are patiently waiting in the wings until its final collapse, much like John Galt, before they step forward with a Capitalist plan for its improvement. Unfortunately, Rand and other Objectivists disregard, perhaps intentionally, how their plan would disenfranchise the average student: one who cannot afford to personally fund their education, as Capitalism would suggest. In defense of these students, it is necessary to form an argument against the Objectivist view, and to work to improve the current structure for their sake.

Purpose of the Article
The purpose of the article is to construct a defense of public school education through the filter of Rand’s Objectivist philosophy, specifically the Objectivist tenets of metaphysics, ethics, and politics.


On Metaphysics – Objective Reality

In Atlas Shrugged (1957), the characters of Dagny Taggart and Hank Rearden fail to see reality for what it really is – they engage in a form of “subjective realism”, undaunted by the crumbling nature of society, they press forward in the respective industries. Their belief that they can effectively move the world forward despite growing chaos and the presence of a destroyer is in contrast to Galt’s metaphysical awareness that society is crumbling under socialist dictates and greed. Hank Rearden’s insistence on believing in the good of the common man and Dagny Taggart’s refusal to walk away from Taggart Transcontinental in the midst of tightening regulatory controls blinds them both to the true metaphysical reality and makes them slaves to the parasitic nature of the government and its edicts. Only in the face of complete collapse does either character become fully aware of their inability to shape their individual realities.

Metaphysics in Education
The objective reality that Rand pits her main characters of Dagny and Hank against underlies a wave of pessimism. If it were not for the Dagnys and Hanks of the world, how could a struggling society ever emerge from troubled times? According to Rand, “If things are what they are – and that the task of man’s consciousness is to perceive reality, not create it or invent it” (Ayn Rand Institute, 1995b, p. 2), how would a society improve or continue to move forward? What good exists in a society if the dreamers, innovators, and visionaries simply resign due to disintegrating conditions? Rather than seeing the world for what it is, why not see it for what it can be and actually do something about its current state? Many present-day institutions are endangered by a growing lack of intellectual resources – men of the mind who are seemingly disappearing. The field of public school education stands as a prime example of a microcosmic society teetering on the brink of collapse. Multiple factors contributed to its decline: the government-based policy of No Child Left Behind sent a shockwave through public schools that left many gifted yet uncertified teachers scrambling for more secure employment once their (emergency) permits expired. Accountability through standardized testing has led to a “watered down” version of teaching that deviates further from a college-ready curriculum and closer to the test itself. In schools where the needs are greatest, the help is the most scarce; inner-city (low socioeconomic) schools are saddled with the burden of low test scores and government mandates to raise them, or else. In the face of these odds, we the educators are faced with a dilemma – do we “withdraw” and watch our urban schools implode, or do we dig in, as Hank Rearden did to fix the broken furnace, to salvage the profession we love?
A cry for help is being uttered from these battered institutions, and one is left to wonder where all the fixers, doers, heroes, and “men of the mind” have gone. In the face of growing pressure to achieve with fewer resources, many of education’s best and brightest have also withdrawn: capable men have fled to the more affluent suburban classrooms or erected charter schools to escape the mandates of public school accountability (and perhaps to “cherry pick” students who are guaranteed to produce positive results); brilliant minds rebel against the low salary and high certification requirements and avoid teaching altogether; other talented individuals opt for consultant work or educational sales. Still others who are in a position to retire have done so. The compound effect of their departures has left many of our most disparate schools bereft of resources and hope. Yet the real victims are the children of the public schools that are left behind. These students have no choice in how or where they are educated – they are academically marginalized on a daily basis while those who could make a difference choose not to – their reluctance to lend their genius to struggling schools is tantamount to the philosophy of John Galt and the inhabitants of Galt’s Gulch, where only after a total collapse of society do they decide to grace the world with their genius.
In order to save public schools and reverse their downward spiral, I do not believe that we can afford to subscribe to Rand’s philosophy of an objective reality. Yes, we see things as they are, but we cannot “obey” nature and allow our educational structures to fall because “that’s just the way it is.” The application of Rand’s theory leaves too many lives hanging in the balance – the lives of impressionable students who would compel us to see things in education for what they are, and then work to improve them, believing all along that while the work may be hard, it can and must be done for the sake of the children.
On Ethics
Rand’s Objectivist position holds that

man – every man – is an end in himself, not a means to the ends of others; he must live for his own sake, neither sacrificing himself to others nor sacrificing others to himself; he must work for his rational self-interest, with the achievement of his own happiness as the highest moral purpose of his life. (Ayn Rand Institute, 1995, p. 2)

Rand rejects the principle of altruism, or the basic code that “man has no right to exist for his own sake, that service to others is the only moral justification of his existence, and that self-sacrifice is his highest moral duty, virtue, and value” (Ayn Rand Institute, 1995a, p. 2). In Atlas Shrugged (1957), Galt’s declaration, "I swear -- by my life and my love of it -- that I will never live for the sake of another man, nor ask another man to live for mine” (Rand, 1957, p. 1069) and the actions of Galt and the gulch inhabitants were a rejection of altruism; Galt and the other innovators undoubtedly saw the ill-fated “aristocracy of pull” as a succubus that demanded the will of others as their means of survival and improvement. Rand’s writings (post Atlas Shrugged) indict public education as a socialist system doomed by its altruistic virtues of a moral obligation to provide a free and appropriate education to every child. Rand’s celebration of the individual and his rational mind finds the concept of Montessori schools as a cure for the ills of the current educational system:

The middle class has created an antidote which is perhaps the most helpful movement in recent years: the spontaneous, unorganized, grass—roots revival of the Montessori system of education—a system aimed at the development of a child’s cognitive, i.e., rational faculty. (Ayn Rand Institute, 2002, p. 7)
Rand’s support of the Montessori system encompasses the following ideals:
• Structure – Children of varying age ranges may be grouped together in a classroom where the standard desk arrangement may not be present. Students learn at their own pace, choose their own activities (or choose to do nothing), and progress when necessary, not when the teacher demands it.
• Homework – Generally, none is assigned
• Assessment/Evaluation –Teachers keep detailed records of student interests and choices, charting their progress, development, and improvement instead of measuring students against a fixed universal standard. Simple right and wrong answers run contrary to the philosophy of Montessori education.”
• Technology – Since Montessori schools encourage students to explore their interests, experiences with technology may vary more than a traditional school which establishes specific technology standards. One student might decide to investigate methods of online research, while another with no interest in computers will not hone this skill. (Montessori Schools, 2006, p. 1-2)
Rand’s hallmark of the celebration of the individual and free will is prominently featured throughout the Montessori philosophy. Yet criticism of the Montessori Method has been steadfast and not without merit. When compared to public education, Montessori deviates from the mean in several areas:

- Most Montessori schools assess a tuition-related fee, thereby excluding any potential students whose parents cannot afford the cost (and earning an elitist reputation)
- Montessori espouses a more idealistic than pragmatic view of education. “In fact, Maria Montessori’s own writings have been referred to as ‘romantic rhetoric’, inapplicable to real world settings” (Montessori Schools, 2006, p. 3).
- The Montessori philosophy that everything a child does is considered as “work” leads to confusion about the difference between work and play, and the over emphasis on work lacks the key component of socialization that children need to be successful in social settings
- Montessori schools lack diversity (undoubtedly due to their omission of non-paying students) and often demographically resemble “private, elite academies of the rich and privileged” (Montessori Schools, 2006, p. 3). This educational environment sorely underprepares its students for the diversity that they will ultimately face in future educational and professional settings
- Montessori provides only a rudimentary plan to address students with learning differences (special education)


Ethics in Education

The hallmark of public school education is to provide a free and appropriate education to all students who enter the school doors. “Public schools are the only schools that must meet the needs of all students. They do not turn children or families away. Public schools serve children with physical, emotional, and mental disabilities, those who are extremely gifted and those who are learning challenged, right along with children without special needs. (Top 10 Reasons to Support Public Education, 2004, p. 1)

In short, no child can be left behind in a public school. Rand’s endorsement of the Montessori Method would instantly leave an even more sizable percentage of the populace disenfranchised, creating a subculture of citizens relegated to the most menial tasks of society, or worse, to a life of crime. While public education may stumble in its good intentions, at its core it remains an institution of hope and opportunity for the uneducated masses. Much like Rand’s tumultuous society in Atlas Shrugged (1957), much of what is needed to improve public schools could be found when men of the mind – creative thinkers and innovators – return to invigorate the schools most in need of assistance.


On Politics
Rand’s Objectivist position on politics “rejects any form of collectivism, such as fascism or socialism. It also rejects the current ‘mixed economy’ notion that the government should regulate the economy and redistribute wealth” (Ayn Rand Institute, 1995b, p. 3). Instead, Rand believes in a capitalist economy,

an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth. (Capitalism, 2006, p. 1)

To apply Rand’s view to the field of education would present a speedy rejection of Texas’s “Robin Hood” school funding plan.


Politics in Education

The Robin Hood plan was a nickname given to legislation enacted by the U.S. state of Texas in 1993 to provide court-mandated equitable school financing for all school districts in the state. Similar to the legend of Robin Hood, who ‘robbed from the rich and gave to the poor’, the law ‘recaptured’ property tax revenue from property-wealthy school districts, in an effort to equalize the financing of all districts throughout Texas. (Robin Hood Plan, 2007, p.1)

In Rand’s Capitalist vision, education and the funding thereof would be undertaken as a “private profit making enterprise”. Under Capitalism, free education would be “provided by private individuals, i.e., parents paying for their child’s education, i.e., individuals acting as a group, e.g., church groups and non-religious groups” (Education, n.d. p. 1). The error in Rand’s Capitalist agenda for education lies in the fact that one, parents who cannot afford to pay for their child’s education are left with few or no options, and two, group funding of education, e.g., churches, has the potential of slanting the curriculum to suit their own agenda (curiously, the latter is an argument that Rand and other Objectivist philosophers have made about the current government-subsidized public school system). Capitalist supporters possess a myopic view of the pitfalls associated with applying a Capitalist economy to public school funding: when asked about those “who cannot afford to pay for their education”, the author of Capitalism.org refers to the underprivileged as “those select few” and offers only the suggestion that this “minority” resort to private charity (Education, n.d. p. 2). Interestingly, Rand herself was against the concept of charity. In a 1964 interview that Rand granted Playboy magazine, she stated that her views on charity were very simple. She considered neither it a major virtue nor a moral duty. To Rand, there was nothing wrong in helping other people, if and when they were worthy of the help and you (the individual) could afford to help them. Rand’s support of a Capitalist economy intentionally disregards the fundamental rights of public schoolchildren to an easily-accessed education, elevating it just beyond their desperate grasp.
Jonathan Kozol, author of Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s Schools (1992), toured the public school systems of East St. Louis, Chicago, New York City, Camden, and Washington D.C. During his visits, Kozol was struck by the vast “disparities in education between schools of different classes and races” (urban vs. suburban). Kozol writes,

One would not have thought that children in America would ever have to choose between a teacher or a playground or sufficient toilet paper. Like grain in a time of famine, the immense resources which the nation does in fact possess go not to the child in the greatest need but to the child of the highest bidder. (Kozol, 1992, p. 72)

Adaptation of Rand’s laissez-faire Capitalism would relegate public schoolchildren to the same fate as the citizens of New York in Atlas Shrugged (1957); the innocents who languish away while the men of the mind and means turn a blind eye to their suffering, choosing instead to only “save the world” after a total collapse has ensued.


Concluding Remarks

Rand’s Objectivist theory and its specific views of metaphysics, ethics, and politics stand in total opposition to the public education system of today. While there is absolute room for improvement in present-day public schools, Rand’s recommendations of an education rooted in selfishness that is accessible only to those who have the means to pay for it, is a callous disregard for the lives of our current students and potential leaders, our future “men of the mind”.
References
Capitalism (2006). In Random House Unabridged Dictionary [Web]. New York:
Random House, Incorporated. Retrieved April 11, 2008, from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/capitalism
Education (n.d.). Retrieved March 19, 2008, from The Capitalism Website: http://www.capitalism.org/faq/education.htm
Kozol, J. (1992). Savage inequalities – Children in America’s schools. New York:
HarperCollins Publishers, Incorporated.
Montessori schools (2006, July 3). Retrieved March 17, 2008, from WikEd Website:
http://wik.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/Montessori_Schools
Rand, A. (1957). Atlas shrugged. New York: Penguin Putnam, Incorporated.
Robin Hood plan (2007, December 6). Retrieved March 18, 2008, from Wikipedia Website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robin_Hood_plan
Savage inequalities (2008, March 26). Retrieved April 1, 2008, from Wikipedia Website:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savage_Inequalities
The Ayn Rand Institute (1995a). Introducing objectivism. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from The Ayn Rand Institute Website: http://www.aynrand.org/site/PageServer?pagename=Objectivism_intro
The Ayn Rand Institute (1995b). Essentials of Objectivism. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from The Ayn Rand Institute Website: http://www.aynrand.org/site/PageServer?pagename=Objectivism_ess…
The Ayn Rand Institute (2002). Articles & extracts – Ayn Rand and her thoughts on rational education. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from the Ayn Rand Institute Website: http://www.aynrand.org/site/News2?id=6151&page=NewsArticle
Top 10 reasons to support public education (1994, June). Retrieved March 17, 2008, from the Nebraska State Education Association Website: http://www.nsea.org/parents/articles/top10.htm?printable=true
_______________________________________________________________________Formatted by Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis, National Research and Manuscript Preparation Editor, National FORUM Journals, Houston, Texas. www.nationalforum.com

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Oriel Journal of English, University of Oxford, England, Fall 2008

Reflections on Rand’s The Virtue of Selfishness: Thoughts on Collectivism and Racism

Donna Charlton
PhD Student in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View A&M University
Prairie View, Texas
Assistant Principal
Cypress-Fairbanks Independent School District
Houston, Texas

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor and Faculty Mentor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View A&M University
Member of the Texas A&M University System
Prairie View, Texas
Visiting Lecturer (2005)
Oxford Round Table
University of Oxford, Oxford, England
Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
College of Education and Professional Studies
Central Washington University

Abstract

Ayn Rand’s The Virtue of Selfishness (1964) is a collection of writings, along with Nathaniel Branden, in which she discusses a variety of pertinent queries that arise through the study of Objectivism. Her thoughts on collectivism and racism, coupled with the writer’s opinions are discussed herein. The writer concludes that Objectivism’s reliability as a viable philosophy varies according to the circumstances to which it is applied.
________________________________________________________________________
Introduction

The Virtue of Selfishness (1964) is a collection of essays, manuscripts and speeches by Ayn Rand, with additional articles by one-time friend and fellow academe Nathaniel Branden. Selfishness, as a virtue, is the central precept of “Objectivism.” Her commentaries provide insight into the objectivist view of collectivism and racism and address the layman’s questions regarding the validity and plausibility of the philosophy. Although problems abound in terms of its practicality and adoptability, Objectivism is wholly applicable to a number of current events. Even with this admission, Rand’s solutions to certain societal issues fail to offer substantive, satisfying resolutions.


Purpose of the Article

The purpose of the article is to debate the most salient issues discussed in The Virtue of Selfishness (1964) in terms of their application in a free society. Collectivized Ethics and Racism are the essays in the collection that are discussed. The article examines issues raised in these essays in the context of contemporary societal realities.


Collectivized Ethics

Ayn Rand passionately championed Objectivist ethics, distinguished from biblically-based, conventional ethics in that the concept “proudly upholds rational selfishness” (Rand, 1964). The term was coined by Rand and represents the idea that the individual should be the sole benefactor of his ideas, efforts, and achievements. It espouses that man’s decisions should be congruent with that which will enhance his life and should be the result of rational, conscious thought. Unlike conventional ethics, objectivist ethics elevates the needs of the individual above those of society. This idea, expressed as “egoism”, identifies self-esteem as a central element of man’s existence and defines his reason to live: the glorification of his own life through the satisfaction of his ego. It embraces selfishness as essential to man’s existence. That which is essential or necessary to man’s existence is considered ethical or “good”. This is the fundamental difference between the two schools of thought and forms the ethical foundation of Objectivism.
Collectivized Ethics, the tenth entry in The Virtue of Selfishness (1964), condemns the ruthless, unprincipled pursuit of interests deemed necessary for the “public good”. Long an opponent of collectivism, Rand illustrates an epiphanic court scene in Atlas Shrugged (1964) that cuts collectivism’s supporters to the quick (Rand, 1957). Rand insists that decisions made with a collectivized mind are inherently evil because such actions invariably compromise the liberties of free, innocent men. She argues that, under the “altruist-collectivist premise…the misfortune of some is a mortgage on others” (Rand, 1964, p. 93) and maintains that men have the fundamental right to live their own lives independent of circumstances that may befall others. Rand clarifies her stance regarding altruism when she states, “Only individual men have the right to decide when or whether they wish to help others; society – as an organized political system has no
rights in the matter at all” (Rand, 1964, p. 93).
Not only does she apply this philosophy to altruism, she condemns any effort that “motivates a collectivized soul” (Rand, 1964, p. 97). To wit, Rand delivers scathing commentary regarding political and governmental entities that collectively determine the rights and responsibilities of men who should be making such decisions for themselves. Many view her as an extremist and dismiss her candor as fanaticism. Recent societal trends and events lend credence to her philosophy and provide substance for fertile discourse.
The conflicts between the United States and the Middle East provide a starting point to examine the ethics of the collectivized mind. In 1989, Operation Desert Storm reopened a period of unrest between the United States and Iraq that was unrivaled in terms of violence since the Iranian Hostage Crisis under the Carter Administration. Nineteen years later, the United States is again involved in a Middle Eastern military contest. According to the Bush Administration, the justification was to secure Saddam Hussein’s weapons of mass destruction and to liberate the Iraqi people. The President and the houses of Congress, through the powers bestowed upon them by the Constitution, have the “right” to declare war and mobilize troops. And in 2002, that is exactly what they did, in the interest of society and the infamous “public good.”
In 2008, no weapons fitting the description of those used to alarm U.S. citizens have ever been found; the people of Iraq are embroiled in a civil war that has decimated its infrastructure; and gasoline has reached unprecedented highs that have destabilized the U.S. economy to the verge of recession. The corpses of more than 4,000 U.S. soldiers hang in the balance.
A man’s life is all that he truly, truly owns and should be his to live as he chooses. Rand’s position is that nature does not guarantee security, comfort or life to any living being and that man should not presume to undertake such a challenge as well (Rand, 1964). Yet, the “collectivized soul” of governmental and public entities, galvanized by their constitutionally imbued powers, sacrifice men’s lives in the name of “the public good” without so much as a backwards glance. The government might make a better case for its destructive patronization if patriotism were a factor of this equation; i.e., if Americans were sacrificing their lives for other American citizens. Yet, this is not the case.
Collectivism reduces men’s lives to nothing more significant than pawns in a game of chess. As such, they are nameless, indistinguishable and disposable. In no other context is this more apparent than in the realm of war. Hence, the collectivized mind, consisting of those who have been elected to represent the interests of the general populace, abandon reason in favor of whim as the rationale for action. Therefore, reasons that are meritless and unprincipled become as good as any. Arguably, none of the “representatives” ever feel the direct impact of their collectivized ruthlessness. Those who determine which public interests to validate also appoint those who will be sacrificed to satisfy them; interestingly, they do not appoint themselves. War is the antithesis of Objectivism and collectivized ethics is the vehicle used to mask the subterfuge of good will. Rand states, “Once, when Barbara Branden was asked by a student: “What will happen to the poor in an Objectivist society?” She answered, “If you want to help them, you will not be stopped” (1964, p. 93). If the question of war were substituted in the above quote, the same response would be appropriate.
Racism

Racism is the seventeenth entry in The Virtue of Selfishness (1964) and is a cogent, riveting commentary on a practice that has illuminated the hypocrisy of a nation that dares to declare the equality of men, yet acts in ways that denote heinous distinction. According to Rand:

Racism is the lowest, most crudely primitive form of collectivism. It is the notion of ascribing moral, social or political significance to a man’s genetic lineage – the notion that a man’s intellectual and characterological traits are produced and transmitted by his internal body chemistry. Which means, in practice, that a man is to be judged, not by his own character and actions, but by the characters and actions of a collective of ancestors. (Rand, 1964, p. 147)

Rand argues that racists reduce themselves and those they regard as inferior to “mindless aggregates of chemicals” (Rand, 1964, p. 148). Regardless of the declaration they attempt to prove, racists are grounded in the theory that race is the determining factor of the purported superiority or inferiority. In doing so, they nullify the value of the mind as man’s definitive essence. This speaks directly to Objectivism’s metaphysical elements. Objectivism holds that a man is no more and no less than his cognitive capabilities demonstrate. This, in part, is what gives meaning to his life. Rand uses numerous examples to illustrate how racists attempt to validate their superiority over other groups of people by referencing genetics, historical achievement and collective intelligence. Consistent with research and prevailing societal thought, Rand states that physiological and biological factors have no bearing on an individual’s intelligence. The essay continues with Rand making other familiar arguments against racism. She submits individualism and laissez-faire capitalism to remedy the inequity.
Taking an unanticipated epistemological turn, Rand focuses her criticism on America’s African-American population. She begins the tirade by stating:

In the absence of any coherent political philosophy, every economic group has been acting as its own destroyer, selling out its future for some monetary privilege. The policy of the businessmen has, for some time, been the most suicidal one in this respect. But it has been surpassed by the current policy of the Negro leaders. (Rand, 1964, p. 153)

Rand explains that so- called “Negro leaders,” in a desperate yet righteous effort to correct past wrongs and equalize their status, began to demand equality conditioned upon their collective minority status. These conditional demands, initially referenced as quotas, have morphed variously over the years to what we know as civil rights, affirmative action and reverse discrimination. According to Rand, “That absurdly evil policy is destroying the moral base of the Negroes’ fight. Their case rested on the principle of individual rights. If they demand the violation of the rights of others, they negate and forfeit their own” (Rand, 1964, p. 156).
She summates that this change in the course of events makes the Negro as racist as those responsible for his historical disenfranchisement and concludes that the remedy for racism lies simply in the recognition and endowment of individual rights to every man.
Rand’s analysis and argument of the issue of racism makes sense, even the disquieting pronouncement of “Negroes” adopting racist platforms to gain equality. It is simply a more cogitative expression of the ill-advised adage to “fight fire with fire.” The problem lies in the quasi-solution she offers to quash sentiments that have flourished for centuries in generations of men who see no reason to change. How does one go about the task of responding on command to Rand’s advice? This is akin to the physician telling the anorexic to eat, the master commanding his dog to “stay”, or the teacher admonishing mischievous children to be good with the expectation that after uttering the words, their work is done. It just is not that simple. According to the Bible, only God said, “Let there be light” with immediate results.
In a society of free men, what individual or entity can dictate and regulate thought? The government can levy taxes, regulate trade and force unfunded mandates but it cannot make a man think and accept something he does not believe. Objectivism celebrates man’s mind, his intellect; this ability, however, is laudable only if it exemplifies Rand’s concepts. Just as nature provides no guarantees, Objectivism cannot guarantee that free minds will make the same choices, rationally-based or not. Since rational and consistent thought is not a “given” we are still left to ponder the “Negroes’” dilemma of eradicating racism without becoming racist (Rand, 1964).
Rand presents scenarios and solutions in the context of optimal conditions. Based on the above argument, what recourse do the disenfranchised (Negroes) pursue when the controlled experiment, so to speak, does not yield the anticipated result? Since he cannot force sensible, rational thought upon those who reject it, is it then the Negro’s fate to wait in the hope that change will happen one day? If so, should he also hope that he lives long enough to realize the quality of life that is rightfully his, as a human being, to enjoy now? One must realize that hope is not a strategy and that change is incumbent upon some action that African-Americans must initiate. Rand’s suggestion is merely the statement of an ideal and, as such, holds little value. It is the end without the means to get there. This fundamental flaw debunks her entire argument. Because the end of the essay is not as coherent as its initial points, one is left to ask, “If not this (the Negroes’ misdirected attempts at equality), what then?” Another question, used in the essay as a quotation from the New York Times, poses,

But the question must be not whether a group recognizable in color, features or culture has its rights as a group. No, the question is whether any American individual, regardless of color, features or culture, is deprived of his rights as American. (Rand, 1964, p. 157)

Is there any minority who has not, at one time or another, felt the implosive impact of the answer? If Rand’s answer is the only resolution, equality for minorities may well remain a variable that is dependent upon the decisions and actions of other men.


Concluding Remarks

The Virtue of Selfishness (1964) is Ayn Rand’s commentary on the philosophy of Objectivism as it relates to myriad social, societal and individual issues that provide the parameters of man’s life. Her postulates cannot be ignored, regardless of the audience’s personal beliefs, and always invite spirited debate. Her ideas regarding collectivism and racism provide rational analysis of the issues. The inherent problems with some of her arguments reveal that Objectivism cannot be generally applied to every situation. Instead, it is a philosophy that must be put to the test with every scenario.

References
Rand, A. (1957). Atlas shrugged. New York: Signet.
Rand, A. (1964). The virtue of selfishness. New York: Signet.
Rand, A. (n.d.). Objectivism. In Wikipedia [Web]. Retrieved March 4, 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Objectivism

Formatted by Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis, National Research and Manuscript Preparation Editor, National FORUM Journals, Houston, Texas. www.nationalforum.com

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 26 (1) 2008

The Virtue of Selfishness from a Humanitarian’s View

Alex Torrez
PhD Student in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View A&M University
Prairie View, Texas
Assistant Superintendent
Clear Creek Independent School District
Houston, Texas

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor and Faculty Mentor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View A&M University
Member of the Texas A&M University System
Prairie View, Texas
Visiting Lecturer (2005)
Oxford Round Table
University of Oxford, Oxford, England
Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
College of Education and Professional Studies
Central Washington University
________________________________________________________________________
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this article is to examine the philosophy of objectivism as presented in Ayn Rand’s The Virtue of Selfishness (1964). Ayn Rand’s philosophy is centered on the objectivist ethics which advocate that man must be rationally selfish in order to insure survival. This philosophy contradicts the American spirit of giving to improve the well being of humankind by the gift of time, wealth or efforts. How do philosophies of humanitarians and philanthropist such as Mother Teresa, Bill Gates, Bill Buffet, and Theodore Roosevelt conflict with the objectivist philosophy? ________________________________________________________________________

Introduction
Rand’s novel, The Virtue of Selfishness (1964), centers on the concept of objectivism and the virtue of selfishness. Individualism focused on survival by one’s mind and avoiding the people who are incapable of providing for themselves which she characterizes as looters. Based on the fundamental beliefs of objectivism how would people such as Mother Teresa, Bill Gates, and Bill Buffet, the most generous philanthropist, who has personally donated more the 30 billion dollars to improve health care, education and address extreme poverty be categorized.


Purpose of this Article

The purpose of this article is to examine the philosophy of objectivism as presented in Ayn Rand’s The Virtue of Selfishness (1964). Ayn Rand’s philosophy is centered on the objectivist ethics which advocate that man must be rationally selfish in order to insure survival. This philosophy contradicts the American sprit of giving to improve the well being of humankind by the gift of one’s time, wealth or efforts. How do philosophies of humanitarians and philanthropist such as Mother Teresa, Bill Gates, Bill Buffet, and Theodore Roosevelt conflict with the objectivist philosophy?

Ayn Rand
Ayn Rand was born in St. Petersburg, Russia, on February 2, 1905. At the age of nine she discovered her love of writing and decided to pursue a career as an author. As an eyewitness to both the Kerensky and Bolshevik Revolution and the establishment of Communism she suffered the results of an oppressive government. The final Communist victory brought the confiscation of her father's pharmacy and periods of near-starvation for her family. A product of Soviet Russia her writings are a reflection and interpretation of the events she witnessed during her youth. Rand’s distrust of government and society are obvious in her writings. The common theme in her writing is the focus of the hero or heroes who are tortured by a society that fails to understand their individualism and need to be selfish. In her book, The Fountainhead, she presented the character of the architect, Howard Roark ,for the first time as the kind of hero whose depiction was the chief goal of her writing: the ideal man, as "he could be and ought to be" (The Ayn Rand Institute, 1995).

Objectivism and Philanthropy
Bill Gates and Warren Buffet have donated over 60 billion dollars combined to health, education, and helping address poverty. Both men have stated that they plan to donate all their wealth to decreasing the impact of poverty and improving education around the world. Bill Gates with his ability to be innovative in the field of technology and Buffet who is nick named the Oracle of Omaha for his ability to make sound investments. Gates and Buffet did not inherit their wealth but earned it through their own innovation and efforts. The breed of men Any Rand would have identified as men of the mind. To the benefit of the world these men do not adhere to philosophy of objectivism. Whether or not it is the main purpose of these two individuals to help others is beside the point. The fact that they do so with such generosity indicates that they believe that there is an end beyond their own being and accomplishments. The first sentences below are those of an objectivist point of view in regards to helping others. The second sentences are those of Bill Gates a humanitarian who values mankind more than his accomplishments and wealth.

Because a genuinely selfish man chooses his goals by the guidance of reason and because the interests of rational men do not clash-other men may often benefit from his actions. But the benefit of other men is not his primary purpose or goal; his own benefit is his primary purpose and the conscious goal directing his action. (Rand, 1961, p. 67)

And I hope you will come back here to Harvard 30 years from now and reflect on what you have done with your talent and your energy. I hope you will judge yourselves not on your professional accomplishments alone, but also on how well you have addressed the world’s deepest inequities … on how well you treated people a world away who have nothing in common with you but their humanity. (The Harvard University Gazette, 2007, June 7)

Objectivist and Poverty

If a person were to ask an objectivist a question regarding poverty, handicapped, or the mentally ill, the response could be such as the one provided by Barbara Branden, “If you want to help them, you will not be stopped” (Rand, 1961, p. 93). The objectivist would tell you that,

Since nature does not guarantee automatic security, success and survival to any human being, it is only the dictatorial presumptuousness and the moral cannibalism of the altruist-collectivist code that permits a man to suppose (or idly daydream) that he can somehow guarantee such security to some men at the expense of others. (Rand, 1961, p.94)

Guaranteeing such security for the poor, ailing, and orphaned children of the world was the calling Mother Teresa lived to fulfill. Establishing missions of hope and growing the “The Missionaries of Charity, whose primary task was to love and care for those persons nobody was prepared to look after” (Nobel Prize.org) is one of Mother Teresa’s gifts to the world. The Missionaries of Charity has established missions of hope around the world including communist countries such as the former Soviet Union, Albania, and Cuba. Giving for Mother Teresa and those who follow in her convictions can be categorized as much more important than financial assistance. The gift of unconditional love, physical assistance, spiritual guidance, and the gift of hope for those who have no one else is the greatest gift that can be received or given. Barbara Branden “If you want to help them, you will not be stopped” (Rand, 1961, p. 93). One women, Mother Teresa challenged society to see the many issues that need to be addressed for the betterment of humanity. What kind of society would we live in if the majority lived by the philosophy that helping others except by chance is in one’s best interest?


Objectivism and Society

“If some men are entitled by right to the products of the work of others, it means that those others are deprived of rights and condemned to slave labor” (Rand, 1961, p 113). The preceding comment was Ayn Rand’s reaction to Franklin Roosevelt’s declaration and reaffirmation of the economic bill of rights. The rights are as follows:
1. The right to a useful and remunerative job in the industries of shops or farms or mines of the nation.
2. The right to earn enough to provide adequate food and clothing and recreation.
3. The right of every farmer to raise and sell his products at a return which will give him and his family a decent living.
4. The right of every businessman, large and small to trade in an atmosphere of freedom from unfair competition and domination by monopolies at home and abroad.
5. The right of every family to a decent home.
6. The right to adequate medical care and the opportunity to achieve and enjoy good heath.
7. The right to adequate protection from the economic fears of the old age, sickness, accidents and unemployment.
8. The right to a good education.


Concluding Remarks
In conclusion the fundamental spirit of giving, servant hood, or being a humanitarian has had an impact on the lives of millions and is a corner stone for making the United States a nation that values the importance of helping people pursue the American dream. The Statue of Liberty reads:
Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free. The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door.
We live in a nation that has been built on the idea that everyone has the right to the pursuit of happiness. No where does it state that one man must be sacrificed for the benefit of another. The fact that people choose to be humanitarians, philanthropists, and servants gives people hope for a better society, nation, and ultimately world.
References
Rand, A. (1957). The virtue of selfishness. New York: Penguin Group.
Ayn Rand Institute (ARI) (1995). A brief biography of Ayn Rand. Retrieved March 18, 2008, from www.aynrand.org/site
Biography of the winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 (1979). Retrieved March 18, 2008, from nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1979/teresa-bio.html
Franklin D. Roosevelt (n.d.). American Heritage Center, Incorporated. Retrieved March 23, 2008, from www.fdrheritage.org/bill of rights.htm
Remarks of Bill Gates: Harvard Commencement (2007, June 7). The Harvard University Gazette. Retrieved March 18, 2008, from www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2007/06.14/99-gates.html
_______________________________________________________________________
Formatted by Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis, National Research and Manuscript Preparation Editor, National FORUM Journals, Houston, Texas www.nationalforum.com

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research
Summer 2008

On Improving Student Grades and Graduation: A Snapshot of Minority and White Students’ Success from Supplemental Instruction at the University of Missouri at Kansas City

Russell Eisenman, PhD
University of Texas-Pan American
Department of Psychology
Edinburg, TX 78539-2999

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor and Faculty Mentor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View A&M University
Member of the Texas A&M University System
Prairie View, Texas
Visiting Lecturer (2005)
Oxford Round Table
University of Oxford, Oxford, England
Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
College of Education and Professional Studies
Central Washington University

Tyrone Tanner, EdD
Associate Professor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View A&M University
Prairie View, Texas

Dr. Donald F. DeMoulin
College of Education
Doctoral Faculty
Argosy University
Atlanta, Georgia

Dr. David E. Herrington
Associate Professor
Prairie View A&M University
Texas A&M University System



ABSTRACT

The brief article focuses on improving student grades and graduation relative to minority and white students’ success from supplemental instruction at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. The authors discussed effective ways to help students who score low on standard examinations.
________________________________________________________________________

Introduction
Supplemental Instruction was created by Deanna C. Martin at the University of Missouri at Kansas City (UMKC) in 1973, aimed at preventing minority student attrition in the schools of medicine, pharmacy, and dentistry. Supplemental Instruction (SI) does not look for students at high risk for failure, as do programs that first test students for, say, English and mathematics skills and then assign those who do not pass to developmental courses. Rather, SI targets high risk courses, where many students make grades of D or F, or drop the class. SI involves regularly scheduled out-of-class peer taught sessions, which any student can attend (Jacobs, 2007; Martin & Arendale, 1994; Martin & Gravina, 1990; Martin, Blanc, & Arendale, 1994). We looked at data from UMKC on students in general: their grades and their attrition, as well as data on minority students.


The Findings
We appreciate that the SI program at UMKC gave us permission to analyze their data.

Grades and Attrition
Supplemental Instruction students received better final course grades with fewer grades of D, F, or Withdraw. For all colleges at UMKC, 2875 students were tested and 38% of the Non-Supplemental Instruction students made a final grade of D, F, or Withdraw, compared to 23.7% of students in SI. On a 4-point scale (with 4=A), the mean final course grade of non-SI students was 1.85, and the mean final grade of SI students was 2.30.
Regarding attrition, we can look at the graduation rates. For Non-SI students, within six years 18.2% had graduated vs. 30.6% for the SI students.


Minority Students
According to May Garland, for 299 minority students, the mean grade of minority students who took SI was 2.02 vs. 1.55 for minority students who did not take SI. For minority students who took SI, 36% made a grade of D, F, or Withdraw vs. 43% for minority students who did not take SI.

Concluding Remarks
The results show that Supplemental Instruction, as done at the University of Missouri at Kansas City is effective in 1. helping students make better grades, 2. helping students graduate, and 3.helping minority students. SI is an effective way to help students, in addition to the more traditional method of finding students who score low on standard exams and assigning them to remedial classes. SI makes additional peer instruction available to students who are having a difficult time in a course, and they take the SI while taking the difficult course. Students learn both what to learn and how to learn, and the data showed that this helps them succeed better in college, both in terms of grades and in terms of graduation.

References
Jacobs, G. (2007, Sept. 21). Supplemental Instruction: Overview of the model. Presentation for University of Texas System, Austin, TX.
Martin, D. C. & Arendale, D. (Eds.), (1994). Supplemental Instruction: Increasing achievement and retention. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Martin, D. C. & Gravina, M. (1990). Serving students where they fail: In class. Thresholds in Education, 16(3), 26-30.
Martin, D. C., Blanc, R., & Arendale, D. (1994). Mentorship in the classroom: Making the implicit explicit. Teaching Excellence, 6(1), 1-2.

Formatted by Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis, National Research and Manuscript Preparation Editor, National FORUM Journals, Houston, Texas www.nationalforum.com

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research
Summer 2008

On Improving Student Grades and Graduation: A Snapshot of Minority and White Students’ Success from Supplemental Instruction at the University of Missouri at Kansas City

Russell Eisenman, PhD
University of Texas-Pan American
Department of Psychology
Edinburg, TX 78539-2999

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor and Faculty Mentor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View A&M University
Member of the Texas A&M University System
Prairie View, Texas
Visiting Lecturer (2005)
Oxford Round Table
University of Oxford, Oxford, England
Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
College of Education and Professional Studies
Central Washington University

Tyrone Tanner, EdD
Associate Professor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
Prairie View A&M University
Prairie View, Texas

Dr. Donald F. DeMoulin
College of Education
Doctoral Faculty
Argosy University
Atlanta, Georgia

Dr. David E. Herrington
Associate Professor (Tenured)
PVAMU - Texas A&M University System


ABSTRACT

The brief article focuses on improving student grades and graduation relative to minority and white students’ success from supplemental instruction at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. The authors discussed effective ways to help students who score low on standard examinations.
________________________________________________________________________

Introduction
Supplemental Instruction was created by Deanna C. Martin at the University of Missouri at Kansas City (UMKC) in 1973, aimed at preventing minority student attrition in the schools of medicine, pharmacy, and dentistry. Supplemental Instruction (SI) does not look for students at high risk for failure, as do programs that first test students for, say, English and mathematics skills and then assign those who do not pass to developmental courses. Rather, SI targets high risk courses, where many students make grades of D or F, or drop the class. SI involves regularly scheduled out-of-class peer taught sessions, which any student can attend (Jacobs, 2007; Martin & Arendale, 1994; Martin & Gravina, 1990; Martin, Blanc, & Arendale, 1994). We looked at data from UMKC on students in general: their grades and their attrition, as well as data on minority students.


The Findings
We appreciate that the SI program at UMKC gave us permission to analyze their data.

Grades and Attrition
Supplemental Instruction students received better final course grades with fewer grades of D, F, or Withdraw. For all colleges at UMKC, 2875 students were tested and 38% of the Non-Supplemental Instruction students made a final grade of D, F, or Withdraw, compared to 23.7% of students in SI. On a 4-point scale (with 4=A), the mean final course grade of non-SI students was 1.85, and the mean final grade of SI students was 2.30.
Regarding attrition, we can look at the graduation rates. For Non-SI students, within six years 18.2% had graduated vs. 30.6% for the SI students.


Minority Students
According to May Garland, for 299 minority students, the mean grade of minority students who took SI was 2.02 vs. 1.55 for minority students who did not take SI. For minority students who took SI, 36% made a grade of D, F, or Withdraw vs. 43% for minority students who did not take SI.

Concluding Remarks
The results show that Supplemental Instruction, as done at the University of Missouri at Kansas City is effective in 1. helping students make better grades, 2. helping students graduate, and 3.helping minority students. SI is an effective way to help students, in addition to the more traditional method of finding students who score low on standard exams and assigning them to remedial classes. SI makes additional peer instruction available to students who are having a difficult time in a course, and they take the SI while taking the difficult course. Students learn both what to learn and how to learn, and the data showed that this helps them succeed better in college, both in terms of grades and in terms of graduation.

References
Jacobs, G. (2007, Sept. 21). Supplemental Instruction: Overview of the model. Presentation for University of Texas System, Austin, TX.
Martin, D. C. & Arendale, D. (Eds.), (1994). Supplemental Instruction: Increasing achievement and retention. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Martin, D. C. & Gravina, M. (1990). Serving students where they fail: In class. Thresholds in Education, 16(3), 26-30.
Martin, D. C., Blanc, R., & Arendale, D. (1994). Mentorship in the classroom: Making the implicit explicit. Teaching Excellence, 6(1), 1-2.

Formatted by Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis, National Research and Manuscript Preparation Editor, National FORUM Journals, Houston, Texas www.nationalforum.com

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD & David E. Herrington, PhD - National Impact

Faculty Mentor for Doctoral Student Publication


Herrington, David E. with Parson, Gail & Kritsonis, William (2006) Successful African-American Males in Post-secondary education: An Examination of Personal Strategies, Attitudes, and Behaviors. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 3 (6).

Herrington, D. with Petterway, Arthur & Kritsonis, William, & (2006). The
Impact of High Stakes Testing on the Academic Achievement of English Language Learners in Texas Public Education: National Implications. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 3 (6).

Herrington, David E. with Nickson, Lautrice & Kritsonis, William (2006). Retaining Special Education Teachers in Public Education in the United States: A National Crisis. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student
Research, 3 (6).

Herrington, David E. with Salinas, Roselia & Kritsonis,William (2006). Teacher Quality
as a Predictor of Student Achievement in Urban Schools: A National Focus. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 3 (6). (ERIC Clearinghouse Accession Number: ED 491 993)

Herrington, David with Hughes, Teresa A., Butler, Norman L. & Kritsonis, William A.
(2007, Spring). Primary and Secondary Education in Canada and Poland Compared: International Implications, The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (1).

Herrington, David with Hughes, Teresa A., Butler, Norman L. & Kritsonis, William
A.(2007, Spring). Cheating on Examinations in Two Polish Higher Education Schools, The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (1)

Herrington, David with Idaka, Idaka I., Joshua, Monday T. &Kritsonis, William A.
(2007, Spring). Attitude of Academic Staff in Nigerian Tertiary Educational Institutions to Student Evaluation of Instruction (SEI), The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (1).

Herrington, David with Butler Norman L. Hughes, Teresa A. & Kritsonis, William A.
(2007, Spring). Native and Non-native Teachers of English in Polish Schools-Personal Reflections: International Educational Implications,The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (1).

Herrington, David with Joshua, Akon M., Joshua, Monday T. & Kritsonis, William A.
(2007, Spring) Assessment of the Depth of Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Possessed by Secondary School Students in Southern Cross River State, Nigeria. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (1).

Herrington, David E. with Griffith, Kimberley, Brown, Veda & Kritsonis, William A. (2007, Spring). Mixed-Methods Research Designs. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (1).

Herrington, David with Joshua, Monday T., Joshua, Akon M. & Kritsonis, William A.
(2007, Spring). Use of Student Achievement Scores as Basis for Assessing Teachers’ Instructional Effectiveness: Issues and Research Results, The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (1).

Herrington, David, with Joshua, Monday T., Ubi, Issaac O. & Kritsonis, William A.
(2007, Spring).Gender, Personality, and Neurotic Factors in Mathematics Achievement Among Secondary School Students in Calabar, Nigeria The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (1).

Herrington, David with Obo, Fidelis E., Joshua, Monday T. & Kritsonis, William A.
(2007, Spring). Some Student-Personal Variables as Predictors of Mathematics Achievement in Secondary Schools in Central Cross River State - Nigeria, The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (1).

Herrington, David, with Hughes, Teresa A.,Butler, Norman L., Kritsonis, Mary A.
Kritsonis & William A.(2007, Spring). Religious Education in Government –Run Primary and Secondary Schools in Poland and Canada (Ontario and Quebec) – An International Focus, The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (1).

Herrington, David, with Hughes, Teresa A., Butler, Norman L. & Kritsonis, William
(2007, Spring). Education in Canada: A Lecture to the Polish Comparative Education Society, 30 January 2006 and the Foreign Languages Department, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland, The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (1).

Herrington, David E. with Anthony, Taiwanna D. & Kritsonis, William (2007). National Cry for Help: Psychological Issues as They Relate To Education--
A Realistic Approach to Understanding and Coping with African American Males. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (1). (ERIC Clearinghouse Accession Number: ED 495 296)

Herrington, David E. with Anthony, Taiwanna D. & Kritsonis, William A.
(2007, Spring). Postmodernism and National Implications for Educational Leadership. The Lamar Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (1).
(ERIC Clearinghouse Accession Number: ED 495 291)

Herrington, David E. with Anthony, Taiwanna D. & Kritsonis, William A.
(2007, Spring). An Analysis of Human Resource Management: Involving Administrative Leadership as a Means to Practical Applications. The Lamar Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (1). (ERIC Clearinghouse Accession Number: ED 495 294)

Herrington, David E. with Anthony, Taiwanna D. & Kritsonis, William A.
(2007, Spring). How to implement the “Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning” in Human Resource Management – Ten Recommendations. The Lamar Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (1). (ERIC Clearinghouse Accession Number: ED 495 293)

Herrington, David E. with Anthony, Taiwanna D. & Kritsonis, William A. (2007, Spring). Improving the Self-Efficacy and Retention of Alternatively Certified Novice Teachers within an Inner City School District: A Mixed Methods Assessment of the Effectiveness of Strategic e-Mentoring. The Lamar Electronic Journal of Student Research 4 (1).

Herrington, David E. with Edgerson, David & Kritsonis, William (2006). The Critical Role of the Teacher-Principal Relationship in the Improvement of Student Achievement in Public Schools of the United States. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 19 (3E).

Herrington, David E. with Hughes, Teresa. & Kritsonis, William., &. (2006) The Importance of Learning Community Ideology in the Transformation of Public Schools in the United States. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research 3 (6).

Herrington, David E. with Hiel, Edwin (1997, August). Plausible Uses and Limitations of Videoconferencing as a Tool for Achieving Technology Transfer. Journal of Extension 35 (4). (ERIC Clearinghouse Accession Number: EJ 584 563)

Herrington, David E. with Beard, Charles (1996, spring). Who Can We Trust: A Look at How Schools Select Technology Services. Business Sense.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD & David E. Herrington, PhD

National Refereed, Juried, Blind-Reviewed, Peer-Evaluated and Assessed National Publications

Publications

Selected Recent Peer-Reviewed, Refereed Journal Articles

2008
Herrington, David E. with Kritsonis, William Allan (2008). Essential Reflections for Non-Profits and Schools Prior to Writing and Submitting Grant Proposals. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal 21 (3).

Herrington, David E. with Egbe, Rachel, Ivy, Adam, Moreland, Brandi, Willis, LaShonda (2008). Ten Things to Consider When Developing A Survey or Assessment Instrument. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal 21 (3).

Herrington, David E. with Glasco, Rhonda L. & Kritsonis,William Allan (2008). Developing and Nurturing a Common Vision for Technology Integration in Education. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal 21 (3).

Herrington, David E. with Jedlika, Keith & Kritsonis, William Allan (2008). The
Persistence of Teacher Under-utilization of Technologies in the Classroom. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal 18 (3).
Herrington, David E. with Smith, Monique & Kritsonis, William Allan & Tanner,
Tyrone (2008). National Implications: Ten Things to Consider When Teaching Mathematics to African American Students. National FORUM of Multicultural Education Journal 5 (2).

Herrington, David E. with Puentes, Hasid & William Allan Kritsonis (2007-2008).
Student Mobility and Academic Achievement at a Selected Elementary Campus: A Case Study with National Implications. National FORUM Applied Educational Research Journal 21 (1).

Herrington, David E. with Ivy, Adam & Kritsonis, William Allan (2007). The Challenge of Building Professional Learning Communities: Getting Started. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal 26 (4).

Herrington, David E. with Bowman, Etima & Kritsonis, William Allan (2008). Seven Ways to Increase Minority Student Participation in Extracurricular Activities. National Forum of Teacher Education Journal 18 (3).

Herrington, David E. with Kritsonis, William Allan & Tanner, Tyrone (2008). National
Recommendations for Deconstructing Eduational Administration Courses: Re- centering to Address the Needs of Student. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal 26 (4).

2007
Herrington, David E. with Lupe Garza Brown & William Allan Kritsonis (2007). Campus Level Grant Writing: Leveraging Teacher Talent to Access External Funding. Journal of Border Educational Research (In submission).

Herrington, David E. (2007). In Quest of Funding Sources for Your Campus Needs:
A Primer on Demystifying the Grant Writing Process. Instructional Leader 20 (5).

Herrington, David E. with Proctor, Kathleen Kidd (2007, September). Increasing the
Role of Public School Principals and Teachers in Addressing the Needs of Homeless and Foster Children. Instructional Leader 20 (4).

Herrington, David E. with Kritsonis, William A. & Williams, Monica G. (Spring, 2007). Oral History: A Viable Methodology for 21st Century Educational Administration Research. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student
Research 4 (1).

2006
Herrington, David E. with Herrington, Kathleen Kidd (2006, Fall). Addressing the Unremitting Educational Neglect of Homeless and Foster children: Toward a Culture of Urgency and Caring. Journal of Border Educational Research 5 (1).


Herrington, David E. with Kritsonis, W. A. (2006). A National Perspective for
Improving Working Relationships Between Educational Researchers and Institutional Review Board Members. National Forum of Applied Educational Research Journal 19 (3), 1- 5. (ERIC Clearinghouse Accession Number:
ED 491 999).

Herrington, David E. with Herrington, Kathleen Kidd (2006, Fall). Coming to Terms
With No Child Left Behind: Learning to Teach the Invisible Children. National Forum for Special Education Journal 18 (1). (ERIC Clearinghouse Accession Number: ED 495 500).

Herrington, David E. with Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). Serendipitous Findings of
School-University Collaboration: A Case Study with National
Implications for Supporting Novice Teachers. National Forum for Educational Administration and Supervision Journal 24 (4).

Herrington, David E. with Hughes, T. A. Kritsonis, W. A., & Kritsonis, M. A.
(2006). A National Perspective for Cultivating Working Relationships Between Educational Researchers and Institutional Review Board Members. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 3 (6). (ERIC Clearinghouse Accession Number: ED 495 500).

Herrington, David E. with Johnson, Clarence & Kritsonis, William (2006). National Educational Dilemma: What Does a Student Need to Know: Ways of Knowing Through Realms of Meaning. National Forum of Teacher Education Journal. 17 (3), 1-5.

2005
Herrington, David E. with Ross, William (2005). Comparative Study of Pre- professional Counselor/Administrator Perceptions Regarding the Role of the Counselor in Public Schools. National Forum of Educational Administration
and Supervision Journal 25E (4). (ERIC Clearinghouse Accession Number: ED 495 485)

Herrington, David E. with Proctor, Kathleen Kidd (2005). University-School-Center Collaboration in Support of Identifying Minority Students with Hearing, Language or Speech Difficulties: Fulfilling the Spirit of Leaving No Child Behind. National Forum for Teacher Education Journal 19 (3E). (ERIC
Clearinghouse Accession Number: ED 495 486)

Herrington, David E. (2005). A Ten-Year Retrospective on Uses of Videoconferencing In Support of the Distance Learning Mission at an Agricultural Center Within a Land¬ Grant University System. National Forum of Applied Educational Research Journal 19 (3E).

Herrington, David E. (2004-2005). Educational Administration Candidates in Multiple
Roles as Evaluators, Learners, and Consumers Within a Principal Preparation Program. National Forum of Educational Leadership and Supervision
Journal, 25E, (4E) (ERIC Clearinghouse Accession Number: ED 495 490)

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Diverse Education – Cited, William Allan Kritsonis, PhD & Monica G. Williams

From Diverse Online
Feature Stories
A FUNDRAISING BLUEPRINT
By Peter Galuszka
May 1, 2008, 12:53
Howard University sets the bar high for its largest ever capital campaign, and now plans to share the secrets of its success with fellow HBCUs.


From left, President of Howard University, H. Patrick Swygert, Richard D. Parsons, chairman of the Board of Trustees’ Development Committee, and former board chairman and current trustee Frank Savage celebrate the Campaign for Howard’s success at its halfway point.
In the fall of 2001, top administrators and trustees from Howard University secluded themselves at a retreat at the posh Lansdowne Resort in the rolling Virginia countryside near Washington to discuss the future of their school. There they planted the seeds of what was to become the most successful fundraising campaign ever undertaken by a historically Black university.
For Howard President H. Patrick Swygert, the campaign was the latest in a series of fundraising efforts that he had started since 1995 when he took over as president. At the time, he recalls, “It was clear we needed a change. Only 4 to 5 percent of the alumni were participating. About 90 percent didn’t participate at all.”
The brainstorming at the Lansdowne retreat created an innovative, multifaceted and complex campaign that ended up seeing the school reach its goal of $250 million early and then surpass it by $22 million. The “Campaign for Howard” also serves as a yardstick and an incentive for other HBCUs to improve their own fundraising efforts.
At the retreat, Swygert drew upon old and young blood. Dr. James Cheek, former Howard president and now-president emeritus, and Dr. Roger Estep, a veterinarian who served as vice president for development and university relations, weighed in with their ideas. Sophisticated financial insight came from corporate luminary and Chairman of the Board of Trustees Richard D. Parsons. As the chairman of Time Warner, Parsons is one of the most prominent African-Americans in global business whose exploits have been fodder for many cover stories in national business magazines.
Participants were thinking big, indeed. It was clear that they were creating something broad-based that was to be a break from the past.
“We talked about setting a campaign goal of $100 million, then $125 million,” Swygert remembers. “Then we decided, in a burst of overconfidence that the goal should be $250 million. This would give us a stretch goal,” he says. Even the campaign slogan they came up with was tailored to let alumni know just who they were and how much they had to offer. It read: “Leadership for America and the Global Community.” The campaign kicked off in March 2002 with an end date of Dec. 31, 2007.
Not only was the $250 million goal reached 10 months before the deadline, it was surpassed by $22 million. The funds enriched Howard’s endowment to a total of $532 million, the largest of any HBCU. As many as 81 individuals pledged more than $1 million each. Swygert, who will retire in June, is now laying the foundation for another campaign aimed at $1 billion in donations that would double Howard’s endowment.
Why not? he asks. “There are about 31 university campaigns right now that have goals of more than $1 billion,” he says. Harvard University’s endowment is a whopping $34 billion and No. 2 Yale has $22 billion. Even Georgetown University just across the city from Howard has an endowment of $1 billion.
Setting an Example


Howard University President H. Patrick Swygert, who is set to retire in June, is laying the foundation for another campaign that would double the university’s endowment.
Howard’s success offers many examples for its fellow HBCUs. Swygert says he has talked informally to the presidents of other schools about his experience. Meanwhile, Howard officials are taking apart the campaign and are expected to publish a report on lessons learned that will be made available to other HBCUs in coming months.
There’s little doubt that other HBCUs could use some help. Alumni giving typically falls short of other schools. Endowments are comparatively small. While predominately White institutions have giving rates ranging from 20 to 60 percent, HBCUs typically fall below 10 percent, according to a 2006 study by Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, professor of educational leadership at Prairie View A&M University, and Monica G. Williams, a doctoral student at the university. At Howard, campaign leaders achieved their goals by tapping a number of resources. One was hiring Virgil Ecton, vice president for university advancement, a fundraising guru with experience at the United Negro College Fund. Another was upgrading the alumni offices’ information technology so it would make solicitations cheaply and easily. As Swygert notes, of 66,000 or so alumni, they only had the e-mail addresses of 7,000. “Now we have 30,000 addresses,” he says.
Direct, personal community outreach was also essential. Swygert, Parsons and other fundraisers held a series of meet-and-greet sessions with Howard alumni in Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York and Philadelphia. Renee Higginbotham- Brooks, vice chairman of the board of trustees and a Texas lawyer, remembers one alumni outreach meeting in Miami in 2004. “It really surprised everyone. It was the first time Howard had ever done that. By the end of the meeting, we had raised $7 million,” she says.
Another memorable fundraising event, says Higginbotham-Brooks, was held at the gleaming, new corporate headquarters of Time Warner in Manhattan. Trustee head Parsons arranged for the confab among his many contributions to the campaign. Swygert says Parsons played a critical role by staying the course as the head of the campaign throughout its five-year run.
Indeed, Parsons, one of the most prominent business leaders in the United States, may have been the single most important reason for the campaign’s success. At the time he took over the campaign, he was deeply involved in the troubled merger of Time Warner with AOL and was busy rationalizing the acquisition. Parsons has held a number of prominent posts in state and federal government and serves on the boards of such major companies as Citigroup Inc. and Estée Lauder Inc. He has gained plenty of fundraising experience as chairman of the Apollo Theater Foundation and as a board member of The Museum of Modern Art and the American Museum of Natural History in New York.
What’s more, Swygert says, Parsons remained as head of the campaign for its entire seven-year duration. Having one person in charge consistently made a major difference.
“There were no revolving chairs, and I can’t stress that enough,” says Swygert.
“The Campaign for Howard was a university- wide effort, involving the entire board, the administration and faculty, and students and alumni,” replied Parsons via e-mail to Diverse. “Its overwhelming success reflects the high regard in which Howard University is held by those constituencies and many other friends throughout the country.”
What’s next for Howard is planning for the next campaign, once a post-mortem is finished on the most recent one. Howard’s endowment has moved up to $532 million, up from $144 million when Swygert took over as president in 1995. He says that the nuts and bolts of the next campaign will be the brainchild of his successor. Fertile grounds for fundraising goals involve using more funds for more student scholarships. Some major universities such as Yale have announced they are wellenough endowed to start giving students from lower- and middle-income families free or cut-rate tuitions. Swygert says that as it is now, Howard’s tuition is highly competitive, but scholarships are a distinct possibility.
“You must aim high to generate energy and enthusiasm,” Swygert says, “If you are in higher education, you are an optimist.”
“Dr. Kritsonis and Monica Williams have contributed to the national debate.”

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© Copyright 2005 by DiverseEducation.com

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

National Leaders in Educational Leadership

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis
Professor of Educational Leadership
Prairie View A&M University
17603 Bending Post Dr.
Houston, TX 77095
281.550.5700/832.483.7889
williamkritsonis@yahoo.com

Dr. Pamela Barber-Freeman
Associate Professor and Interim Chair
Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling
P.O. Box 519; MS 2420
Prairie View, Texas 77446
936.261.3530
ptfreeman@pvamu.edu

Dr. Mike Desiderio
Associate Professor and Chair
Department of Curriculum & Instruction
Texas A&M University - Kingsville
722 Ragland Ave 78363
Kingsville, TX
361.516.0843
Kfmfd00@tamuk.edu

Dr. Karen Osterholm
Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling
Prairie View A&M University
Prairie View, TX 77446
979-690-3610 (h) 979.224.0393 (c)
karen.osterholm@suddenlinkmail.com

Dr. Charles Beard
Senior Programmer
Texas Education Agency
14905 Alpha Collier Dr.
Austin, TX 787728
512.238.7290 (h) 512.989.7040 (c)
chbeard@austin.rr.com

Dr. Randel D. Brown
Associate Professor of Special Education
Texas A&M International University
Laredo, TX 78041
956.326.2679 (w) 956.251.0865 (c)
brown@tamiu.edu

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

The Wall Street Journal (2008)

The Keys to a Life Well Lived

Taking care of those you love and letting them know they’re loved, which involve self-sacrifice; holding firm to God, to your religious faith, no matter how high you rise or low you fall. This involves guts, and self-discipline, and active attention to developing and refining a conscience to whose promptings you can respond. Honoring your calling or profession by trying to do within it honorable work, which takes hard effort, and a willingness to master the ethics of your field. And enjoying life. This can be hard in America, where sometimes people are rather grim in their determination to get and to have. “Enjoy life, it’s ungrateful not to,” said Ronald Reagan.


Source: The Wall Street Journal, Saturday/Sunday, June 21 – 22, 2008, A9. Peggy Noonan – A Life’s Lesson.

Disbursed by: William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Professor
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
PVAMU, Texas A&M University System

Chapter 20
The Adolescent’s Perception of Failure
The following talk was delivered by William Allan Kritsonis during the summer of 1971 at Seattle Pacific University. At the time, Kritsonis was completing the master's degree in education and the talk was given before a live audience of graduate students and professors, thus satisfying one of the special requirements needed for the degree. The talk influenced many people deeply and forced them to re-evaluate their own attitudes about success and failure.


The Adolescent’s Perception of Failure

Upwards of a thousand students commit suicide every year. They had their whole lives ahead of them, and somehow, they lost hope. No one cared, they thought; life was not worth living. They asked themselves: Is that all there is?
Suicide is certainly the ultimate self-punishment for having failed. Life was no longer worth the struggle, the effort, the will.
I would like to take a look with you at the concept of failure-at how adolescents in high school and college see it-and what we, as parents and teachers, have taught them about it.
We have all had a part in it, and we have all had to come to grips with it and to decide what failure actually means to each of us individually.
Success is important in our society, more important, surely, that the desire to live sanely and to enjoy the good things of life which one has worked for. Success for its own sake is valued-valued, and I believed at any cost, and the road to success rationalized in the name of the great American competitive way, at the expense of honest and, perhaps, sanity.
The “F” for failure has become so feared that we in education have revamped our marking system in preference for U's and E's without revamping our attitudes -attitudes of those who should know.
We are apt to be very objective when we look at our students-and we give
them what they deserve and in doing so, feel very smug. We have given out the material, we have given the examinations and now it follows, as night follows day, that we give out the marks. Yet, we forget that there is much more that a teacher gives to his or students, willingly or unwillingly. A teacher gives an example of how to look at life and at people. And if failure is viewed as the worst fate, if it is something that is given the connotation of shame, unworthiness, and hopelessness, then indeed, we have taught much more than English or history or mathematics.
Adolescence marks the trying period of search which may have the significant effects on subsequent personality structure, on later adjustments in the years that lie ahead. Probably, what brings the greatest amount of equalizing balance to the period of adolescence is the presence of significant people in the adolescent's life. Since people become so very important to him, it is the importance of some people who have that ingredient of compassion who can help the adolescent come through this unfolding, transitional period into the fullness of adult life.
The world is full of people who are fearful that they will fail at some tasks or goal and who usually manage to avoid trying for what they want because they construe failure as the worst of all possible crimes.
In a study, it was found that competitive situations around two major motives: either to achieve success... or to avoid failure. The strivers-for success were found more likely to be middle-of-the-roaders in their aspirations or ambitions, where as the failure-avoider will be either excessively cautious or extravagantly reckless in the things he tries. Because failure is painful, he will choose either extreme rather than take the 50-50 chance.
Feelings of adequacy and success may depend more on self-acceptance than on actual achievement. Regardless of actual test performance, self-accepting students tend to be optimistic, non-anxious, and non-competitive. Self-rejecting ones are anxious and unrealistic in goal-setting.
In another study, the subjects were asked to rate themselves on a list of traits as they thought they were, as they hoped they were, as they feared they were, and as they thought others regarded them. The group had first been classified as stable and unstable on the basis of a personality inventory. The stable group rated themselves higher and there was less discrepancy between their self-ratings and the way they thought others would rate them. They were also better liked, better adjusted socially, less situation dominated, and showed less defensive behavior.
Approximately half of those who enter college drop out. Many are in the highest levels of ability. When students drop out, it usually is understood that they have failed. At the college level, a great deal of attention has been given to the question: “What can we learn about those who have failed in the past that will enable us to reject similar persons who might apply for admission in the future?” Little consideration is given to the question: “What might the institution do to prevent failure, to help remedy shortcomings within the college and with the individual student, which produce failure?”
Reasons for coming to college are always multiple. Stress is usually placed on one or another of these:
- to get a better paying job
- status of a degree
- social life-all my friends are going
- avoid work
- get married
- because of parents
Many are disillusioned with what is expected of them. Many find that it's the same old things as high school-all these things which aren't practical. Others who were eager to learn find that it is not the kind of challenge they had expected.
Many entering students are sorry about the time they wasted in high school. They didn't try hard enough; they didn't apply themselves; they were more interested in athletics, social life, or other things. If we go back a bit, we find that there were many things that they were concerned about during those days-some things which were, indeed, are more important to them at the time than geometry or American history, an which sometimes were far more necessary and pressing in order that they might grow up. But, those who observe the adolescent in high school are very often unaware of what he is facing and are not able to understand why he can't buckle down. What they can't understand is that the reason is...that there are many things the adolescent is trying to accomplish and school work often provides him with no stimulation, no incentive for interest or involvement. School is just a bore! And teachers are a bore! And adults, in general, are a bore! Adults are forever talking, but what they say often doesn't seem to mean anything.
A new interest can be sparked in school when there is a teacher who does mean something. But it takes more than one teacher to make a school program relevant. When competition and success are the significant ingredients of a program, then we are apt to be creating egocentric (or self-centered) intellectuals who gloat over their achievements as they look down on those who have successfully developed feelings of worthlessness because-they have lost and lost and lost, and fear that they will probably never win-and only those who win are important.
Our task ought to be to help the adolescent to see that failure is neither good nor bad. It is, however, and inevitable fact of reality. The way we use it in our lives will determine, ultimately, its goodness or badness for us.
Each of us must learn to live with certain limitations in ability. It is only when an individual falls consistently below the norm areas that seem important to him that inferior ability constitutes a serious limitation.
From studies of both high and underachievers in high school, the pattern of the relationship between self-concept and achievement becomes clearer. There is a relationship between positive self-concept and high achievement, negative self-concept and under-achievement. The research does not indicate which is cause or effect. Chances are we can see a circular pattern beginning earlier with perception or experiences. Every experience contributes to the adolescent's evolving picture of himself, which, in turn, becomes a guide to future action.
Parental pressure for success seems to arise naturally out of a parent's desire that this child must have the best that the world has to offer, yet...in the same breath, it may be that many of them see the failure which their son or daughter may face as a failure for themselves. Many parents want their children to be a credit to them, forgetting that if a child is a credit to itself, the other will follow naturally.
Likewise, it is not important to be better than the next guy so much as it is to try to do our best. We should be our own chief and best competition. We cannot always achieve our goal, but we ought to find satisfaction in knowing we did the best we could. Too often, we are teaching the idea of striving for success in high school, in college, in athletics, in all the aspects of living, for the wrong reasons. Let's change our own attitude about success and failure.

A Thought in Words
Chance favors those in motion. Zen

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 1
Develop a Good Elementary Reading Program
Reading is the golden key to unlock doors. A child’s success in life is often determined by his or her ability to read. Since the primary years build the foundation upon which a child’s education rests, developing an effective reading program is a prime responsibility of the elementary teacher.
Research tells us that school dropouts become disenchanted, fed-up, utterly disgusted, and discouraged in school because they cannot read adequately. This is a fact! – but a fact of which elementary educators are not proud. Is there hope? Yes! Numerous school systems now employ full-time specialists in reading instruction and many schools have their own reading specialist. Is this the answer? No, it is not! The answer lies in the elementary school classroom. Students must successfully learn to read at this level in order for school systems to avoid the additional expense of hiring reading specialists at the middle, junior high, and secondary levels.
Being actively involved in the selection of new programs leads to active involvement in the total reading program when it becomes operational. Teachers must investigate different types of reading programs and evaluate them in terms of strengths, weaknesses, advantages, and disadvantages. Articles evaluating various reading programs are continually being published. Consulting these articles may help in deciding which reading program best answers class needs. This information can also be obtained through the local newspaper, educational bulletins libraries, or magazines.
When a program appears to be suitable, discuss it with the school principal, colleagues, and reading specialists. Have a qualified representative demonstrate the particular reading program or visit a school where it is currently being used. This affords the opportunity to actually see the program working, as well as to discuss its strengths and weaknesses with knowledgeable representatives or with teachers who are already using it.
Be familiar with new approaches that improve reading instruction for students. Various individualized reading programs must be studied. Be cognizant of the reading skills taught in these individualized programs and examine the basic textbooks being used. When evaluating a program, remember to consider the vocabulary builders and interest- catching factors of the total individualized reading program.
The atmosphere created in classrooms must radiate that reading is a major activity. Book clubs, posters, pageants, fairs, plays, computer fairs, book reports, and book displays help to strengthen the classroom’s reading program. Respect students’ ideas concerning reading by allowing and encouraging them to experiment. A teacher’s prime function within the classroom is to help students realize their potential and attain the highest-level possible. If elementary teachers are constantly watchful for the slightest improvement in reading and express appreciation to their students, reading will become an enjoyable and happy part of the school day for the pupil.
Children lack many reading skills and depend upon their teacher to teach them. All students must eventually master skills in phonics, note taking, outlining, map interpretation, detail reading, oral reading, auditory and visual discrimination, spelling, word recognition and word analysis, reading rate, information pinpointing, reading critically, vocabulary, comprehension skills, and many others. Teachers must have a thorough understanding of which reading skills are vital to each particular grade level. They must be familiar with the reading skills children encountered during the preceding year, as well as those that will be required in successive elementary grades. Armed with this knowledge, detailed instructional plans can be designed for teaching these basic reading skills.
Flexibility in reading is another area of concern. Children must be guided so they can read a wide variety of materials, including textbooks. When reading textbooks, they must be taught to recognize important concepts, ideas, and facts along with other essential illustrations.
Practically all reading is done for a specific purpose, whether for enjoyment or for academic reasons. Regardless of the purpose, classroom discussions offer children opportunities to develop and master special vocabulary areas.
A teacher must be aware of each student’s reading strengths and limitations. A
child must not be expected to read material beyond his or her ability. Many children experience frustration and failure in reading because they attempt to read material that is too difficult for them. One method of discovering a child’s reading ability is to have the child read, then just at the moment the child begins to have difficulty, stop him. In the next reading period begin at this point. Tape recording a student as he reads helps in oral reading. When the tape is played back for the student, he often realizes his mistakes, while at the same time he increases his reading comprehension.
Reading groups can be an effective tool if properly organized. Students in poorly planned groups quickly become disinterested. Children who cannot read competently should be grouped in small numbers. The small reading group affords the teacher more time to work with individuals. A total reading program offers ways of bringing the class together as one unit. Reading clubs, library clubs, a week for reading special books, and storytelling all keep the reading program alive, exciting, exhilarating, stimulating, meaningful, and full of enthusiasm!
Reading instruction seems to be more enjoyable in the morning, although many students prefer to read in the afternoon. It is recommended that primary students read in the morning, whereas intermediate youngsters read either in the morning or afternoon. Each teacher must decide when to have a formal reading. Scheduling two reading periods - one for the children who want to read in the morning and one for others who prefer to read in the afternoon-often solves the dilemma.
Some parents are interested in reading and would welcome the opportunity to come to the classroom to assist in reading programs. Listening to children read aloud is only one of a number of ways parents can help. Many retired persons enjoy listening, reading, and telling stories to children and are available to help.
When the teacher thinks his reading program is successful, he may want to set up a reading center to challenge readers of all levels. A computer, slides, films, tapes, and other materials should be included in the reading center. Books for extension reading are excellent, as are corrective readers. Paperback books pack interest for the reader. Vocabulary cards, phonetic flash -cards and phonetic charts, sets of

supplementary readers, along with other audio- visual materials help establish an effective reading center, as do word cards, books for general reading, picture cards, reading texts, and manuals for basic textbooks.
Children with special reading problems present educational challenges. Eye charts, pacers, and controlled readers are excellent tools for helping these children overcome their reading problems. A Tachistoscope and Opthalemograph prove most effective with assisting to alleviate remedial problems.
Many of today’s children are victims of stressful environments. Some from single-parent homes are tasked with responsibilities beyond their years; some suffer at the hands of abusive parents. Such emotional problems severely hamper a child’s reading ability. Poor health, physical drawbacks, and other circumstances also play a vital role in determining a child’s ability to comprehend the printed word. Such problems must be discovered and addressed before growth and enjoyment in reading becomes manifested. Finding a solution is a difficult task requiring hard work, and too often, this never-ending battle is neglected.

A Thought in Words

If a man empties his purse into his head, no one can take it from him. Franklin

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 2
Develop a Successful Elementary Classroom Guidance Program
Student security, emotional stability, personal satisfaction, and realization of individual potential result when dedicated teachers prepare a successful classroom guidance program for their students. Their concern for a successful adjustment to the classroom and school can be taken a step further by helping the children adjust to the community. Teachers who understand the significance of such guidance present a program that is well prepared and organized.
Each child is unique with basic desires and needs that must be satisfied and personal goals that must be achieved. If his needs are to be met, teachers must remember to include all students when planning activities and not to choose favorites. The class must be given ultimate attention when guiding children, which requires staying ahead of problems. Examining case studies will provide insight for solving future class and individual student problems.
Forming communities composed entirely of children is one approach to implementing a guidance program in the classroom. The teacher and children select various topics for discussion, and the students talk about them openly. Be objective in analyzing the discussions that grow and conduct appraisals in a respectable manner. Do not barge into these discussions; they are the children’s discussions. Be observant and offer advice only if the children desire help.
Identifying classroom leaders is important. Simple sociograms can help the teacher spot children with leadership qualities. As with all things, leadership can be positive or negative. If negative qualities are found early enough, disorders can be corrected. If positive qualities are found, striving for academic excellence becomes a total functional goal.
The guidance program must include personality development. Positive personality development is reinforced for the child through experiencing academic success. Mental health plays a vital role in the personality development of a child.

Opportunities must be provided during the day for this important development.
Authorities agree that individual growth of the total child is developed in three major areas:
1. Physical growth - having the finest physical health possible,
2. Emotional stability - having respect as an individual and feeling secure in
maintaining this respect, and
3. Academic achievement - knowing the potential he is seeking is real.
Remember these areas and strive to learn more about them, thus becoming a better equipped educator. Continue to read and learn about child growth and development.
It is important for teachers to remember the names of the children in their class, as well as the names of others who are not in their class. Imagine the embarrassment if a teacher were to meet a child and his parents in public and not be able to remember that child’s name, especially when the child remembers the teacher’s name. In many cases, a child’s name is his most important possession. Please remember this.
In the classroom, teacher student conferences are an integral part of the guidance program. Assign a specific classroom time that indicates to the child his teacher is available to talk with him. Active listening solves many problems before they happen.
If accumulative records are to be of any use, they must contain:
1. The child’s extracurricular activities,
2. Results of various standardized tests,
3. Positive comments (If negative comments appear, the teacher and principal
must decide if they should be taken out of the child’s record.),
4. Information concerning health,
5. Grade reports and other records, and
6. Other personal data.
When standardized tests are administered, the teacher must examine the results
and clearly understand how to interpret these scores. Developing positive lessons by
relating these results to instructional methods will help children overcome their learning difficulties. Standardized tests must be used in a positive manner and not have negative connotations.
Human relations in the community are improved when children’s parents understand the guidance program functioning within the classroom. Every effort must be made to help parents understand its significance.
Recommendations for guidance programs must come from reliable sources. Teacher discussions and discussions with interested members of the community often provide helpful suggestions and ideas concerning classroom guidance programs. School counselors, school psychologists, and other specialists are excellent sources of information.

A Thought in Words

Educate men without religion, and you make them but clever devils. Wellington

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 3
Handle Discipline in the Elementary Classroom
Maintaining classroom discipline is essential to a healthy school environment. Behavioral problems must be dealt with quickly, fairly, and constructively. Hold children accountable for their actions. Behavioral problems will be greatly reduced if responsibility for personal behavior is placed upon the children’s shoulders. Positive measures circumvent problems by conveying to the child that his teacher has faith in him as a person.
Begin now to move from supervising and policing children to allowing them to accept responsibility for their behavior and any actions resulting from their misbehavior. Start by having less direct teacher supervision in such places as the cafeteria during lunch, in the halls, or in the classroom during discussions. When it becomes evident that students are accepting responsibility for their actions or their behavior, you need to praise and congratulate them.
When one student fails to accept responsibility, avoid criticizing the entire group. Deal with the individual separately, away from the group setting. When disciplining one or a few students because of misconduct, remember that the other class members are doing great and continue to praise them heartily. Children can never receive too much praise!
Conduct the affairs of the classroom so that children feel lucky and privileged to come to school each day. Be enthusiastic when teaching. Organize each day’s learning activities so they will be completed by the children in an interesting manner. Provide opportunities for children and teacher to cooperate in the selection of various learning adventures that are to take place in the classroom. Cooperating with the children will be a motivating force that will energize the entire class. If children are motivated by challenging schoolwork, they will not fake illness in order to stay home. Instead, they will realize such a stunt hurts only them.
For those students who are continually absent from school, the teacher may be compelled to put on a counselor’s hat. Inform the child that he places himself in jeopardy by not attending school regularly. Though some absences are unavoidable, too often they are the result of poor emotional outlook toward school. A child must believe that he belongs. A sense of belonging to a group of children and to a teacher gives the child the security he needs. Take the necessary steps to develop group, as well as individual pride. Building group and individual student pride is important in strengthening positive learning environments in elementary classrooms.
Definite disciplinary policies must be established in classrooms and should spring from the teacher and children jointly. Allow the children to voice their thoughts about policy enforcement and consider these opinions when formulating policies. Disciplinary policies must meet the teacher’s professional needs and obligations, as well as the children’s personal needs.
Children must clearly understand that punishment is not administered for spite, but rather for specific reasons. Explain these reasons to the child before punishment is administered, making certain he understands that he is liked, but his behavior is not. Determine the severity of the punishment by the degree of misbehavior, and never discipline a child when angry. This protects the child as well as the teacher. It is wise to contact the principal when faced with the temptation of punishing a child in an unusual manner.
Many disciplinary problems can be addressed in weekly class discussions on character development. Social skills are presently neglected in the classroom. Each week, various incidents must be discussed which testify to the important roles that character development and social skills play in adjustment phases. Along with the presentation of academic subjects, general personal conduct must be discussed with children.
The newspaper is an excellent tool for deterring disciplinary problems. Have the class read articles about the good things people do, then have them read about the horrible things people do. Point out the reward for good behavior and the consequences of bad behavior. Soon, students will realize for themselves that people, more times than not, cause their own problems.
Children who are experiencing severe problems in school must be reassured of their teacher’s support. Read the accumulative records of a child to learn as much as possible about the child’s home setting. Being interested in the welfare of the child is the first step in wanting to help a child who is having difficulty in school. Some teachers visit the homes of people who are sick. Others show their interest by attending an activity the child is participating in, whether it be in school or in the community. Conference with these children and contact other teachers so problem situations can be corrected immediately. Problems can mushroom out of control if not handled expeditiously. It is easier to prevent a problem than to correct one. Most behavioral problems can be prevented by striving to resolve them quickly, and many problems would never have become realities had the appropriate steps been taken to prevent them.
The principle must be informed if the problems continue. The principal or counselor can offer helpful suggestions in dealing with problems before they become unmanageable. In such cases, soliciting parental cooperation may be necessary. Getting the parents involved usually assures that the child will be encouraged to improve his behavior at school as well as at home. Getting children to accept responsibility in the elementary school is a continual uphill battle for every teacher. When children have problems, they must be encouraged to establish goals they can achieve for their own individual safety, development, and improvement.
If corporal punishment is to be administered, it must be done as a last resort. Teachers will deal better with the student problems if they realize that corporal punishment is useless, a waste of time, and solves few problems. Corporal punishment must never be administered on or about the child’s head or face. When corporal punishment is administered, it is the teacher’s prime responsibility to ensure that a certified school system employee is present to witness the punishment. Children must not be spanked unless written consent is given by the child’s parents.
Do not threaten children. Firmness is a must with children at first, but later, the teacher may ease the rules. Some teachers create their own problems if they begin in a relaxed manner and then expect to bear down on the children when trouble develops.
Because actions speak loudly to children, teachers must be good examples in and out of the classroom. They must display characteristics of honesty, integrity, courtesy, fairness, ethics, and courage. The mature teacher has few disciplinary problems when he himself is a shining example of honesty, courtesy, and professionalism.
A child must go through certain procedures when he is tardy, and the tardiness is excused. On the other hand, if he skips school, it is the principal’s responsibility and duty to administer the disciplinary action. If the child leaves school early or cuts out of the classroom unexpectedly, the teacher and principal must both agree on measures to be taken in order to solve the problem. The parents of the child must be informed by the teacher or principal. A note sent home to the parents, either mailed or carried by the child, is effective as long as it is signed by a parent and returned to the school. The returned, signed note should be kept in the student’s personal files in the school’s office until the matter is corrected. A personal conference with the children’s parents is usually effective in solving difficulties.
Teachers must realize that some classroom problems require special attention and they must not hesitate to request assistance if the demands of the situation warrant it. Counselors can help tremendously. The school psychologist, principal, educational specialists, and nurse are employed to help, and their services must be requested.
Discipline problems will always be present in the classroom. When problems arise, maintain poise, always considering the child first. Trust the student’s sense of fair play, and his desire to do right. In most cases, children want to do the right thing. Treat each disciplinary incident as an individual problem and make a sincere effort to understand the child’s difficulty. Many times, in the eyes of a child, his teacher is the only adult who cares.

A Thought in Words
The foundation of every state is the education of its youth. Diogenes

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 4
Discover Dropouts before They Cop Out
Children must look forward to attending school. Though seemingly improbable, this attitude can become a reality if challenging and rewarding school experiences are offered. Through personal achievement, a child becomes aware of his own self-worth and anticipates opportunities for contributing to society.
A happy, contented child rarely chooses to drop out of school and is seldom a serious problem in the classroom. Inconsistent school attendance is the first indication of a student’s frustration with school. The teacher can identify these potential dropouts by taking daily attendance, then initiating corrective tactics before dropping out of school becomes copping out.
Besides chronic absenteeism, low achievement (especially in the areas of reading or mathematics), family economic problems, lack of ability to make friends or influence them, disciplinary problems, and a generally apathetic view toward school also indicate problems. Identify those students who fall into any of these categories, then aggressively attempt to change their attitudes. Telephone absent children at their homes during the school day or after school to show support for the child and parent. The absentee must come to realize that his teacher cares about him and her when he is not in school. Each child is a unique person and therefore each absence must be treated individually. Considering each and every need of the child who is having problems is of prime importance in solving the total problem.
Emphasize the value of school attendance to the child’s parents by telephoning them or by sending them a friendly, informative letter. Encourage parents of children with chronic absentee problems to receive in-service training and become involved in the classroom as teacher assistants. As their involvement in the school’s educational program increases, the importance of having their child attend school regularly is sharply accentuated.
Another effective approach for reaching out to habitual absentees is to personally visit their homes and to encourage classmates to do likewise. Dropout characteristics in children at the elementary level often vanish completely when peers join teachers in home visitations.
Teachers can help children having attendance problems by assigning supervised attendance. Extra- curricular activities also provide opportunities for children to assume attendance-taking responsibilities. Drama, sports, creative dramatics, music, computer clubs, and assemblies are excellent extra curricular activities for assigning responsibilities to problem children. Monthly contests often simulate children to want to attend school more regularly. Give recognition to those who show signs of attendance improvement.
Assure children they will be allowed to make up schoolwork they missed due to an absence and provide opportunities for them to do so. Arrangements must be fair, consistent, and reasonable, emphasizing clearly to the child the importance of attending school regularly. In certain instances, the teacher must exercise professional judgment in making exceptions based on particular circumstances.
Curriculum offerings must promote academic achievement. Unfortunately, present educational systems fail to meet the needs of many children many are held back each school year. These children require special attention to dispel their feelings of failure. The responsibility of providing these children with interesting, challenging, stimulating, and newer materials becomes crystal clear. Constant evaluation of the depth and breadth of the curriculum helps to maintain a quality education program. Special provisions must be made for both the above average student and the slow learner. As the student enjoys the benefits of achievement in a strong curriculum, his personal growth will be evident.
Oftentimes, appealing to a student’s sense of school pride will reverse his decision to drop out of school. Having children actively participate in keeping the classroom, school buildings, and the school grounds neat, clean, and attractive provides school spirit that spreads throughout the entire student body, and carries over into junior and senior high school.
Another way of reaching those students having difficulties in school is to have
children in the class tutor them. Peer tutors can help by discussing school attendance with problem students or by assisting them with schoolwork or homework. Leaders from the community can often motivate students to become more interested in school and in their community.
Individualizing instruction falls on many shoulders, but it falls heaviest on the shoulders of those who teach daily in the classroom. Avoid criticizing a child who is having difficulties adjusting to or fitting into an individualized program. Remember that many children are not mature enough to be placed in such academic programs.
Despite a teacher’s noblest efforts to help problem children, there will still be those who require additional attention. The child having problems in various subject areas must have the opportunity to experience success in the classroom. Set aside a block of time where this child can study one particular subject area. Counsel with him and offer guidance in handling personal difficulties and identifying goals. It is sometimes beneficial to have parents involved in the goal discussion and planning sessions. Parents want to participate in establishing long-range goals, concerns, and objectives for their child. In these sessions, encourage the parents and child to work together to develop habits that will guarantee success. The teacher, as the professional, will be expected to provide effective leadership and to monitor the situation closely. When the child is successful, praise him.
Summer remedial programs provide excellent opportunities for primary grade students who are experiencing problems. If not dealt with properly and systematically, these problems may cause children to want to drop out and cop out in later years.
Enthusiasm is a golden key to teaching, and teachers must strive to maintain a high level of honest enthusiasm throughout each teaching day. Be five-times more enthusiastic than normal and watch how potential dropouts respond. Many times their response is to dispel all thought of copping out of school.

A Thought in Words
He is to be educated not because he is to make shoes, nails, and pins, but because he is a man. Channing

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 5
Handle Transportation Problems
The yellow school bus is as integral a part of education as are the classrooms and teachers. Bus transportation ensures that classrooms are brimming with children. As with every other facet of education, reducing the logistic problems of transporting these children to and from school requires gallant effort from the classroom teacher.
In addition to greeting students each morning with a warm, friendly smile, teachers must supervise the unloading of the school bus. Some schools have a rotating list whereby teachers take turns supervising the children’s arrival. In the classroom, a time schedule listing each bus can be posted to encourage children to accept the responsibility of knowing where to meet the bus and when they will be dropped off after school. During the first two or three weeks of the school year, give each child a numbered card that corresponds to his bus number to ensure he boards the correct bus.
Discuss issues of general bus safety with the class. Explain to the children why the bus picks them up, where it does, and why it follows a certain route each day. Stress to the students the importance of being safe while waiting for the bus. Remind them that when waiting for the bus, they must stay off the highway until the bus pulls to a complete stop. This point can never be overemphasized! Tell children they are not to stand while the bus is in motion. When approaching the school grounds or their drop-off point, they must wait until the bus driver tells them that it is safe to stand up.
Misconduct on the bus is a problem that must be handled with positive corrective measures. Discuss with the children that there is to be no shoving, pushing, playing in the aisles, standing, throwing, or yelling on the bus. Explain to them that their lives are endangered when the bus driver is forced to handle disciplinary problems while the bus is moving. Insist that the bus driver explain bus rules to the children at the beginning of the school year. An open, sincere, and close relationship between child, teacher, and bus driver will prevent misbehavior problems.
When notified that a child has caused problems on the bus, obtain first-hand facts by talking to the bus monitor (if there is one) and bus driver. Inform the principle of the situation and ask for his advice. Sometimes parents must be contacted. Stress to parents that their child’s safety is of prime importance to school personnel and, in order to ensure their safe transportation to and from school, safety rules must be practiced and rigidly enforced. If bus misbehavior continues, the teacher, counselor, or principal, must advise parents of the policy of suspension, explaining the procedure clearly. Effective human relations are strengthened when basic procedures are clearly spelled out.
Children soon realize for themselves that good conduct saves lives. Tell them that in case of an emergency, the bus driver will choose only the people who have been good citizens to help. In an extreme emergency, a good citizen might be asked to go for help if the bus breaks down. Awards for superior bus conduct stimulate children to act better.
Inform the children that they are expected to keep their bus clean. Sometimes this means reminding the pupil next to them to keep it clean also.
Standard regulations govern bus transportation. Stay abreast of pertinent information by asking the principal or by writing to the state department of education for a booklet of rules, regulations, and laws.


A Thought in Words

Repetition is the mother of education. Jean Paul Richter

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 6
How to Make Beginning Teachers and New Staff Feel Welcome
Feeling anxious about the first day of school is natural for first year teachers. Experienced teachers can ease this tension by arriving at school before the new staff members and welcoming them honestly and sincerely, perhaps offering to lead them on an informal tour of the school. Acquaint them with the community that is to become their new home by highlighting its recreational attractions and suggesting places for shopping. Point out the best areas for buying or leasing a house or renting an apartment. These expressions of interest build camaraderie and boost school morale.
Often principals will assign experienced staff members to act as a “mentor”, “big sister”, or “buddy” to new staff members. When the principal asks volunteers to help orient new teachers, conscious teachers volunteer their services. Such services promote positive human relationships between present and new staff. Whether selected or not, the important thing is to be available.
If chosen to be a “mentor” to a new staff member, readily offer assistance, information, and ideas. The newcomer usually has a multitude of questions concerning his new position, salary schedules, absence procedures, paying substitutes, contracts, insurance policies, health requirements, medical benefits, and other regulations set forth by the school system, state, and national associations. Having these questions answered expediently helps in the adjustment to a new work environment.
Planning the first day is an important task for the beginning teacher who often feels insecure at the start of the school year. Guidance from an experienced professional educator is valuable. Ensure that the beginning teacher is at ease when talking about classroom teaching. Discuss organizational components informally, pointing out what will be expected. Help with lesson planning by offering assistance rather than waiting to be asked. Impress upon the beginning teacher that if the children are performing meaningful and worthwhile learning tasks, they seldom become discipline problems. If at all possible, arrange for the new teacher to observe an experienced teacher in a classroom teaching situation. Such thoughtful gestures are appreciated, though this is not always verbalized.
Explain that in the event of unusual requests by children, parents of children, or parents requiring a decision, the principal is to be contacted before the decision is rendered. It is important that the new staff member keep the principal informed about special requests.
Some school systems and communities do not approve of teachers smoking or drinking in public, or wearing flashy clothes. Drop in for an informal visit with the new teacher during the day or at the close of the school day and mention these issues. Regardless how foolish they seem, it is best to advise newcomers before mistakes are made.
Do not burden the new staff member with school problems. Refrain from discussing petty gripes or such things as the pros and cons of the teaching profession. The beginning teacher or new staff member does not need an experienced professional pointing out such things, as they will discover them soon enough on their own.

A Thought in Words
Education does not mean teaching people to know what they do not know, it means teaching them to behave as they do not behave. Ruskin

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 7
Prepare for the Opening and Closing of School
As surely as night follows day, the opening of a school year will be followed by its closing. Because the opening and closing affect parents and children directly, they must be planned carefully. It is the teacher’s responsibility to be well prepared for any unexpected situation that might present itself.
The beginning of a school year is the perfect time to check that teaching certificates are properly registered with the school system and state department of education and that health records are still valid from the previous school year. Become familiar with insurance policy and health requirements and update medical data at this time. First year teachers, remember that it is good to have health exams submitted to district offices before or during the first week of school.
During each school year, teachers face unexpected illnesses that necessitate their being absent. Know the proper procedures for reporting such absences so the school system can provide a substitute. Prepare detailed lesson plans for the substitute. Personal leave should also be addressed at the beginning of the school year. Be familiar with the proper steps for requesting personal leave in the event it is required.
Spend a few minutes at the beginning of the school year to mark calendars for holidays, report card days, conferences, paycheck issuance, and other special events scheduled during the year. Find out how often fire drills are to occur and know exactly where children are to be directed.
Opening day will usher in a host of energetic children eagerly anticipating new experiences. Having the school plant free of potential hazard is absolutely imperative. The playground areas and all playground equipment must be thoroughly inspected and be safe for children.
The classroom also must be readied for the first day of school to ensure productivity. The inventory list of instructional materials must be checked. Are books and other reading material in the classroom? Are supplies of crayons, pencils, scissors, paper, and other items ample for the size of the class? Are computers, tape recorders, and screens for showing films and other equipment in proper working order?
Posting the names of children assigned to a particular classroom on the door reduces opening-day confusion. Prepare the class roll and accumulative student records and have them on hand. Overcrowding in the classroom must be dealt with immediately. Inform the principal so necessary administrative steps can be taken to alleviate the problem. At the end of the first day, give the secretary or principal the exact enrollment count so they ensure that all children are with their assigned teacher.
Exceptionally well-organized teachers send greeting cards home to parents with short, handwritten message stating what a pleasure it is to have their child as a student. After school has begun, an announcement can be sent home informing parents of school times, lunch prices, and information such as office hours in the event they would like to schedule a conference. Giving office hours promotes positive public relations between parents and teachers while preserving professional organization at school.
Elementary teachers must be thoroughly familiar with special activities in the school. Know the scheduled times for library and educational specialist visits, physical education, and instrumental music lessons. Assembly programs, club meetings, and other special classes such as art, speech, computer lab, and creative dramatics are all an important part of the functioning elementary school.
Being on good terms with the school custodian helps the classroom operate smoothly. Teachers can make the custodian’s job easier by having the class straighten their desks, put up their chairs, remove trash from the floor, and empty trash cans during the latter part of the school day. Taking time to interact with the custodian each day by inquiring about the activities he enjoys or asking about his family will strengthen the relationship between the teacher and custodian.
As the school year draws to a close, evaluate the year’s total educational program. If changes in scheduling and curriculum must be made, discuss them with the principal. Explain any immediate concerns for the following year, remembering to keep the main focus on the needs, interest, abilities, and desires of the children and how these changes affect their lives.
On the last day of school, adhere to scheduled activities. Have the children work on worthwhile learning adventures. Allow for flexibility, but function in an orderly fashion. If not properly organized, the day could get out of hand.
Read all closing school bulletins completely and thoroughly. Be certain that all student accumulative records, attendance records, promotion and retention lists, and financial lists are completed and submit them to the school office before leaving for the summer.
If at all possible, secure the names of next year’s students, as well as the addresses of the current students. This makes it easy to contact new students and to remain in touch with former students during the summer vacation. Sometimes, sending a card or letter to new students will reduce first- day- of- school – jitters. Also, some teachers occasionally send review work to former students to refresh their memories during the summer vacation. Parents appreciate this gesture.
As the school year closes, strip the classroom of all items and leave it neat and orderly. Prepare for the principal a list of needed repairs on visual aid equipment such as computers, copying machines, or overhead projectors. Remember that certain items must be checked into the office before signing out for the summer. This list includes the following:
1. Teacher manuals, handbooks, and policies,
2. A list of those children retained for the next year,
3. A list of those children promoted to the next grade,
4. Keys and Locks. (Remember to label properly.),
5. Room inventory data,
6. Class roll books, receipt books, and teacher planning books,
7. List of the various repairs in the classroom and elsewhere that must be
attended to before next school year begins,
8. Accumulative records,
9. Any other special reports, and
10. Your summer address.

Contribute towards expenses for gifts that are bought for teachers who are leaving the school system or retiring. If the opportunity presents itself during the final meeting, express thanks and give recognition to staff members for their cooperation during the school year. Be honest, sincere, and polite in closing remarks wish them all a pleasant summer vacation. Now is also a good time to express honest and sincere appreciation to the principal for his leadership as an administrator. Spend these final minutes in a friendly conversation and end by saying thank you to the principal for a job well done.
This chapter has concerned itself with the opening and closing days of the school year. Though these suggestions are aimed primarily at the inexperienced teacher, all can profit from having reviewed them. Speaking straight to the point, a thorough job of closing school will make for a smooth opening in the fall. Perhaps someday a computer will be tasked with the chore of opening and closing school and the teacher will simply walk to the classroom and begin teaching. Until such a time, however, practicing these suggestions will make for an easier transition.

A Thought in Words
Education makes a people easy to lead, but difficult to drive; easy to govern, but impossible to enslave. Lord Brougham

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 8
Develop a Successful Intramural Program
All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. It also makes Jill a dull girl. For this reason, elementary children must be offered the opportunity to participate in physical activities apart from regularly scheduled physical education classes. Intramural sports provide the perfect opportunity. A well-organized intramural program reinforces the skills that have been taught during physical education, builds new skills, and strengthens desirable attitudes such as cooperation among children.
Every school, regardless of size, must participate actively in intramural competition. Teachers must become familiar with what a successful program entails. Often, simply pointing out the need for such a program to the principal, who then informs the central administration, is enough to get the program started. The intramural program is a vital link in the school’s educational program, for it, too, is an educative process. Through intramural sports, children learn valuable lessons that could never be taught in the classrooms. Team effort, good sportsmanship, and fight-to-the-finish attitudes prepare today’s little people for tomorrow’s ventures. From the dust of ball fields rise future businessmen and businesswomen, civic leaders, and professionals.
An intramural program must be tailored to available school equipment and facilities. Occasionally, this severely limits what a school can offer. Keep in mind however, that the program’s success is not measured by the shine of the new equipment but rather by the shine in the children’s eyes.
Competition between intramural teams can be organized through homeroom teams, teams for each grade level, physical education classes, or through groups based on weight, height, or chronological age. The intramural teams must be as evenly balanced as possible. Varsity players must not participate in the same sport on an intramural level. Instead, use them as helpers. Children who do not posses the ability to participate on the varsity level must not be expected to compete at this level.
Use pyramid tournaments, single or double elimination, round robin, ladder, or any other type of tournament for competitive purposes. If these activities cannot be scheduled during the lunch period, or before or after school, then and only then should they be held during the regularly scheduled physical education period. Since many elementary children are bused to and from school each day, the intramural programs can also be scheduled during the regular school day in order to offer these children the opportunity to participate.
Not all teachers posses the athletic abilities necessary to lead and conduct an intramural program; however, all teachers must get involved in some way so they can periodically evaluate the program’s value and offer positive suggestions for improvement. An interested faculty member might be asked to serve as intramural coordinator or director for the entire school. In larger schools, it may be necessary to have more than one coordinator.
Parents must give written consent before their child is allowed to participate in intramural activities. No child is to be excluded from participating because of poor academic achievement.
Some intramural activities can be scheduled throughout the school year, while others work better when scheduled in the fall, winter, or springtime. Special bulletins providing the details of the various activities can be distributed to parents. This is an excellent public relations tool, for parents will appreciate the opportunity to see their child compete, regardless of his athletic ability.
If certain children are limited in their natural athletic abilities, a solid remedial intramural program must be established immediately in order to satisfy the needs of these children. If the remedial program is not spearheaded by the principal, then elementary teachers must accept the responsibility of organizing the program.
An intramural handbook can prove to be a valuable tool for teachers organizing activities. Study the aims, objectives, and goals of various intramural programs. The result will be better program due to the fact that the coordinator is informed and understands what elements are essential for creating a quality elementary school intramural program.

A Thought in Words
Education is the apprenticeship of life. Willmott

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 9
Plan Field Trips
Field trips are an extension of the classroom’s education program. If well planned and properly supervised, they can be exciting and enriching learning experiences for the class. Creativity is unleashed when learning moves from the four-walled classroom to the classroom of the world. Field trips offer children an opportunity to learn by seeing, touching, and exploring what they read about in books. As children gaze upon historic monuments or retrace the footsteps of bygone heroes, as they observe intricate conveyor belts manipulate products in a factory, or as they stand before huge printing presses spitting news copy with lightening speed, they discover life and their appreciation of the community, state, and nation in which they live.
If a field trip is going to be successful, careful planning is essential. Children feel a part of the total experience if they are allowed to help plan the field trip. Guide the class in the planning stages by outlining the academic subject students are currently studying and pointing out exactly what they can expect to observe while on the field excursion.
Schedule field trips well in advance. Consult the principal or the central administration at least six weeks prior to short field trips and three to four months prior to extend field trips. If extended field trips are planned, the teacher and principal must hold parent conferences or a meeting to explain in detail all teacher, school, parent, and student responsibilities for the field excursion. Be familiar with the legalities involved in taking such trips, and inform parents or other sponsoring groups of various responsibilities.
Post notices informing other faculty members of the class field trip. Furnish a concise statement and outline to the principal approximately three weeks before the scheduled trip. In the event changes are necessary, plans can be modified in time to preserve the excursion.
Strengthen student participation during the trip by signing groups of children to specific study phases of the adventure so all children gain fully from the learning

experience. These assignments may be issued a week or two prior to the trip.
Teachers must realize the importance of traveling to unfamiliar places in advance of scheduled field trips. Teachers responsible for securing buses should do so a week or two in advance so that the necessary paperwork is submitted prior to transportation deadlines. Being familiar with travel distances help in determining departure time, arrival time, and time of return to the school. Also, other information may be discovered that will expose unforeseen problems and give a clearer idea of what the teacher should expect. Be sure to inform pull-out program teachers and ancillary staff about students who will not be attending their class that day. In addition, provide the cafeteria supervisor with a list of students who may need a sack lunch.
Before the day of the field trip, stress to the children the conduct and behavior that will be expected of them. Send a letter to parents explaining rules and regulations for student conduct and behavior. In this informational letter, tell parents that the children will be representing their homes, school, and community and suggest that parents discuss appropriate field trip behavior with their child. This makes the teacher’s job easier and solves potential problems. A permission form must accompany the policies and regulations letter. Have the parent sign three copies. They keep one copy for themselves and return two copies to the school. Send one copy to the principal and keep one on file in the classroom. Under no circumstance should a child be allowed to travel on the field trip without the specific, written consent of parents or guardians.
A male and female from the faculty should accompany the students on the field trip. Due to safety issues, some school districts require parents who will be attending the fieldtrip to undergo a criminal background check. Make sure parents are aware of the school's policies and procedures concerning this matter before the day of the trip. Each teacher must not be expected to be responsible for more than 35 elementary age youngsters. Under no circumstances should two teachers be responsible for more than 70 children unless, of course, a parent offers to help chaperone - in which case no more than 12 children should be assigned to the parent. Unless they have had supervisory experience with children, parents must NOT be expected by certified teachers to perform professional duties.
Discourage use of private vehicles for field trip transportation. If, however, no alternative can be found, ensure that all vehicles have proper insurance coverage and meet current safety regulations. Seek assistance from local police authorities in checking the safety of cars, drivers, and insurance coverage’s. Do not assume the principal will check everything, for most principals are not auto mechanics by trade. School system buses are generally inspected by the transportation department, but it is a good idea to check again for proper ventilation and other conditions to ensure the children’s safety. It must be the teacher’s professional judgment that safe and adequate transportation is being provided by conscientious adult drivers.
Do not allow any child to exit the transportation vehicle until told to do so. Children must thoroughly understand that only their teacher is to give permission to exit the transporting vehicle.
Emphasize to the students that they are to remain with their assigned group during the trip and are to conduct themselves properly at all times. Stress that yelling at passengers in other vehicles or holding items (including arms) out of the windows is strictly forbidden.
Plan meaningful follow up activities for the class to reinforce learning. Have the class write letters to the host of the place they visited, summarizing their learning experiences and expressing appreciation for being given such an opportunity. These can be in long-hand, but they should be accompanied by a typewritten letter from the teacher. This small courtesy ensures future invitations. As a special consideration, the class and teacher could write letters of appreciation to any person who helped furnish transportation and others who contributed to the success of the field trip.
During informal discussions involving all children in the class, evaluate the field trip to determine its success. Submit to the principal a report of this discussion, highlighting the educational merits of the field trip as seen through the children’s eyes.
The principal can then make his own personal assessment of its success.

A Thought in Words
Education commences at the mother’s knee, and every word spoken within the hearsay of little children tends towards the formation of character. Horace Ballou

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 10
Establish a Study Center in the Classroom
The elementary teacher is constantly being bombarded with innovative ideas and suggestions emphasizing the need for independent classroom study centers for children. Traditional independent study centers afforded students the opportunity to complete assignments and to develop better study habits; however, it did not always give them the teacher assistance they so desperately needed in English, mathematics, reading, and other subjects. For this reason, the traditional center is currently on its way out and is being replaced by student-oriented study centers that involve more individual participation.
When establishing a study center, examine different facilities in order to determine how to provide an efficient, workable study center. Detailed planning is vital if the study center is to be successfully instituted. For maximum appeal to children, equip the study center with charts, maps, scales, magazines, reference book materials, tape recorders, listening posts, and globes. Computers provide invaluable teaching assistance and educational software, readily available for all levels, to make learning fun. When choosing instructional materials, remember to allow for individual differences in terms of academic performance, interests, skills, and abilities. Divide the center opportunity to individually choose specific areas that satisfy personal education needs.
As members of the class require additional information, encourage them to use the study center. The atmosphere within the study center must motivate children to help one another and to work constructively and cooperatively on projects and topics for which there is common interest. Be available to each child by rotating through the various study areas as much as possible during the day. Even the best-equipped center cannot replace the human element of teacher interaction.
Assign children requiring special information to a specific curriculum area. Children who do not accept the responsibility of being assigned to a study area must not be allowed to disturb students who are there to work. On the other hand, those students who are responsible for their sections can be granted freedom of movement to select the curriculum areas where they wish to work.
The study center can be an invaluable tool for providing challenging educational opportunities to students. Bright students are free to expand their horizons without the frustration of accommodating slower classmates. Slower students, with the aid of study center computers, receive the repetitive exposure they need to thoroughly understand subject matter. Even the teacher, for whom the pressure of being all things to all people is finally alleviated, enjoys the benefits of successful study center.
Following directions is extremely important in the classroom. The teacher should post the following list in the classroom so students know what is expected of them when they complete and submit work:
1. Read everything carefully,
2. Read again anything you do not understand,
3. Begin work carefully,
4. Complete all work,
5. Check your work again to make certain you have completed all tasks, and
6. Submit your work.

A Thought in Words
An industrious and virtuous education of children is a better inheritance for them than a great estate. Allison

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 11
Use Instructional Materials and Audio-Visual Aids in the Classroom
In the course of traditional teaching, students sometimes fail to command a thorough understanding of their subject matter, whether complex or simple. Using audio visual aids in addition to the textbook brings such subject matter into clearer focus and often improves teacher effectiveness in the classroom.
Teachers have always been exposed to a large variety of instructional materials and audio- visual aids during training, yet they often avoided using them in classrooms because they simply did not have the time to master their functional operation. Today’s selections of audio-visual aids, though highly sophisticated, have been engineered with the user in mind. These include interactive computers, overhead projectors, movie projectors, cassette recorders, and television video recorders. Decide which of these best contributes to the educational goals set for students and then plan classroom activities so it will be incorporated in the learning process.
Observing teachers who are using educational equipment can be motivating. Stay abreast of what is available in instructional materials by attending workshops on audio-visual education, radio and television production, or effective use of computers. If unfamiliar with certain instructional materials, aggressively seek in-service training to learn how to use instructional technology. Effective use of audio-visuals enhances classroom learning and unleashes creativity in teacher and students.
Strive constantly to improve teaching methods by seeking innovative aids that will motivate children towards more successful communication. The secret to effective planning is using a variety of instructional materials including print material such as books and pamphlets; non-print materials such as pictures, CD's, DVD's , records, and tapes; and the necessary audio visual equipment for viewing of and listening to these materials. Evaluate their effectiveness in the classroom and make necessary adaptations to attain maximum potential.
An overhead projector by itself or accompanied with a computer is essential
equipment for any classroom. Like the chalkboard, the overhead projector has a variety of instructional functions. One of its main advantages during presentation of subject matter is that it allows teachers to face students rather than teaching with their backs to the class as when using the chalk board.
Regardless of location, culturally disadvantaged and socially deprived children will be present in the classroom. Appropriate instructional materials for these children help to cross cultural barriers and unblock the learning potential of these students. Search continually for innovative technology that will meet the needs of these children.
Teachers who participate in school system, county, and state-wide programs for developing and writing resource lessons become acquainted with the diverse enrichment materials that are available for classroom use. Discover where and how to obtain these various materials and then use them to obtain these various materials and then use them to obtain maximum classroom effectiveness.

A Thought in Words

Education is the chief defense of nations. Burke

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 12
Use the Library More Effectively
The elementary school library contains a wealth of information that supplements and enriches classroom curriculum. But this wealth, if untapped, remains ineffectual. The responsibility of teaching students how to use the library effectively rests upon the shoulders of the elementary teacher. If students learn during their formative years that library visits can be fun and interesting, chances are they will continue using the library in later years.
For many children, reading is a drudgery. This attitude issues a challenge to teachers - a challenge that must be answered with positive action. One positive step is to obtain books from the school system’s main library and display them attractively in the classroom to pique the children’s interest. If children see colorful displays, often they will take a closer look.
Teach the students about the library’s physical arrangement of children’s books and special reference books. Ask the librarian to explain to the class the library’s system for filing books in the individual sections. Emphasize to the student’s that they are to make an honest effort to find books and other materials before asking the teacher or librarian for assistance. The basic procedures and regulations for checking books out of the library must also be reviewed. If books are examined by children at a reading table, instruct them to leave those on the table for library helpers to properly shelve later.
Give the children an opportunity to use the library for projects in language arts, social studies, science, independent reading, and other subjects. Arrange with the librarian for the class to spend at least thirty minutes per week in the library. Accompany the class to the library and occasionally remain with them. A great deal can be learned by assisting the librarian during this week. This period can be earmarked for special projects or simply as a time for pleasure reading.
Current issues of magazines with intrinsic educational value are usually available in the school library. Guide students to magazines such as National Geographic, Popular Science, Holiday, Newsweek, U.S. News and World Report, Life, Time, and others that may be on display. Carefully screen any magazines or other books that may have been contributed by members of the community.
Ask the librarian for permission to set up displays to exhibit special work. This informs teachers, principals, parents, and other children of classroom activities and instills a sense of pride in each child whose work is on display.
Elementary children face increased responsibility for independent study. An excellent library meets the needs of these children by providing individual study carrels and rooms for small group study and conferences. The library must also provide large televisions, record players, earphones for silent reading and listening, soundproof booths for computers, educational technology typewriters, tape recorders, and bioscope. Computers, movie projectors, and film projectors give added educational support to the total instructional program. Notify the librarian of children who need special attention in the library and ask they be given professional assistance.
Students ultimately benefit from cooperation between teacher and librarian. Unpleasant feelings often result because librarians are not notified that a class will be tardy. If the regularly scheduled class library time must be postponed or canceled, inform the librarian as soon as possible so other arrangements can be made to maximize the use of the library facilities.
After planning a study unit, it is a good idea to submit a copy to the librarian approximately six weeks before beginning the study. This gives the librarian time to assemble supplemental reading materials for the class in order to enhance learning opportunities for students. Consulting with the librarian before class assignments are made prevents problems caused by unavailability of materials. If informed before hand, the librarian can reserve the necessary reference material for the class.
Impress upon the class their role in the library and the library’s role in their academic lives. Overdue books are cause for concern. Teach children to be responsible for borrowed books. This will develop good human relations between the class, teacher and librarian.
The children must fully understand that the library is a place for studying as well

as for quiet reading. In order to maintain a proper environment, children must refrain from making excessive noise during visits. Developing library courtesy ensures that class visits will be welcomed and the excursion will be a happy one.
The library must not be used to discipline students. Library visits are a privilege and not punishment. Get the children actively involved in the library by allowing them to be helpers. A rotating schedule can be developed so each child has an opportunity to serve in this role.
If a full time librarian is not present at the elementary level, teachers must accept the library responsibilities on a rotating basis. These would include supervising the proper shelving of books, keeping accurate circulation records, and guiding children in the selection of books in order to help them develop diversified reading habits. Also, maintain library bulletin boards. A well-planned, colorful exhibit is appealing and can stimulate student’s interest for reading.
Visit book fairs to become apprised of new reading materials that are available. Jot down the title, author’s name, publisher, and price of interesting books and ask the school to purchase them. Plan to use these for class projects.
Finally, support the library and it’s value in the school. Be quick to express positive feelings honestly during meetings or conferences. This positive feedback may inspire fellow faculty members who were not aware of the library services to utilize the library for more class study projects.

A Thought in Words

Of all created things, the loveliest and most divine are children. William Canton

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 13
Participate in the School Faculty Meeting
Faculty meetings have long been a tradition in all phases of education. Though sometimes viewed negatively, faculty meetings can be a positive force for teachers and principals that result in many school improvements. Since teachers are the core participants, the meeting’s success depends on whether or not they participate honestly and actively.
All faculty meetings should begin promptly. Teachers must be notified by the person conducting the meeting if a delay is necessary. Lack of communication causes distress and frustration among teachers. It is important to resolve this issue before it becomes a problem.
The trend now is for teachers and the principal to cooperatively plan faculty meetings. Teachers must not expect the principal and fellow faculty members to carry the burden. All can become active participants by studying the agenda beforehand in preparation for the meeting. If the principal wants classroom teachers or department heads to conduct the meeting, offer to do so rather than waiting to be asked. Since the majority rule applies in most meetings, voicing opinions can give depth to discussions. Each participant must feel free to ask questions and offer opinions. If the atmosphere of the faculty meeting does not lend itself to open discussion, it is usually not the fault of the active participant.
Keep the specific purpose of the faculty meeting uppermost in mind. One or two people must not be allowed to do all the talking and planning; if the meeting drags, advise the principal or leader. Be cautious of allowing gossip about other teachers, children, or parents to enter the meeting.
Evaluation of the faculty meeting is easily accomplished by asking:
• Was the faculty meeting useful to all who attended?
• Did all faculty members actively participate?
• Did the discussion motivate further study and more effective teaching?

Remember, lively participation in all phases of faculty meetings encourages others to participate.

A Thought in Words

That which we are, we are all the while teaching, not voluntarily, but involuntarily. Emerson

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 14
Banish Forever the Fear of Principal Observations
Teacher evaluations, though sometimes unpleasant, ensure that education standard remain high and children receive quality education. Unfortunately, the principal as an evaluator is often perceived as “the bad guy” and teachers keep a safe distance. Creating a favorable atmosphere between principal and teacher can be hard work, but having a good, sincere, and honest professional relationship will increase confidence when the principal enters the classroom, whether it be formally or informally.
Evaluation can threaten teachers who do not understand its purpose. Extending an invitation for the principal to observe the class often eases the pre-observation tension. If the principal is not in the classroom for scheduled observation when class begins, do not be concerned. Chances are he prefers to enter inconspicuously during the lesson. When he does enter, do not call undue attention to him or her.
Points to remember about classroom observation and evaluation are not overwhelming. More times than not, teachers know what the principal is looking for during the observation. The principal usually observes whether children are sitting at their desks and if chairs fit children properly. Are children allowed to take responsibility for their learning? Is the classroom properly ventilated and is it kept at a reasonable temperature? Is the classroom neat and orderly? Will instructional techniques achieve meaningful goals and do they make allowances for individual differences? Most importantly, the principal will be observing whether the teacher has established reasonable goals for the children.
An effective elementary teacher contributes to the improvement of student instruction by developing a wholesome teaching- learning situation in the classroom. Constant review of educational literature and professional journals keep teachers abreast of the latest trends in education. When new ideas are discovered, discuss them with colleagues to eliminate those that are not feasible. Discuss workable ideas with the principal. Teachers soon discover that most principals enjoy being approached for their advice and are eager to share their opinions on newer ideas in education. Positive interaction with the principal can enhance teacher effectiveness. Being available to talk to the principal at regularly scheduled times during the week allow the principal to build on professional assets while helping to eliminate weaknesses. First year teachers may expect the principal to talk with them in practical terms about lessons or classroom techniques. This does not preclude the discussion of other topics.
When the classroom observation has been completed, the principal usually schedules a conference with the teacher. This must be completed as soon as possible following the observation. If too much time passes before scheduling the conference, teachers tend to reflect upon their performance negatively and doubt their abilities. When fellow faculty are having problems with evaluations, be concerned and reach out to them. Take time from busy schedules to do something nice for a teacher who is discouraged. A simple pat on the back, a friendly handshake with words of encouragement, offering to share a new teaching aid, taking a recess duty, offering a ride to or from school, a telephone call that evening, or sometimes flowers, a gift, or a card help teachers feel better after a negative observation.



A Thought in Words

‘Tis education forms the common mind: Just as the twig is bent, the tree’s inclined.’ Pope

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 15
How to Implement Team Teaching
Teaching ability varies from teacher to teacher. Some teachers have superior lecturing skills, but they feel helpless when dealing one on one; others work effectively with individuals but become intimidated in group situations. Because of the wide differences in professional teaching talent, team teaching is one way teachers utilize their finest teaching capabilities.
Switching from traditional methods of teaching to team teaching must be planned slowly, carefully, and cautiously. In the developmental stages, the major concern is motivating children toward independent study. Two teachers can successfully instruct large groups ranging from 60 to 125 students; however, independent study will be more flexible in smaller groups of 12 to 18 children. Small group instruction lends itself to the exchange of ideas.
A planning meeting is essential when developing team instruction. If feasible, plan to meet either in the morning before school begins or in the afternoon after school ends: otherwise, schedule this planning session during teachers’ conference times. All teachers involved must be present for the planning session and must communicate their talents and strengths openly and sincerely in order to be properly integrated into the team. A decision must be made to either appoint a team leader or to allow leadership to grow from the professionals within the team. Team members with experience can use their training to help those who are new to team teaching. Each teacher can contribute by developing outlines for subject areas and by writing revisions, along with volunteering innovative ideas. Remain sensitive to all teachers’ opinions and viewpoints. Strive to ensure that teams are evenly balanced. Observing schools with effective team teaching programs in operation can provide ideas and proven methods for achieving success.
An initial approach to team-teaching is to place an experienced teacher with a less experienced teacher. They could be assigned 60 children in a 90-minute class period. Another approach would be to combine teachers and students for one particular subject, for example mathematics, allowing teachers with less experience to teach the area they are best qualified in and allowing the more experienced teachers to teach other math areas. Sometimes placing three teachers with 125 children yields effective results. This entire class would be involved in small group, large group, and individualized instruction in a rotating fashion. Another teaming technique would be to have three teachers working with children, each instructing in the area he or she is best qualified to perform successfully. Regardless of the approach used, team objectives must be evaluated continuously in order to maintain education of high quality.
Individualized instruction places additional responsibility for learning directly onto the shoulders of the student; therefore, assignments must be meaningful and challenging. Activities must be well-planned with a balance between scheduled learning activities and large and small group instruction. Students must be trained to take notes quickly and effectively. Intermediate grade students must learn how to listen intelligently and how to use classroom study time efficiently. Alert teachers working with children must recognize individual differences in children, or they are doomed to failure. Well-planned, differentiated, and balanced activities provide for individual differences in children, as well as satisfy the personal needs and aspirations of the teachers on the team.
Teacher planning time must be spent preparing, evaluating, gathering, and perfecting various visual and instructional aids that will be suitable for each lecture and learning activity. Keep in mind that guest speakers may be obtained from the present staff, local community, and parents who have special abilities.
Team teaching is a proven alternative that stimulates, energizes, and promotes teacher to teacher communication. Oftentimes, teacher burnout is eliminated because teachers who are a part of a successful team program feel excited about their work. Team teaching, even if well executed, may not be the answer to the continuous riddle of how to improve classroom instruction for children at the elementary school level. However, team teaching does create an environment that encourages improvement. Teacher confidence is heightened. Teachers sense personal and professional achieve-

ment, and they are ultimately satisfied with their jobs.


A Thought in Words
The School Master is abroad, and I trust him, armed with his primer, against the solider in full military array. Brougham

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 16
Develop Strong Public Relations Using the Elementary Classroom
Public relation’s is an area of schooling in which teachers are not always well versed. This chapter offers practical suggestions for using the classroom to develop a strong public relations program.
Children are the best public relation agents a teacher could possibly hope to employ. Promoting a happy atmosphere in the classroom, along with creating an environment that is conducive to learning will result in favorable comments from the children when they speak of their classroom and their teacher.
The teacher is the first to know if a child is doing well in school. Writing a postcard or letter to parents informing them of their child’s accomplishments promotes positive human relations. Praise the child, mentioning him by name rather than saying your child, your son, or your daughter. The letters do not have to be lengthy, but they must be personal, distinctive, sincere, truthful, and honest. Avoid sending negative letters. If something negative must be said, telephone parents and schedule a conference. Only strong, positive letters must be sent to parents. Appreciative letters sent to parents make children happier in school.
Sometimes parents believe their child has or has not accomplished certain goals during the year. Questionnaires designed to provide teachers with feedback can be drafted and sent home to be completed by parents. Invite parents to the classroom to observe classes for a day. Be sure to allow time before they leave to talk with them and reflect upon what they observed. This will give parents a positive feeling about their child’s school and teacher.
Keep the following two thoughts in mind when writing letters to parents:
1. Is this letter good for the child and parents and is it good for the school?
2. Is the letter a positive reflection on the classroom and school?
If these two questions can be answered “Yes,” a teacher’s professional judgment in sending the letter is probably on target. Remember to secure permission from the

school principal before sending letters to parents.
Many times parents come directly to the classroom to pick up their children for dental, doctor, or other appointments. In such instances, insist that the parents report first to the school office to fill out a record indicating they have picked up their child and are assuming the responsibility of taking them home. Misunderstandings result from such enforcements can be avoided if parents understand the rules under which the school operates. A friendly letter sent to parents explaining the standard operating procedures of the elementary school fosters good relations between parents and teacher. Preparing special bulletins detailing important school events and sending these to parents also prevents misunderstandings between parents and the school.
Study the community and its various organizations to gain a better understanding of the cultural background of students. Learn as much as possible about which youth groups are most active in the community, where recreational activities are located, which church is most predominant in the area, and which business establishments are doing poorly. Visit industrial complexes, and talk with business people. Seize the opportunity to have individuals in the community talk to students. Elicit suggestions from community leaders on what they think should be emphasized in the classroom. This information will afford a better understanding of the character of the community. Having good relationships between the teacher, business, and industrial organizations is important, especially when field excursions are being planned.
When meeting with members of the community, whether they be happy or dissatisfied with the school, talk with them and not at them. Become an active and sincere listener. As a representative of the school system, as well as the teaching profession, the teacher must understand the value of communicating with people in the community.
Be aware of community resources. If properly used, these resources will strengthen the school’s relationship with the community. Further information can be obtained form the Chamber of Commerce, public health service, law enforcement officers, and other civic organizations. All available resources must be tapped.

Suggest to the principal that school facilities be offered for community use. For
example, the gym and athletic fields could be used for adult education programs, the library could be made available for adults during the week. Teachers could offer their services for supervision purposes or perhaps stop by the library to interact with parents. If community residents are allowed to use the school facilities, they will realize the value of the school and will want to protect their investment.
Suggestions for developing and maintaining human and public relations have been integrated throughout this book. It is highly recommended that teachers take the time to review them, underlining or circling those passages in each chapter. Use personal creativity to develop other public relations techniques and begin now to practice these techniques in order to nourish relationships among children, parents, teachers, administrators, and community members.

A Thought in Words
Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers. Alfred Lord Tennyson “Locksley Hall”

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 17
Use the Elementary Assembly to Benefit Students
Gathering the entire elementary school student body into one place for an assembly is exciting for students and is often a welcome break from classroom activities. General assemblies can be informative sessions, special events recognizing outstanding students, or special programs for entertaining the student body.
Make every effort to involve students in the assembly production. Their participation can be in the construction of stage props and other assembly preparations, as well as actually performing. An assembly is evaluated as a success if many children are allowed to participate in it. Occasionally, assemblies are solely adult or guest oriented. Children must behave properly and be attentive during these assemblies.
If children from the classroom are to participate in the assembly activities, help them prepare for it by allowing them to rehearse their role at least three or four times before the actual performance. Make suggestions during these rehearsals. Too often, assemblies are ineffective because participants can not be heard by the audience. If a microphone is to be used, show children how to use it correctly. Remind participants about stage manners - they are to be quiet and remain out of sight while backstage.
If the assembly is to be an orderly event, students must be informed of procedures and must cooperate fully. Discuss fire drill procedures with the class in the event one occurs during the assembly. Children must know where to go during expected emergencies. Organize the class so that the children leave the classroom in time to be seated in the assembly area at least five minutes before the program begins. Have all children attend the assembly, except those who have severe colds or who are coughing, and may disturb the assembly and distract the audience. Send these students to the nurse’s office, the school office, a designated area, or the library where adult supervision is available. Do not hold students back from the assembly because of disciplinary problems.
Classes are occasionally assigned a specific section for seating in order to remain together at the assembly. Know in advance where those seats are so the children will not be confused as they arrive. Decide whether to have the children remain standing until all class members have located their seats or to have them be seated when they arrive. Eliminate problems by not assigning particular seats to individual children.
The assembly usually begins with the entire student body reciting the Pledge of Allegiance and singing the national anthem. Remind the students to stand straight and tall, and to sing to the best of their abilities since they are not only representing themselves, but their class and teacher when they attend school assemblies. Performing the flag salute each day in the classroom and singing an appropriate song afterwards prepares the class for school assembly activities.

A Thought in Words
Education is the ability to meet life’s situations. Dr. John G. Hibben, Former President, Princeton University

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 18
Make PTA/PTO/PTSO Meaningful for both Parent and Teacher
The purpose of the PTA (Parent-Teacher Association), PTO (Parent-Teacher Organization), or PTSO (Parent-Teacher-Student Organization) is to provide an opportunity for teachers and parents to work cooperatively for the growth and development of the children. Regular attendance at these meetings opens communication lines between the home and school, resulting in improved parent-teacher relations. If parents understand the parameters under which schools operate, they are more apt to cooperate with school personnel. Be prepared to answer questions pertaining to school policies or school system regulations. The PTA/PTO/PTSO meeting is an ideal time to introduce school programs and solicit input from parents before setting program goals. Creative ideas proffered at these meetings often result in effective and productive attainment of these goals.
Parents attend PTA/PTO/PTSO meetings to talk to their child’s teacher as well as to discuss pressing school issues. Circulate during the refreshment break and informally talk to as many parents as possible. Discuss various school activities and comment on their child’s participation in these activities. Parents are eager to know what their child does at school.
Strive to make all parents who come to the meeting feel welcome, especially those attending for the first time. Introductions are not only a courtesy, they are essential for encouraging parents to initiate conversation with other parents as well as with teachers. Remember, if a parent does not feel welcome at school meetings, chances are slim that he will return.
During the week following the meeting, send letters of appreciation to parents who took time out of their busy schedules to attend. Parents will feel their attendance at the meeting was purposeful and will be encouraged to support future school functions.




A Thought in Words
The aim of education is not knowledge, but action. Herbert Spencer

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 19
Conference with Parents and Evaluate the Success of the Meeting
The three primary agents for a child's physical, emotional, and spiritual development are the family, school, and teacher. The relationship of these three agents affects the child's individual behavior. The child develops a balance between home and school when parents and teachers coordinate activities and learning experiences that require cooperation between the two. The parent-teacher conference is an effective way of accomplishing this.
The teacher's role in conferencing with parents requires a working knowledge of adult psychology and child development. Read books on conferencing in order to become familiar with how to plan and conduct a successful conference. Review conferencing techniques by role-playing with a colleague. During these practice sessions, be mindful of which techniques result in successful conferences and remember to use them during parent conferences. Getting together with other teachers to discuss successful conferencing procedures often helps. Include parents in these gatherings and solicit their suggestions in order to eliminate as many shortcomings as possible before conferencing time approaches.
Stress to parents the value of conferences. In a brief bulletin, explain its purpose and highlight conference procedures. Send parents a personal invitation and ask them to list particular items they would like to discuss during the conference. Three days before the scheduled conference personally telephone parents to confirm the day and time of the conference. Express pleasure and warm expectations of seeing them. This promotes a healthy relationship between parent and teacher. Write letters offering regrets to parents who could not be scheduled. Often, these parents will take the initiative to arrange a conference within two or three days.
If home conferences must be scheduled, always contact the parents to arrange an appointment before making a home visit or invite the parents to the school for an observation of the classroom. A personal invitation builds strong communication with the parents and develops stronger human relations between parents and teacher. Telephone conferences are not as effective as face-to face conferences and are generally used to contact parents for emergencies or situations that require immediate attention.
Each child should have an individual work folder containing samples of his school work. Include any additional information from other professionals (counselor, psychologist, educational specialist, or principal) who might be working with the child. Use this folder when preparing for the conference and refer to it during the conference. Prior to the conference, organize a checklist of the areas to be discussed. The following might be included in this checklist:
1. Work study habits,
2. Attitude concerning school,
3. Human relations with peers,
4. Academic performance and achievement,
5. Maturational growth,
6. Specific reasons for conducting the conference, and
7. Positive suggestions for future improvement.
A neatly typewritten list of scheduled conferences should be displayed for parents. Provide chairs in a waiting area and furnish magazines, books, and pamphlets for them to read while waiting. Many parents relax before the conference if reading materials are available for them to browse.
Choose a conference room that is private and well-lit. A classroom is acceptable, provided the conference will not be disrupted. Provide a small table where teacher and parents can sit together, rather than the teacher sitting behind a desk. Develop a comfortable relationship immediately by welcoming the parents in a sincere, friendly, and courteous manner. If English is not the parents’ dominant language, invite a member of the staff to translate the discussion, and thoroughly explain who “this stranger” is, and what she or he will be doing. Start the conference by pointing out the child's strengths rather than his or her weaknesses. Displaying the child's school work for the parents' perusal can stimulate a conference. Include artwork, reports, charts, and tapes the child has made. Parent’s want to see their
child’s progress and inspecting their child's work often impresses them favorably. After discussing the child's better qualities, bring up his difficulties and always offer suggestions for improvement. During the conference, allow parents to talk freely, encouraging them to point out what they perceive to be problem areas. Listen carefully, and respect their opinions. Discuss these problems intelligently, and then offer suggestions for solving them. The solution may require adjustments on the part of the teacher as well as the parents. Focus discussion on the child rather than on methods of teaching or parent's personal lives. Dwell on the positive comments made by parents and remain unbiased, withholding personal judgment. The conference will develop naturally as basic objectives are addressed.
Diplomacy is an art and must be used at all times during the conference. Never dictate ideas or suggestions to parents. Parents have their own ideas, opinions, and prejudices about their children and these are not easily changed. Offer several possible solutions to problems and then allow parents to decide on a course of action. Avoid being overly critical of the child. Parents are the last to see their child's faults, and criticism can be detrimental to relationships.
Avoid arguing. Do not take offense if the parent, disillusioned with education in general, makes a derogatory remark about the school or school system. Allow the parent to talk against the system, respecting his or her right to feel as he or she does. Use professional judgment in defending any issues.
When parents talk about affairs that should remain private, they are really saying, “I trust you.” Never discuss or reveal these personal concerns with friends, staff members, or spouses. This personal information must remain confidential.
Avoid being overly sentimental during a conference. Have a complete understanding about the feeling of parents. Do not let their problems become personal problems. Be concerned, but no not worry about their problem.
Encourage parents to talk during the conference, but do it honestly. Do not use flattery. It is better to say nothing unless it can be said with honest appreciation. Boost their egos by mentioning the thoughtful things that they have done with their child. This honest recognition will result in a showing of parental pride.
During the conference, speak in common, everyday language that parents will understand. When the teacher speaks in teacher terminology, parents resent it, thinking the teacher is trying to show off or talk down to them. When a teacher is guilty of this, he or she is insulting parents by underestimating their intelligence.
Before closing the conference, summarize significant points that were discussed. Never end on a negative note. Make every possible effort to conclude in a positive, constructive, and pleasant manner. Offer encouragement to parents, committing to cooperative action for the benefit and development of the child.
Parents lose track of time during a conference, so it becomes the teacher's responsibility to end the conference on time. This is important since other parents who have been scheduled will be waiting. End by standing and saying simply, “It has been most enjoyable talking with you.” This signals to the parents that the conference is near its end. If the parents continue to talk, begin walking to the door. Do whatever is necessary to avoid inconveniencing the parents who are waiting for their conference time.
The follow-up is important. If after-conference reports are to be written, they should be brief, ethical, and highly objective. Make note of the attitudes and contributions made by parents during the conference and mention any decisions that were made. Evaluate whether the conferencing was successful or not and if it resulted in positive benefits for the child. Decide what changes could be made in order to ensure the conference will be a success.
Write a personal thank you letter expressing sincere and honest appreciation to all parents who attended the conferences. Doing so will further better relations between parent, child, teacher, school, and school system.

A Thought in Words
There is no royal road to learning. Euclid Toptolemy, King of Egypt

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 20
The Adolescent’s Perception of Failure
The following talk was delivered by William Allan Kritsonis during the summer of 1971 at Seattle Pacific University. At the time, Kritsonis was completing the master's degree in education and the talk was given before a live audience of graduate students and professors, thus satisfying one of the special requirements needed for the degree. The talk influenced many people deeply and forced them to re-evaluate their own attitudes about success and failure.


The Adolescent’s Perception of Failure

Upwards of a thousand students commit suicide every year. They had their whole lives ahead of them, and somehow, they lost hope. No one cared, they thought; life was not worth living. They asked themselves: Is that all there is?
Suicide is certainly the ultimate self-punishment for having failed. Life was no longer worth the struggle, the effort, the will.
I would like to take a look with you at the concept of failure-at how adolescents in high school and college see it-and what we, as parents and teachers, have taught them about it.
We have all had a part in it, and we have all had to come to grips with it and to decide what failure actually means to each of us individually.
Success is important in our society, more important, surely, that the desire to live sanely and to enjoy the good things of life which one has worked for. Success for its own sake is valued-valued, and I believed at any cost, and the road to success rationalized in the name of the great American competitive way, at the expense of honest and, perhaps, sanity.
The “F” for failure has become so feared that we in education have revamped our marking system in preference for U's and E's without revamping our attitudes -attitudes of those who should know.
We are apt to be very objective when we look at our students-and we give
them what they deserve and in doing so, feel very smug. We have given out the material, we have given the examinations and now it follows, as night follows day, that we give out the marks. Yet, we forget that there is much more that a teacher gives to his or students, willingly or unwillingly. A teacher gives an example of how to look at life and at people. And if failure is viewed as the worst fate, if it is something that is given the connotation of shame, unworthiness, and hopelessness, then indeed, we have taught much more than English or history or mathematics.
Adolescence marks the trying period of search which may have the significant effects on subsequent personality structure, on later adjustments in the years that lie ahead. Probably, what brings the greatest amount of equalizing balance to the period of adolescence is the presence of significant people in the adolescent's life. Since people become so very important to him, it is the importance of some people who have that ingredient of compassion who can help the adolescent come through this unfolding, transitional period into the fullness of adult life.
The world is full of people who are fearful that they will fail at some tasks or goal and who usually manage to avoid trying for what they want because they construe failure as the worst of all possible crimes.
In a study, it was found that competitive situations around two major motives: either to achieve success... or to avoid failure. The strivers-for success were found more likely to be middle-of-the-roaders in their aspirations or ambitions, where as the failure-avoider will be either excessively cautious or extravagantly reckless in the things he tries. Because failure is painful, he will choose either extreme rather than take the 50-50 chance.
Feelings of adequacy and success may depend more on self-acceptance than on actual achievement. Regardless of actual test performance, self-accepting students tend to be optimistic, non-anxious, and non-competitive. Self-rejecting ones are anxious and unrealistic in goal-setting.
In another study, the subjects were asked to rate themselves on a list of traits as they thought they were, as they hoped they were, as they feared they were, and as they thought others regarded them. The group had first been classified as stable and unstable on the basis of a personality inventory. The stable group rated themselves higher and there was less discrepancy between their self-ratings and the way they thought others would rate them. They were also better liked, better adjusted socially, less situation dominated, and showed less defensive behavior.
Approximately half of those who enter college drop out. Many are in the highest levels of ability. When students drop out, it usually is understood that they have failed. At the college level, a great deal of attention has been given to the question: “What can we learn about those who have failed in the past that will enable us to reject similar persons who might apply for admission in the future?” Little consideration is given to the question: “What might the institution do to prevent failure, to help remedy shortcomings within the college and with the individual student, which produce failure?”
Reasons for coming to college are always multiple. Stress is usually placed on one or another of these:
- to get a better paying job
- status of a degree
- social life-all my friends are going
- avoid work
- get married
- because of parents
Many are disillusioned with what is expected of them. Many find that it's the same old things as high school-all these things which aren't practical. Others who were eager to learn find that it is not the kind of challenge they had expected.
Many entering students are sorry about the time they wasted in high school. They didn't try hard enough; they didn't apply themselves; they were more interested in athletics, social life, or other things. If we go back a bit, we find that there were many things that they were concerned about during those days-some things which were, indeed, are more important to them at the time than geometry or American history, an which sometimes were far more necessary and pressing in order that they might grow up. But, those who observe the adolescent in high school are very often unaware of what he is facing and are not able to understand why he can't buckle down. What they can't understand is that the reason is...that there are many things the adolescent is trying to accomplish and school work often provides him with no stimulation, no incentive for interest or involvement. School is just a bore! And teachers are a bore! And adults, in general, are a bore! Adults are forever talking, but what they say often doesn't seem to mean anything.
A new interest can be sparked in school when there is a teacher who does mean something. But it takes more than one teacher to make a school program relevant. When competition and success are the significant ingredients of a program, then we are apt to be creating egocentric (or self-centered) intellectuals who gloat over their achievements as they look down on those who have successfully developed feelings of worthlessness because-they have lost and lost and lost, and fear that they will probably never win-and only those who win are important.
Our task ought to be to help the adolescent to see that failure is neither good nor bad. It is, however, and inevitable fact of reality. The way we use it in our lives will determine, ultimately, its goodness or badness for us.
Each of us must learn to live with certain limitations in ability. It is only when an individual falls consistently below the norm areas that seem important to him that inferior ability constitutes a serious limitation.
From studies of both high and underachievers in high school, the pattern of the relationship between self-concept and achievement becomes clearer. There is a relationship between positive self-concept and high achievement, negative self-concept and under-achievement. The research does not indicate which is cause or effect. Chances are we can see a circular pattern beginning earlier with perception or experiences. Every experience contributes to the adolescent's evolving picture of himself, which, in turn, becomes a guide to future action.
Parental pressure for success seems to arise naturally out of a parent's desire that this child must have the best that the world has to offer, yet...in the same breath, it may be that many of them see the failure which their son or daughter may face as a failure for themselves. Many parents want their children to be a credit to them, forgetting that if a child is a credit to itself, the other will follow naturally.
Likewise, it is not important to be better than the next guy so much as it is to try to do our best. We should be our own chief and best competition. We cannot always achieve our goal, but we ought to find satisfaction in knowing we did the best we could. Too often, we are teaching the idea of striving for success in high school, in college, in athletics, in all the aspects of living, for the wrong reasons. Let's change our own attitude about success and failure.

A Thought in Words
Chance favors those in motion. Zen

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS



Oswell Person, PhD

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
PhD, University of Iowa
M.Ed., Seattle Pacific University
B.A., Central Washington University



Dr. Person and Dr. Kritsonis provide an analysis of the historical development of higher education for African Americans. The writers emphasize that African Americans have made enormous contributions to America.

Dr. Person and Dr. Kritsonis tell the story by tracing many struggles the Negro experienced to obtain higher education. The primary purpose of the book is to provide readers with a clearer understanding of this brief analysis.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Oswell Person, PhD
&
William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Background

In 1619, the seeds of American Slavery (human misery) were planted, but some of its aftermath has continued through Civil War, Reconstruction, Morrill Acts, Plessy vs. Ferguson, Brown vs. Topeka, 1964 Civil Rights Act and the Adams Case. Examples of each issue and the impact on African Americans are treated briefly under the following integrated topics: Historical Development, Civil War/Reconstruction, Freedmen’s Bureau/Churches, Federal Legislation/ Morrill Acts, Status of Blacks in the South/Plessy vs. Ferguson, Desegregating Higher Education/Brown vs. Topeka, Civil Rights/Adams Case, Philanthropic Organizations, United Negro College Fund/UNCF and contributions of HBCU Graduates to American Life/Culture.
Efforts to tell the story of Black Americans raised questions from inception about acculturation into the American Society and to some extent continue today. Therefore, it is not difficult to understand his plight, considering they were debased, stripped of ancestral culture, language, religion and transplanted to a strange land (America). It was here where they were systematically denied education, human treatment and rights. C. Erick Lincoln (black scholar and graduate of Lemoyne College and Fisk University) writing in the summer of 1971, Lincoln states:2
The Negro college born of the turmoil of a war which made black men free with an imperfect freedom, established in a social environment hostile to its presence and committed to its destruction, the Negro college has survived to become one of the singular assets of the Black community and a unique valuable, contributing component in the educational complex of America. More than that, it is an instrument of freedom. Black freedom. The vision of men and women who founded this institution which is a vital aspect of the black heritage, the wise and often sacrificial leadership which nurtured its infancy and guided its development….

Vivian W. Henderson (black male, former president of Clark College, now Clark-Atlanta University) writing in the same journal states it in a different way:

For most of their existence or from origin (italics mine) Negro colleges have served higher education within the context of a social structure built upon concepts of racial dualism, segregation, white supremacy and racial inferiority of black people. Some of the private colleges may not have been founded on the above concepts. They, in part, were founded on the hope of former slaves becoming full members of the American society or dream. (italics mine). State-supported colleges were founded on the principle that the state was obliged to support something for Negroes which it also supported for whites, but with the understanding that whatever it supported for Negroes would be inferior to that which it …3

Another example of Black higher education, as viewed in the American Mind, is observed in the following conversation between Dr. James Cheek, (former) President of Howard University and a high official in the Atomic Energy Commission, a Ph.D. in nuclear physics, (Atomic Energy Commission name was changed by the Energy Reorganization act of 1974) to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.4 In 1971 when Dr. Cheek was returning from Denver, where he was an official delegate to the White House Conference on Youth, the official said:

“I understand the great debate that is taking place at
Howard now is whether Howard is going to become
an excellent institution, or remain a predominantly Black institution.”5
The incompatibility or non-acculturation theme of Blacks into the American society is observed most keenly in education. Although African Americans were denied rights, such as property ownership, voting, and equal treatment under the law, they survived. Consequently it comes as no great surprise that Black Colleges and Universities would suffer from the same conditions.
The impact of the above statements is best understood by examining the “peculiar institution”, American slavery, a century of segregation and discrimination which followed. 6 But in spite of these conditions, one can easily discern a profound sense of loyalty to this country among Black Americans. Therefore, it is especially important that the historical background is understood, because it helps one to appreciate the enormously great contributions of Black Colleges and Universities. Graduates from Historically Black Colleges/ Universities (HBCUs) have made invaluable contributions to the American way of life in all fields of endeavor though faced with incredible odds. Highlights of their contributions are discussed later.

(Excerpts from Book by Person and Kritsonis)

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Oswell Person, PhD & William Allan Kritsonis, PhD - Excerpts from Book

Historical Development

According to some educational historians, higher education for American Blacks began two hundred plus years after the founding of Harvard College (1636).7 Generally, the accepted dates for the founding of the first black colleges are (1854) Lincoln University in Pennsylvania and (1856) Wilberforce University in Ohio.8 Both of which were private, in the North and had as their original purpose higher education for Blacks. Lincoln University, however, is now under the auspices of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania System of Higher Education and Wilberforce is under the African Methodist Episcopal Church and has been since 1863.9 Although there is evidence that educational opportunity was available, it was generally not baccalaureate as we know it today. For example, some Black Americans were trained through apprenticeships and for teaching. It is most unlikely that teacher training for Blacks then, was a very structured and formalized course of Pedagogy. In addition to the limited number of Blacks who obtained degrees from American Colleges,10 the most notable examples were Edward Jones and John Russwurm of Amherst and Bowdoin respectively, others did however, distinguish themselves intellectually. Such examples as Benjamin Banneker, a noted mathematician and astronomer, Phyllis Wheatly, a great eighteenth century poet, John Chavis and Charles L. Reason were teachers, to name a few. Additionally, in 1858 Myrtilla Miner built a schoolhouse for the higher education of Negro (Black) girls in Washington, D.C.11
Aside from these institutions, higher education (private and public) did not begin to grow and develop until after the Civil War. Prior to this time, especially in the South, it was against the law to teach Blacks. For example, in 1863 West Virginia was the first southern state to make “a separate but equal” provision in its constitution for educating Blacks. Some evidence even after the Civil War, indicate that efforts to educate Blacks were met with strong opposition. But in spite of these circumstances there were systematic plans to organize a program of education for freedmen (public school levels).
Between 1865-1880 a total of 4012 institutions were founded, of these 29 were private (see Table 1) and 11 were public (see Table 2) (tax supported). Several factors contributed to the slow development of Public Institutions. First, there was the traditional attitude of the South toward educating Blacks. Second, there was opposition from those who wanted to keep Blacks in a subservient status. Third, coupled with the above harsh conditions, was an insufficient tax base to support educating large numbers of former slaves. During this same period a number of significant developments paved the way for changes in the lives of emancipated slaves. First was the Freedmen’s Bureau (1865-1872) which provided the key organization, protection and financial support to philanthropic efforts, freedmen and the states.13 This helped lay the crucial groundwork for founding institutions of higher learning. A second development was ratification of the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments which gave citizenship to former slaves and other Black persons. According to Patricia Harris, black female, Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) Secretary in Carter’s Administration, Black Colleges owed their existence to the exclusionary practices of white institutions (North and South) as well as to the failure of states to provide primary and secondary institutions to prepare blacks for admission to a small number of white institutions of higher learning.14 The third development was the inestimable contributions that philanthropy (discussed later) and church groups made to establishing Colleges and Universities for Black Americans.
Some of the groups providing aid to education were, The Friends Associations for Aid to Freedmen, the Board of Freedmen’s Missions of the United Presbyterian Church, the Freedmen’s Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, American Baptist Home Mission Society, American Church Institute of the Episcopal Church. The church groups and organization of the Freedmen’s Bureau were not without certain and unusual personalities, who perhaps provided critical impetus and leadership. For example, such men as, General Oliver Otis Howard (Commissioner, Freedmen’s Bureau), Levi Coffin (abolitionist from North Carolina), Salmon P. Chase (US Senator from Ohio), Henry Ward Beecher (abolitionist from Connecticut), John M. Walden (journalist and Methodist Bishop), Richard S. Rust (advocate of education for Negroes), Mathais W. Baldwin (manufacturer of locomotives/philanthropist), Edward T. Atkinson (economist/industrialist), and William Claflin (Republican governor of Massachusetts, shoe manufacturer) played key roles in the movement.
Between 1865 and 1880 church groups and the Freedmen’s Bureau established some of the most widely known institutions of today. For example, Atlanta University (1865), Fisk University (1866), were founded by the American Missionary Association (AMA). Morehouse College (1867) originally founded as the Augusta Institute, Virginia Union University (1865), Shaw University (1865) and Benedict College (1870) were founded and supported by the American Baptist Home Mission Society. Other church groups, such as the Methodist Episcopal and Presbyterians were also responsible for establishing institutions. These two church groups established such institutions as Rust College (1867), Morgan College (originally Centenary Biblical Institute), which today is Morgan State University, an independent member of the state of Maryland System of Higher Education. The Presbyterians founded the following institutions, Barber-Scotia College (1867), originally Scotia Seminary and Biddle University that same year, now known as Johnson C. Smith University (both in North Carolina), Stillman College (1867) in Alabama, Howard University (1867) founded by the Freedman’s Bureau, Washington DC. Although, schools of higher learning for Blacks were founded by other religious groups, e.g., African Methodist Episcopal (AME) and Christian Methodist Episcopal (CME), they were not founded until the 1870’s (see Table 1).

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Osell Person, PhD & William Allan Kritsonis, PhD (Excerpts from Book)

Federal Legislation-Morrill Act

Another important development in higher education was the Morrill Act of 1862 (Federal Legislation). This act provided Federal Aid to education by granting land for States to create and maintain Colleges of Agriculture and the Mechanical Arts. States were to actually sell land granted by the 1862 Act and use proceeds to establish A&M Colleges. There is no question but this was the most significant single piece of Federal legislation affecting public higher education in the nineteenth century. However, it contributed little to higher learning for Black Americans. It was not until the Morrill Act of 1890 or the Second Morrill Act (as it is known in some circles) that made possible the establishment of land grant colleges for Blacks in the South and Border States. In fact, it was the federal government’s first effort of assuring land grant funds for education where the “separate but equal” doctrine existed. Unfortunately, this act strengthened the above concept to the extent that seventeen southern States maintained colleges that became known as the Negro (Black) Land-Grant colleges15. While these institutions were not like the great State institutions developed in the Midwest or the West, e.g., Universities of Wisconsin, Michigan and California, they along with the private colleges provided an immeasurable opportunity for millions of ex-slaves.
The greatest period of growth in the development of historically Black Colleges (HBC’s) was 1881-1896. For example, during this period twenty-eight additional colleges and universities were founded, fourteen less than were founded between 1865-1880. Of the total number (28) fourteen were private (see Table 3) and an equal number were public institutions (see Table 4). Perhaps Tuskegee Institute (1881), Morris Brown (1881), Spelman College (1881), and Bishop College (1881) - no longer in existence, were the most widely known private colleges founded during this time. Of the public institutions founded during the same period, Florida A&M University (1887) popularly known as (FAMU), North Carolina A&T State (1891), Virginia State (1892) and West Virginia State (1891) were perhaps the most widely known.
From 1897 to 1953 the least number of historically Black institutions of higher learning were founded compared to the previous periods of 1865-1880 and 1881-1896. For example, between the period 1897-1953 a total of 15 institutions were established, 7 private and /or church related (see Table 5) and 8 public (see Table 6). Of the public institutions, perhaps Grambling State College was the most widely known because of its Head Football Coach, Eddie Robinson. Of all the church related institutions (for Blacks) founded earlier, I believe this is the first time we note a Roman Catholic College, Xavier University (1925), New Orleans. It is also important to observe that church groups and private agencies were directly or indirectly responsible for establishing the majority, (61%) of all Black Colleges and Universities founded between 1865-1953. The states were not as ambitious in their efforts to establish public institutions, though education is a state matter, even with the help of (federal legislation) Morrill Act of 1862. As stated earlier, several conditions contributed to America’s lack of commitment to higher education for Blacks. First, the Black masses were located in the South. Second, they were not citizens (property) and third, they had no rights. Consequently, the southern White population felt little or no moral, social or legal obligation to educate them. Even when there was support for higher education, its provision was under the doctrine of “separate-but-equal”. Such conditions, it could be safely argued, continued for well over a century.
Before the Civil War, the South made no provisions to educate Black Americans and the North was not much better, although several attempts were made to establish institutions in the North. For example, at the First Annual convention of People of Color in 1831, the convention voted to establish a College in New Haven, Connecticut, but the townspeople resisted. Undaunted, it is reported that another attempt was made in Canaan, New Hampshire, to no avail, the building was destroyed in 1835. According to Bowles and DeCosta, a wealthy Quaker of Philadelphia willed $10,000 for the education of Blacks, but action was deferred until 1839 at which time land was purchased in Philadelphia County and a school established where boys learned farming and shoemaking. This school eventually became the Institute for Colored Youth after going through several stages of development. Between 1850-1852 a building was erected in Philadelphia becoming the Institute for Colored Youth. The institution prepared advanced pupils of both sexes for vocations of teaching and preaching. Additionally, the school offered classical courses and prepared teachers and principals for schools in Philadelphia and the South until 1889. In 1902, it was re-organized and moved to Cheyney, Pennsylvania where it went through the following stages: Cheyney Training Schools for Teachers (1914); Cheyney State Normal School (1920); a degree granting State College (1932); Cheyney State Teachers College (1951); and Cheyney State College (1959)16, now Cheyney State University, a member of the Pennsylvania System of Higher Education. In addition to Lincoln (1854) and Wilberforce (1856) Myrtilla Minor (1858) already mentioned, Avery College in Pennsylvania (1849) was established before the Civil War.
Second, while a limited number of Blacks did obtain some education, it was not because the north encouraged admission to their institutions. Except for Oberlin College, Berea College, Franklin and Rutland Colleges17, a very few colleges admitted Blacks on a continuous basis. Amherst and Bowdin, as stated earlier, graduated the first Black Americans in 1826, but did not graduate any additional Negroes (Blacks) prior to the Civil War.18 What is more significant to note is that Harvard College did not graduate its first Black (Richard Greener) 19,20 until 1870 over two centuries after it was founded. According to Dubois21 only twenty-eight (28) Blacks were awarded baccalaureate degrees from American Colleges and Universities prior to the Civil War. There were however, accounts of Blacks obtaining higher education abroad. Men such as Francis L. Cardoza, James McCune Smith and Robert B. Elliott obtained their higher education in Europe. Cardoza studied at the University of Glasgow, Scotland, Edinburgh and London. Upon his return to America he served in the following three capacities; first as minister of a Congregational Church in New Haven, Connecticut. Second, he was founder and principal of Avery Normal Institute in Charleston, South Carolina until 1868, following which he was elected Secretary of State of South Carolina. He also served as professor of Latin at Howard University and principal of the Colored High School of Washington D.C., that now bears the name Cardoza High School. James McCune Smith studied abroad and was the first Negro professional graduate, receiving medical training at the University of Glasgow. Upon completion of his medical training in 1837 at the University, he studied clinics in Paris, France before returning to New York to establish the practice of medicine.22 Robert B. Elliott, studied high school and college abroad. He attended the High Holborn Academy in London and was admitted to Eaton College. He also studied law under a member of the London bar, following this experience he returned to South Carolina, serving as Congressman from South Carolina from 1873-1875.23

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Oswell Person, PhD & William Allan Kritsonis, PhD (Excerpts from Book)

Status of Blacks in the South

What was life like in the South for Blacks? The status of Blacks in this section of America was one of slave, ex-slave. For his ex-slave status, constitutional amendment was required before he was considered a citizen, however, the amendments did not guarantee his rights to education or freedom. Except for North Carolina and Kentucky, the Southern States did not have a system of public education. Subsequently, church related and or private organizations had the major responsibility for educating Blacks. There were instances during Reconstruction (1865-1877) of Blacks receiving higher learning from historically White Colleges and Universities. Two such examples are, T. McCants Stewart and Richard T. Greener. Stewart received his A.B. and LL.B. degrees from the University of South Carolina in 1875. Richard Greener, the first Black to graduate from Harvard College, was awarded a Bachelor of Law in 1876 from the same University.24 But after the Southern States were returned to the original governments, Blacks were again denied admission to historically White Colleges and Universities. In fact, not only were they denied admission, it became illegal for them to attend these institutions.
Perhaps the mood of the South and North regarding Blacks, can be characterized in the cases of Robert vs. City of Boston (1849)25 and Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896).26 In the first case, Roberts vs. City of Boston, was a racial discrimination case in a northern city, but it illustrates the prevailing attitudes toward educating Blacks. Essentially, the issues focused on a Negro girl who tried to enter an all white school in Boston. The city ordinance of course stipulated segregation of white and Negro students. Although the State legislature in 1855 passed a law prohibiting segregation in public schools, the precedent was set and the damage done. The second case, Plessy vs. Ferguson, was a racial segregation controversy involving the State of Louisiana, in which the United States Supreme Court rendered a decision. Homer Plessy,27 (a mulatto) person of mixed parentage, charged that a Louisiana Statute requiring segregation in public transportation violated rights granted by the 13th and 14th Amendments of the US Constitution. The Court ruled in favor of Louisiana, establishing the legal status of Blacks from the 1890’s until 1954. It also declared for the first time, as law, the doctrine of “separate but equal” and remained as the legal guidepost for nearly sixty years.28 Consequently, the enactment of State laws, supported and approved by Federal Courts, meant higher learning was provided mainly by the historically Black institutions of the South. Further support is observed by the number of Blacks (from 1865-1895) graduating from Northern institutions of higher learning. It is reported by Dubois and Dill29 that during this thirty-year period only 194 Negroes graduated from colleges in the North. Of these, 75 graduated from one Oberlin College, with the remainder distributed among 52 other Northern colleges.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Oswell Person, PhD & William Allan Kritsonis, PhD (Excerpts from book)

Philanthropic Organizations

As was indicated earlier, public education and historically Black colleges (HBCs) were, in addition to church organizations, assisted by philanthropic organizations. Beginning in 1867, George F. Peabody, established the Peabody Education Fund,53 the first set up to provide general aid to education in southern and southwestern States. The funds were devoted principally to establishing permanent public school systems for both races. While most of the funds were given to White schools, Black schools and colleges did benefit indirectly. When the Peabody Education Fund was discontinued in 1914, it left $350,000 for the John F. Slater Fund to be used specifically for Black education.
The next fund was established in 1882 by John F. Slater and was called the John F. Slater Fund.54 This fund was begun with one million dollars specifically to aid Black public and higher education. Over a fifty-year period (1882-1932) it is reported that approximately two million dollars were given to forty-eight mostly Black colleges. These funds were used for improving the quality of Black teachers by raising salaries or (scholarships) training. For example, it was a Slater Fellowship for Graduate Study abroad, which enabled W.E.B. Dubois to pursue two years of doctoral study at the University of Berlin. The Slater Fund, for the first thirty years focused on improving the quality of teachers in historically Black colleges, private as well as denominational. As a result of Booker T. Washington’s influence, industrial and vocational programs were funded. Hampton and Tuskegee Institutes received very large grants until about 1906.55 The Slater Fund assisted colleges until 1911, at which time it began to assist with the founding and development of county training schools for Blacks. Interest in county schools increased to such a level that between 1929 and 1931 only about 25 to 30 percent of its appropriations were dedicated to colleges.
Effective in 1937, the Peabody Fund (1867), the Slater Fund (1882), the Negro Rural School Fund (1907), formerly the Anna T. Jones Foundation and the Randolph Fund, later merged into the Southern Education Foundation, Inc.56 whose main function and purpose was to advance education and support equal educational opportunity for Blacks in Southern States.
Another permanent fund set up exclusively for Black education was the Fund for Colored People, established in 1888 by Daniel Hand.57 This fund, consisting of over one million dollars was administered by the American Missionary Association (AMA) to help the association in the field of Black education, namely colleges.
In 1903,58 the General Education Board was founded by John D. Rockefeller to aid Black education generally. Before 1903, Black colleges had received aid from the Rockefeller family who at this point offered one million dollars to an organization that would aid education without regard to race, religion or sex. The General Board had many objectives, e.g., building and equipping Schools, aid to Colleges, Universities, teacher-training programs and established several Black University Centers in Atlanta, Nashville, New Orleans and the nation’s capitol. The Board also provided aid for teacher’s salaries at private Black colleges, scholarship grants for advance study and aid to Meharry and Howard University Medical Schools. During a thirty year period 1902-1932, over 32 million dollars was awarded to Black colleges and schools.59 According to Bowles and DeCosta,60 up to 1964, the Board made the largest direct contribution to (HBCs) and Black education totaling 63 million dollars, before it discontinued its active program in 1956.
The Phelps-Stokes Fund was established in 191161 according to the will of Caroline Phelps Stokes. Among its purposes was the improvement of education for Blacks, both in Africa and the United States. It is interesting to note that this is the oldest existing foundation, which from inception emphasized service to Black Americans and Africans. While the Fund earlier on contributed about thirty percent of its resources to Black colleges, and schools, that was not its most significant contribution. The greatest contribution to Black education was its participation in the first two surveys of Negro education, sponsored by the U.S. Bureau of Education. These surveys are given the credit for providing impetus for raising standards in Black colleges. They were responsible for changing the image of paternalism through the acquisition of Black leadership and influence. In addition to providing Black colleges with explicit recommendations for improvement the surveys brought broader recognition and accreditation. The survey findings were responsible for the approval of Black Colleges by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.62
In 1917 the Julius Rosenwald Fund was established with an estimated forty million dollars. The Fund was set up after he had donated money to help improve southern rural schools and high schools for Blacks. The purpose of this Fund was to provide aid for buildings, equipment, current expenses and materials for libraries. The Fund also gave aid to Black College faculty engaged in advanced studies at the Master’s and Doctoral levels. Additionally, it awarded fellowships to those who showed great potential, irrespective of race. The Julius Rosenwald Fund dissolved its business in 1948 after expending more than 22 million dollars on education, health and medical services, fellowships and race relations intended to improve conditions among Black Americans.63

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Oswell Person, PhD & William Allan Kritsonis, PhD (Excerpts from book)

The United Negro College Fund (UNCF)
In 1943, Dr. F. D. Patterson, then president of Tuskegee Institute wrote an article for the Pittsburgh Courier in which he stated the plight of Black Colleges:

Private Colleges for Negroes (Black) have carried the brunt of our American educational effort for the better part of this experience. They yet educate, to the extent of their means, nearly 50 percent of those who receive college training….. These Negro, Black, institutions may well take a cue from the general program of organization which seems to involve most charitable efforts today. Various and sundry drives (financial) are being unified with a reduction in overhead for publicity and in behalf of a more purposeful and pointed approach to the giving public.64

His article, along with a series of conferences with Presidents of other Black Colleges; (The Julius Rosenwald Fund and the General Education Board) helped to lay the ground work for the United Negro College Fund (UNCF). On April 15, 1944, the United Negro College Fund was chartered in the State of New York. It is very important to note, this was the first time in the history of American education that private educational institutions of higher learning had joined in cooperative fund raising. It can be emphasized that one of the significant contributions of UNCF is the financing of higher education. Since 1944, many joint educational organizations, whose objective is fund raising, have been established (see the Encyclopedia of Associations and the Foundations Directory). In 1944, there were twenty-seven65 charter members, later there were forty-two, with Morris College of Sumter, South Carolina being the most recent member. Total membership has changed (discussed later). Membership then, as now, is restricted to privately supported Black Colleges, many of which are church related. These Colleges agreed to delegate fund raising responsibility for current purposes, e.g., teacher salaries, library materials, scholarships, equipment, etc., to UNCF. Money for buildings would continue to be raised by the individual institutions, a responsibility which eventually shifted to UNCF (discussed later).
In the spring of 1944, the first UNCF annual campaign was begun with Walter Hoving serving as chairman. This campaign was enormously successful, appealing to individuals, foundations, alumnae and corporations for a total of $765,000.66 In fact, this amount was approximately three times the efforts of individual Colleges during the previous year. As a direct result of the 1944 campaign it was learned that:67

1) Individuals would support a group of Colleges, destroying the myth that people would only support an individual College.
2) Alumnae, though loyal to their Alma Mater, would work for and support higher education for Black Americans.
3) American business would contribute to the support of higher education.
These answers were significant in that they suggested another means by which Black Colleges and Universities, specifically, and higher education in general, could be financed. The credit for this far reaching and important break-through in financing higher education goes to the United Negro College Fund, from which Black Colleges and Universities have received millions and millions of dollars since its inception. For example, in the 1981 and 1982 campaigns alone, over forty million dollars were raised.68
As stated earlier, the United Negro College Fund had as its primary responsibility the raising of funds for current operations, and individual institutions would be responsible for buildings and endowment funds. However, by 1950 it was obvious that individual member Colleges were not able, or at least were not successful in raising capital funds. As a result, UNCF was asked to assume responsibility for organizing a campaign funds for buildings. This venture was headed by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. along with other prominent businessmen; by 1954 had raised eighteen million dollars.69
In 1963, member colleges asked UNCF to organize another drive, this time the funds would be used for expanding the physical plants. The projected aim was to raise fifty million dollars, thirty of which would be raised jointly by the Fund and twenty million dollars by individual member institutions. This growing need to strengthen private Black institutions was discussed with President Kennedy, who lent strong support and persuaded Charles Mortimer of General Food to lead the campaign. The Ford Foundation provided a challenge grant of fifteen million dollars and by mid 1964 the first thirty million had been raised.70 The individual member Colleges eventually raised an estimated ten million, and in two capital campaigns UNCF had raised forty-eight million dollars. It is significant to note that in its third capital (conducted between 1977-1980) UNCF raised over sixty-million dollars.71 In addition to helping UNCF Colleges to build and improve construction, capital campaign, funds also enable these institutions to participate in the College Endowment Funding Plan, hereafter referred to as (CEFP), which is a unique project designed by Dr. Frederick D. Patterson, founder of UNCF. CEFP helps to build endowments at member colleges by investing funds loaned by insurance companies at below market rates with gift funds raised by UNCF member institutions and Capital Resources Development Programs (CRDP) funds provided by UNCF. It is important to note that CEFP has invested approximately twenty-five million dollars in bonds, which in twenty five years, (when investments mature and loans are repaid) the nineteen participating UNCF Colleges will have added $98 million dollars to their endowments and operating incomes.72
In addition to annual fund campaigns and intermittent capital drives (without which many Black Colleges and Universities could not have survived) UNCF provides other invaluable services to these institutions. For example, UNCF monitors legislation and governmental affairs at the National level for member institutions. It also helped formulate legislation that permits Title III Funds to be used (through a Federal matching fund program) for building endowments at financially hard pressed (HBCUs). The Fund was one of many nonprofit organizations that testified in Congress against an increase in non-profit postal rates, and it supported legislation that allows citizens who do not itemize their tax returns to make charitable deductions. It was UNCF that suggested that a mini-competition (to the U.S. Office of Education) be held among (HBCUs) which resulted in over eight million dollars in grants at the end of 1982.73 Special projects, such as the Career Advancement Institute (funded by the U.S. Department of Labor) made it possible for over one hundred educators, researchers and students to attend the conference on Current Research in Career Advancement: The Position of Black Americans, UNCF created the Career Advancement Institute for the purpose of increasing the quantity and quality of career advancement and mobility research on Black youth. It also wanted to encourage Blacks interested in research as well as Black institutions to participate in this research. Some of the topics researched thus far, are career expectations and aspirations of youth, the impact of public policy on career mobility, approaches taken by educational institutions to career development, and development of a profile of Black workers in various occupations.74
UNCF has expanded its basic purpose of fund raising to include Institutional Services, Research and Education Services. For example, institutional services for example, involve improving member Colleges in areas common to all, sharing the College’s experience, research, innovations and personnel. In the area of Research Services, UNCF provides background studies and position papers which serve as the central foci for all forty-two (42) member institutions.75 Some examples of this research, are the series of papers on “The Financial Problems of Private Colleges,” “A Directory of Black Colleges and Universities, “A Survey of Voluntary Support of UNCF Institutions,” “Annual Reports” and the “UNCF Statistical Reports.” In the area of Education Services, UNCF seeks to help improve the quality of programs at member institutions. Some examples of Education Services are: student recruitment sessions, faculty fellowship program and a scholarship program. The recruitment sessions have permitted UNCF to conduct combined information and admissions counseling. Through the fellowship and scholarship programs, UNCF has been able to strengthen the quality of faculty by awarding doctoral fellowships, i.e., Charles A. Dana Faculty Improvement Fund, IBM, the Lilly Endowment, Inc. and many others. As for student scholarships, UNCF provides financial assistance through the 21st Century Scholars Program for academically superior undergraduates and graduating seniors. The 21st Century Scholars Program is new as of 1982; made possible by Ambassador Walter H. Annenberg.76
In 1990 Walter H. Annenberg pledged $50 million to UNCFs campaign the year it completed a $280 million capital campaign to help member institutions upgrade facilities and expand endowments. UNCF has been responsible for bringing in more than $1.6 billion over 12 years. In addition, under the leadership of the Honorable William H. Gray, III (1991-2004) UNCF obtained the contract to administer the One Billion Gates Millennium Scholarship Program, created by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. This is the largest minority scholarship program serving high achieving low-income African American, Hispanic, Asian Pacific and Native American students. UNCF has also created the Frederick C. Patterson Institute for the purpose of collecting and analyzing data on issues concerning the educational attainment of African Americans from Pre-K through adulthood. UNCF has expanded its stellar programs such as CEFP and CRDP to include the Technology Enhancement Capital Campaign (TECC) to support and improve technology in member institutions.
UNCF has also created the United Negro College Fund Special Programs Corporation (UNCFSP), programs designed to help HBCUs as well as other institutions that serve minorities. As a tribute to the extraordinary leadership of William H. Gray, III UNCF has established the Pursuing the Dream Fund, which is to provide support to students. UNCF without a doubt has made tremendous and invaluable contributions to HBCU institutions77. Likewise, graduates of HBCUs have made incalculable contributions to America and its way of life. In the next few pages these contributions will be briefly highlighted.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Contributions of HBCUs in America78
HBCUs, while they represent a small fraction of American colleges and universities, they graduate a majority of African Americans. It is estimated that of the 105 HBCUs, 75% of all African Americans receive their degrees from these institutions. According to the June 3, 2004 Black Issues in Higher Education, HBCUs conferred 22% of bachelor’s degrees compared to other colleges and universities. This means HBCUs degree production is at an extremely high rate. HBCUs through its graduates have made enviable contributions to America in every facet of the society. Over half of all African American professionals are graduates of HBCUs, nine of the top ten colleges that are graduating the most African Americans who earn PhD’s are HBCUs. More than 50% of the nations African American public school teachers and 70% of African American dentists earned degrees at HBCUs. Two HBCU female institutions, Spelman and Bennett Colleges, produce half of the nations African American doctorates in all science fields. Almost half of the current African American members of Congress are graduates of HBCUs. An extraordinary list of noticeably personalities such as, Ron Brown, Ralph Ellison, Benjamin Hooks, Langston Hughes, Jesse Jackson and Thurgood Marshall are alumni of HBCUs. Contributions of HBCU graduates reads like a who’s who directory in all facets of professional endeavors. Additional contributions of graduates of HBCUs are further illustrated by the following personalities:

Debbie Allen-Howard University, TV Show/Fame/Choreographer
Alvin Boutte-Xavier University, Founder/CEO Indecor (largest Black financial institution in the U.S.)
Ed Bradley-Cheyney State, 60 Minutes
*Ron Brown-Tennessee State, Head of Democratic Party and Secretary of Commerce
*Ossie Davis-Howard University, Actor/Activist
David Dinkins-Howard University, Former NYC mayor
*Ralph Ellison-Tuskegee University, Author The Invisible Man
*James Farmer-Wily College, Civil Rights activist
Shirley Franklin-Howard University, Former D.C. mayor
Nikki Giovanni-Fisk University, Poet
Deborah Hyde: M.D.-Tugaloo College Prominent neurosurgeon
*Maynard Jackson-Morehouse College Former Atlanta mayor
Samuel L. Jackson-Morehouse College Actor
*James Weldon Johnson-Clark Atlanta University Wrote the Negro National Anthem
*Barbara Jordan-Texas Southern University State Representative/U.S. Congresswoman
Vernon Jordan-Howard University, Former UNCF/Urban League head
Sharon Pratt Kelly-Howard University, Former D.C. mayor
*Martin Luther King, Jr.-Morehouse College, Nobel Peace prize winner/ Civil Rights activist
Spike Lee-Morehouse College, Filmmaker
*Reginald Lewis-Virginia State, CEO of TLC/Beatrice
Phylicia Rashad-Howard University, Actor/TV wife Bill Cosby Show
David Satcher, M.D.-Morehouse College Former Surgeon General and CDC Director
Ruth Simmons, PhD-Dillard University President Brown University
Louis Sullivan, M.D.-Morehouse College Former Secretary, HEW/ President, Morehouse College of Medicine
Lynn Whitfield-Howard University, Actress
Douglas Wilder-Howard University, Former governor of Virginia
Andrew Young-Howard University, Former UN ambassador
*Whitney Young-Kentucky State, Head Urban League

The above list of notable accomplishments of HBCU graduates does not exhaust the number of persons who have made lasting contributions to America. However, it is hoped that such listing of graduates will reinforce the attitude and inform others of the value of HBCUs in helping to build and strengthen all facets of America.

*Deceased

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Oswell Person, PhD & William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

National Researchers

ENDNOTES

1 Adams vs. Richardson, Federal Reporter, Second Series, Volume 480, F.2nd, (St. Paul, Minnesota: West Publishing Company, 1973), pp. 1159-1166 and Virgil A. Cliff, “Educating the American Negro”, in The American Negro Reference Book, John P. Davis, ed., (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1969), pp. 360-395.

2 C. Erick Lincoln, The Negro Colleges and Cultural Change”, Daedlus, (Summer, 1971), p.606.

3 Vivian W. Henderson, “Negro Colleges Face the Future”, Daedlus, (Summer, 1971), p.630.

4 US Government Manual 1983-84, (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1983), p. 583.

5 HED, “An Interview with James Cheek”, April, 1977, p. 1.

6 John Hope Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans, 3rd ed., (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1967), pp. 185-213.

7 The College Blue Book, Narrative Description, 19th ed. (New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1983), p.296, and John D. Pulliam, History of Education in America, (Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company, 1968) p.10.

8 Frank Bowles and Frank DeCosta, Between Two Worlds: A Profile of Negro Higher Eduucation, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1971), p.20, and Harry A. Ploski, Reference Library of Black America Book I, (New York: Bellweather Publishing Company, Inc., 1971), pp.18-19.

9 The College Blue Book, Narrative Description, pp.549, 595.

10 Mabel M. Smythe, ed., The Black American Reference Book, (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1976), pp.411-412, and Bowles, Between Two Worlds: A Profile of Negro Higher Education. pp.11-17.

11 Jeanne L. Noble, “The American Negro Woman”, in The Negro Reference Book, John P. Davis, ed., pp.534-535.

12 Bowles, Between Two Worlds: A Profile of Negro Higher Education, pp.286-295.

13 Clift, “Educating the American Negro”, in The American Negro Reference Book, John P. Davis, ed., p.366.

14 Patricia R. Harris, “The Negro College and Its Community” Daedlus, (Summer, 1971, p. 720.

15 Virgil A. Clift, The American Negro Reference Book, John P. Davis, ed., p.368.

16 Bowles, Between Two Worlds: A Profile of Negro Higher Education, pp.22-24.

17 Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans, 3rd ed., pp.230-31.

18 Bowles, Between Two Worlds: A Profile of Negro Higher Education, pp.12-14.

19 Ibid.

20 Langston Hughes and Milton Meltzer, A Pictorial History of the Negro, 3rd ed; (New Crown Publishing, Inc., 1969), p.219.

21 W.E.B. DuBoise and A.G. Dill, “The College Bred Negro American”, in Between Two Worlds: A Profile of Negro Higher Education, by Frank Bowles and Frank DeCosta, (New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1971), p.12.

22 Bowles, Between Two Worlds: A Profile of Negro Higher Education, p.19, and Concise Dictionary of American Biography, (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1964), p.972.

23 Bowles, Between Two Worlds: A Profile of Negro Higher Education, p.20, and The Ebony Handbook, (Chicago: Johnson Publishing Company, 1974), p.378.

24 Ibid., p.33.

25 C. Erick Lincoln, The Negro Pilgrimage in America: The Coming Age of the Black Americans, rev. ed., (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers, 1969), pp.78-79.

26 Dictionary of American History, 2nd ed. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1940), p.287.
27 Mable M. Smythe, ed., The Black American Reference Book, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1976), p.413.

28 Lincoln, The Negro Pilgrimage in America:…, p.79.

29 W.E.B. DuBoise and A.G. Dill, “The College Bred Negro”, in Between Two Worlds:…, by Frank Bowles and Frank DeCosta, p.33.

30 Rufus B. Atwood, “The Origin Development of the Negro Public College With Especial Reference to the Land-Grant College”, The Journal of Negro Education, (Summer, 1962), pp.244-46.

31 Samuel H. Shannon, “Land-Grant College Legislation and Black Tennesseans: A Case Study in the Politics of Education”, History of Education Quarterly, (Summer, 1962), pp.140-41.

32 Jean Preer, “Lawyers vs. Educators: Changing Perceptions of Desegregation in Public Higher Education”, The Journal of Higher Education, (March/April, 1982), p.129.

33 Statutes At Large, Volume 26, (1890), pp.417-19.

34 Ibid., p.418.

35 U.S. Congress, Statutes At Large, Volume 27, Chapter 254, (July 26, 1892) in “Lawyers vs. Educators: Changing Perceptions of Desegregation in Public Higher Education”, The Journal of Higher Education, (March/April, 1982), p.121.

36 Felix V. Baxter, “The Affirmative Duty to Desegregate Institutions of Higher Education-Defining the Role of the Traditionally Black College”, Journal of Law and Education, (January, 982), p.4.

37 Ibid.

38 Ibid.

39 Ibid.

40 Ibid., p.6.

41 Robert E. Cushman and Robert F. Cushman, Cases in Constitutional Law, 3rd ed. (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967), pp.1040-42.

42 Ibid.
43 Baxter, “The Affirmative Duty to Desegregate Institutions of Higher Education-Defining the Role of the Traditionally Black College”, p.7.

44 Ibid., p.9

45 Ibid., p.11

46 John A. Adams and Joan M. Burke, Civil Rights: A Current Guide to the People, Organizations, and Events, 2nd ed., (New York: R.R. Bowker Company), p.147.

47 Baxter, “The Affirmative Duty to Desegregate Institutions of Higher Education-Defining the Role of the Traditionally Black College”, Journal of Law and Education, (January, 1982), p.19.

48 Adams, Kenneth et al. vs. Elliot Richardson, Federal Supplement, 351, (St. Paul, Minnesota: West Publishing Company, 1973), pp.636-642, and the Chronicle of Higher Education, “The Status of College Desegregation in 19 States”. The Chronicle of Higher Education. (July 6, 1981), p.8.

49 Adams, Kenneth et al. vs. Joseph Califano, Jr., Federal Supplement, 430, (St. Paul, Minnesota: West Publishing Company, 1977), pp.118-120.

50 Baxter, “The Affirmative Duty to Desegregate Institutions of Higher Education-Defining the Role of the Traditionally Black College”, Journal of Law and Education, (January, 1982), p.23.

51 Charles S. Farrell, “5 States Make Progress on Desegregation but Georgia Falls Short, U.S. Asserts”, The Chronicle of Higher Education, (April 11, 1984), p.23.

52 The Chronicle of Higher Education, “The Road to the N.C. Desegregation Plan”, (June 25, 1983), p.7.

53 Smythe, The Black American Reference Book, (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1976), p.481, and Bowles, Between Two Worlds: A Profile of Negro Higher Education, p.44.

54 Ibid.

55 Bowles, Between Two Worlds: A Profile of Negro Higher Education, p.45.

56 Marianna O. Lewis, ed. The Foundation Directory, 5th ed. (New York: The Foundation Center, 1975), p.75.
57 Smythe, The Black American Reference Book, p.481.

58 Ibid.

59 Ibid. p.482.

60 Bowles, Between Two Worlds: A Profile of Negro Higher Education, p.45.

61 The Ebony Handbook, (Chicago: Johnson Publishing Company, Inc., 1974), p.160, and Smythe, The Negro Reference Book, p.482.

62 Bowles, Between Two Worlds: A Profile of Negro Higher Education, p.47.

63 Ibid., p.46.

64 Ebony Handbook, (Chicago: Johnson Publishing Company, Inc., 1974), p.139.

65 Ebony Handbook, (Chicago: Johnson Publishing, Inc., 1966), p.161.

66 Ibid.

67 Ibid., p.162.

68 United Negro College Fund, 1981 Annual Report, (New York, 1981), p.7 and the 1982 Annual Report, p.5.

69 Ebony Handbook, (Chicago: Johnson Publishing, Inc., 1966), p.162.

70 Ibid.

71 United Negro College Fund, 1982 Annual Report, p.17.

72 United Negro College Fund, 1981 Annual Report, p.19.

73 United Negro College Fund, 1982 Annual Report, p.21.

74 Ibid.

75 Ebony Handbook, (Chicago: Johnson Publishing Company, Inc., 1974), pp.139-41.

76 United Negro College Fund, 1981 Annual Report, pp.20-21.

77 United Negro College Fund, 2004 Annual Report, p.7
78 United Negro College Fund, www.uncf.org/aboutus/hbcus.asp , May 12, 2005, pp.1-4 and pp.2-3.


Hundreds of sources: articles, books, government reports and websites were reviewed in preparation of this project. But they were narrowed down to the ones sited here. Many sources were helpful in providing knowledge and understanding of the higher education for African-Americans. The more useful sources were cited in the end notes and bibliography.

Oswell Person, PhD & William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Historically Private or Church Related Negro (Black) Four-year Colleges and Universities
Table 1. Founded Between 1865 – 1880

Location Institution *Year of *Support/ **Regional
Founding Control Accreditation

1. Selma, AL Selma University 1878 MBC Not given
2. Tuscaloosa, AL Stillman College 1876 Presb. U.S Yes / SA
3. Talladega, AL Talladega College 1867 AMA – Ind. Yes / SA
4. Little Rock, AK Philander Smith College 1877 Methodist Yes / NCA
5. District of Columbia Howard University 1867 Independent Yes / NSA
6. Atlanta, GA Atlanta University 1865 Independent Yes / SA
7. Atlanta, GA Clark College 1869 Methodist Yes / SA
8. Atlanta, GA Morehouse College 1867 Independent Yes / SA
9. Louisville, KY Simmons University 1879 NBC SABI
10. New Orleans, LA Dillard University 1868 Independent Yes / SA
11. Holly Springs, MS Rust College 1866 Methodist Yes / SA
12. Tougaloo, MS Tougaloo College 1869 AMA and UCMS Yes / SA
13. Concord, NC Barber-Scotia College 1867 Presbyterian Mem/ SA
14. Greensboro, NC Bennett College 1873 Methodist Yes / SA
15. Charlotte, NC Johnson C. Smith University 1867 Presbyterian Yes / SA
16. Salisbury, NC Livingstone College 1879 AMEZ Yes / SA
17. Raleigh, NC St. Augustine’s College 1867 Protestant Episcopal Yes / SA

Oswell Person, PhD & William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Oswell Person, PhD & William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

National Researchers

SELECTED REFERENCES

Adams vs. Richardson, Federal Reporter, Second Series, Volume 480, F.2nd, (St. Paul, Minnesota: West Publishing Company, 1973), pp. 1159-1166 and Virgil A. Cliff, Educating the American Negro”, in The American Negro Reference Book, John P. Davis, ed., (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1969), pp. 360-395.

Adams, John A. and Joan M. Burke, Civil Rights: A Current Guide to the People, Organizations, and Events, 2nd ed., (New York: R.R. Bowker Company), p. 147.

Adams, Kenneth et. al. vs. Elliot Richardson, Federal Supplement, 351 (St. Paul, Minnesota: West Publishing Company, 1973), pp.636-642, and The Chronicle of Higher Education, “The Status of College Desegregation in 19 States”. The Chronicle of Higher Education, (July 6, 1981), p. 8.

Atwood, Rufus B. The Origin Development of the Negro Public College With Especial Reference to the Land-Grant College”, The Journal of Negro Education, (Summer, 1962), p. 244-46.

Baxter, Felix V. “The Affirmative Duty to Desegregate Institutions of Higher Education-Defining the Role of the Traditionally Black College”, Journal of Law and Education, (January, 1982), p. 4.

Borden, Victor M. H. and Pamela C. Brown. “The Top 100: Interpreting the Data”. Black Issues in Higher Education, June 3, 2004, pp.37-79.

Borden, Victor M.H. and Pamela C. Brown. “The Top 100: Interpreting the Data”. Black Issues in Higher Education, July 29, 2004, pp.33-93.

Bowles, Frank and Frank Decosta, Between Two Worlds: A Profile of Negro HigherEducation, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1971), p. 20, and Harry A. Ploski, Reference Library of Black America Book I, (New York: Bellweather Publishing Company, Inc., 1971), pp.18-19.

The Chronicle of Higher Education, The Road to the N.C. Desegregation Plan”, (June 25, 2005), p. 7.

Clift, Virgil A. The American Negro Reference Book, John P. Davis, ed., p. 368.



The College Blue Book, Narrative Description, 19th ed. (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1983), p. 296, and John D. Pulliam, History of Education in America (Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company, 1968), p. 10.

The Crisis. “50th Anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education: The Verdict on Equal Education”. A Special Report, May/June 2004, pp.21-47.

Cushman Robert E. and Cushman Robert F. Cases in Constitutional Law, 3rd ed. (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967), pp. 1040-42.

Dictionary of American History, 2nd ed. (New York: Charles Scribners’ Sons, 1940,p.287)

DuBoise, W.E.B. and Dill, A.G. The College Bred Negro American”, in Between Two Worlds: A Profile of Negro Higher Education, by Frank Bowles and Frank Decosta, (New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1971), p.12.

The Ebony Handbook, (Chicago: Johnson Publishing Company, Inc., 1974), p.160, and Smythe, The Negro Reference Book, p. 482.

Farrell, Charles S. “5 States Make Progress on Desegregation but Georgia Falls Short,U.S. Asserts”, The Chronicle of Higher Education, (April 11, 1984), p.23.

Franklin, John Hope. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans, 3rd ed., (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1967), pp. 185-213.

Hamilton, Kendra, et. al. “The View from Topeka”. Black Issues in Higher Education, (May 20, 2004), pp. 32-39.

Harris, Patricia R. “The Negro College and Its Community” Daedlus, (Summer, 1971),p.720.

HED, “An Interview with James Cheek”, April, 1977, p. 1.

Henderson, Vivian W. “Negro Colleges Face the Future”. Daedlus, (Summer 1971), p.630.

Hughes, Langston and Milton Meltzer, A Pictorial History of the Negro, 3rd ed; (New Crown Publishing, Inc., 1969), p.219.

Lewis, Marianna O., ed. The Foundation Directory, 5th ed. (New York: The Foundation Center, 1975), p. 75.
Lincoln, C. Erick, “The Negro Colleges and Cultural Change”, Daedlus, (Summer, 1971), p. 606.

Noble, Jeanne L. “The American Negro Woman”, in The Negro Reference Book, John P.Davis, ed., pp.534-535.

Preer, Jean. “Lawyers vs. Educators: Changing Perceptions of Desegregation in Public Higher Education”, The Journal of Higher Education, (March/April, 1982), p. 129.

Quarles, Benjamin. Black Abolitionists. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.

Shannon, Samuel H. “Land-Grant College Legislation and Black Tennesseans: A CaseStudy in the Politics of Education”, History of Education Quarterly, (Summer 1962),pp. 140-41.

Smythe, Mabel M., ed., The Black American Reference Book, (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1976), pp.411-412, and Bowles, Between Two Worlds: A Profile of Negro Higher Education. pp.11-17.

United Negro College Fund, 1981 Annual Report, (New York, 1981), p. 7 and the 1982 Annual Report, pp. 5 and 17.

U.S. Congress, Statutes At Large, Volume 27, Chapter 254, (July 26, 1892) in “Lawyers vs. Educators: Changing Perceptions of Desegregation in Public Higher Education”, The Journal of Higher Education, (March/April, 1982), p. 121.

U.S. Government Manual 1983-84, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1983), p. 583.

Watkins, Williams H., James H. Lewis and Victoria’s Chou. Race and Education: TheRoles of History and Society in Educating African American Students. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2001.

Watkins, William H. The White Architects of Black Education: Ideology and Power in America, 1865-1954. New York, Teacher’s College Press, 2001.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Dr. Kritsonis Lectures at the University of Oxford, England
In 2005, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis lectured at the Oxford Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England. The topic of the lecture was the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of meaning.

Dr. Kritsonis Receives Distinguished Alumni Award
In 2004, Dr. William Kritsonis was recognized as the Central Washington University Alumni Association Distinguished alumnus for the College of Education and professional Studies. Dr. Kritsonis was nominated by alumni, former students, friends, faculty, and staff. Final selection was made by the Alumni Association Board of Directors. Recipients are CWU graduates of 20 years or more and are recognized for achievement in their professional field and have made a positive contribution to society.

About Dr. Kritsonis
Dr. William Kritsonis earned his BA in 1969 from Central Washington university, Ellenburg, Washington. In 1971, he earned his M.Ed. from Seattle Pacific University. In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa. He also served as a Visiting Scholar at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York.
Dr. Kritsonis began his career as a teacher. He has served education as a school principal, superintendent of schools, director of field experiences and student teaching, consultant, invited guest professor, author, editor-in-chief, and publisher. Dr. Kritsonis has earned tenure at the highest academic rank as a professor at two major universities.
Dr. Kritsonis lectures and conducts seminars and workshops on a variety of topics. He is author or coauthor of more than 100 articles in professional journals and several books. His popular book School Discipline: The Art of Survival is now scheduled for its fourth edition. He is author of the textbook William Kritsonis PhD on Schooling that is used by many colleagues at colleges and universities throughout the nation.
Dr. Kritsonis has traveled extensively throughout the United States and worldwide. Some recent international tours include Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, Turkey, Italy, Greece, Monte Carlo, Spain, England, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Poland, Germany, and many more.
Dr. Kritsonis is founder of Nation FORUM Journals (since 1983). These publications represent a group of highly respected academic professional periodicals. Over 2,500 authors have been published in these journals. In 1983, he found the National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal-(NFEAS) now recognized by many as the united States’ leading national recognized scholarly academic refereed, juried, peer-reviewed journal in educational administration and supervision.
In 1987, Dr. Kritsonis found the National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal (NFAERJ) whose aim is to conjoin the efforts of researchists world-wide with those of educators. He founded the National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal (NFTE), National FORUM of Special Education Journal (NFSE), National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal (NFMI), and International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity (IJ SAID). In 1997, he established the Electronic Journals Division of National FORUM Journals that publishes articles daily on the website: www.nationalforum.com. Over 250,000 readers visit the website yearly.
Dr. Kritsonis has served in professorial roles at Central Washington university, Washington; Salisbury State University, Maryland; Northwestern State University, Louisiana; Wright State University, Ohio; McNeese State University, Louisiana; and Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
Currently, Dr. Kritsonis is Professor of Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University a Member of the Texas A&M University System. He teaches in the newly established PhD doctoral program in Educational Leadership. Dr. Kritsonis taught the Inaugural class session in the doctoral program at the start of the fall 2004 academic year. He lives in Houston, Texas.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
PhD Program in Educational Leadership
PVAMU, Texas A&M University System

Arguably, U.S. expenditures on education per pupil exceed those of all other nations; yet, standardized tests show that our students under-perform those of many other countries. This is a serious problem in a high-technology world in which an increasingly larger share of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is conceptual rather than material. If our graduates lack the complement of skills needed to compete for jobs in a global economy, it would be difficult for the U.S. to maintain its technological and economic primacy among the nations of the world (CNN, 2000).
The relatively low performance of our students in standardized tests has raised an alarm in the U.S. Congress. In 1978, Congress passed Goals 2000: Educate America Act that aimed to improve educational outcomes and to develop teachers’ instructional skills. More recently, President Bush made the No Child Left behind Act, the centerpiece of an educational initiative that compels schools to meet federally required results (U.S. Department of Education, 2006).
Online education presents unusual challenges and opportunities for educators and students alike (Moskal et al, 2006). Increasingly, students at all educational levels (primary, secondary, post-secondary, continuing education), participate online in hybrid, mixed mode, and Web-enhanced face-to-face courses. The increased capability of digital communication in all formats has brought a strong shift from people working individually towards people who can work collaboratively (Larreamendy-Joem & Leihardt, 2006). As the world moves into the information age and away from the industrial age, and as the economy becomes progressively more global, collaboration has become a necessity. The new workplace model often requires that employees work together and effectively as a team (U.S. Department of Labor, 1999). It is important to determine to what extent online education empowers students and imparts to them the skills needed in order to succeed.
Background of the Problem
When something new comes along sometimes it is embraced to excess. Online education is the new kid in the metaphorical block of higher education. Schools face pressure from students who demand more online courses. They also face budget constrains, and in this regard online courses are a godsend since enrollments and revenues may grow without a concomitant increase in outlays for physical plant. Members of the learning community are demanding Internet-based classes for widely varied reasons. Online courses have gained in popularity among non-traditional students who appreciate online courses because of the flexibility, including learning outside the normal classroom schedule constraints (Lapsley & Moody, 2006). Numerous nontraditional students are now seeking higher education. An Internet-based course allows these students to attend class at their convenience. Typically, nontraditional students are funding their educations themselves and often have limited financial resources. Internet-based classes can also be less expensive than traditional on-campus classes, though this is not always the case. Reduced cost and convenience may mean an education to someone who otherwise would not have such an opportunity (Almala, 2006).
In this pressure-cooker environment, online course offerings will experience supernormal growth. Therefore, it is extremely important to attempt to measure exactly what is being gained by this phenomenal growth (Moskal et al., 2006).
Statement of the Problem
Online education is the fastest growing segment of the higher education industry. This growth is not limited to the United States. According to Debeb (2001) over 90 million students enrolled worldwide in 986 distance teaching institutions in 2001. He projected this number will grow to at least 120 million by the year 2025 (Spague, 2007). According to a recent study by the Sloan Consortium, an online education group, nearly 3.48 million students took at least one online course during the fall of 2006 semester compare to 2.35 million reported in 2005 ( Sloan, 2007). The proportion of institutions that believe that online education is important to their long-term strategy continues to increase, growing from 48.8% of all institutions in 2003 to 53.5% in 2004, 56% in 2005 and 58.4% in 2006 .Although almost all types and sizes of institutions show an increase in the importance of online education to their long term strategy institutions, two year colleges show the highest level of agreement, 67% in 2006 two year colleges show the highest level of agreement(67% in 2006) (The Sloan Consortium, 2006).
Most institutions (64%) agree with the statement “Students need more discipline to succeed in an online course than in a face to face course” as the most significant barrier in online education (The Sloan Consortium, 2007). This is greatest in private for profit institutions where 78.8% responded that students need more discipline to succeed in online courses. In community college this issue has been cited as a very important factor as well. This is an interesting finding, given that Community Colleges are among those with both the most positive views on online education and have the highest penetration rates and account for over one-half of all online enrollments for the last five years (The Sloan Consortium, 2007). Clearly, these schools do not view the need for increased student discipline as a strong inhibiting factor for online education.
Many students in higher education taking online courses are not distant but reside on campus. A recent study by South Dakota’s Board of Regents found that 42 percent of the students enrolled in its distance education courses lived on campus at the university that hosted the online course (SDBRR, 2005).
Vermeil and Berge (2000), indicate that a technologically-driven global economy in the 21st century contributes to the emergence of online education and the growth of electronic communication, particularly the use of the internet, in institutions of higher education.
The importance of learners’ attitudes toward the learning environment and the subject of study have been highlighted by researchers. Students’ attitudes, perceptions, and experiences will help faculty improve the design of online courses, and provide educators with information about recruitment and educational assessment (Lao & Gonzales, 2005). Students will increasingly encounter technology in many forms. To compete in a global economy, large scale technological training is required. Researchers have viewed these training programs as an imperative for our economic success (Ferleger & Mandle, 1990). In addition, researchers have identified the use of advanced technology in the classroom as an important tool for improving the outcome of the learning process.
Many students are faced with the challenge of using computer and communication technologies as the primary method of receiving instruction. However, little is known about the effort of colleges and universities to prepare the current labor force for a more technological society. In particular, the role of the comprehensive community college system in the development of a more technologically informed work force has not been studied intensively (Larreamendy-Joems & Leinhardt, 2006).
According to Sloan (2007), online enrollments are growing rapidly, but relatively few studies have analyzed the actual online student experience. An investigation is required to identify the perceptions and attitudes of community college students toward online-learning (Almala, 2006; Moskal & et. al, 2006).
Instructors spend time and energy developing online courses, with an assumption that students will take advantage of them and thereby benefit from utilizing these online resources. This assumption, however, may not be warranted, since there is little research that has examined how students actually use, perceive and benefit from online courses (Rosen & Petty, 1997). Moreover, some students may benefit more from online courses than others due to past internet experience, attitudes toward computers and learning style. An understanding of how students utilize and perceive online courses and how different factors influence their use and perceptions will provide valuable input to instructors. Based on this knowledge, instructors can justify their effort and design online courses to maximize the utility to all students, not just those who are particularly computer literate (Zembylas & Varsidas, 2007).
While online instruction is gaining popularity, it is not free from criticism.
Many educators and trainers do not support online instruction because they do not believe it actually solves difficult teaching and learning problems (Conlon, 1997), while others are concerned about the many barriers that hinder effective online teaching and learning. These concerns include the changing nature of technology, the complexity of networked systems, the lack of stability in online learning environments, and the limited understanding of how much students and instructors need to know to successfully participate (Brandt, 1996; Carr-Chellman, 2006). Online instruction also threatens to commercialize education, isolate students and faculty, and may reduce standards or even devalue university degrees (Gallick, 1998; Kraut et al., 1998).
Seventy seven percent of prospective college students in the United States would consider enrolling in a distance education program (Sloan Report, 2005). This report identified convenience and flexibility as driving consumer interest in online program. The study also found a great concern about online education. Students remain concerned about the quality of online education. When asked about this, 38% of those surveyed were unsure of the quality of online education relative to classroom instruction, and 29% believed online education is inferior to classroom instruction. Additionally, some students surveyed were worried that an online degree would not be as acceptable to potential employers as a more traditional-based degree (Tabatabaei, Schrottner, & Reichgelt, 2006). As this growing market becomes more competitive, it is more critical than ever for colleges to understand students’ motivations, attitudes, preferences and needs in order to better position themselves for success in the market (Zembylas & Varsidas, 2007) . Online colleges that are not tailoring their marketing messages and program mix to specific student needs will find themselves at a competitive disadvantage. Although the growth of online programs has been significant in recent years, the capabilities and efficacy of such programs have yet to be fully investigated (Bement, 2007).
Most effort in this area has been devoted to program development while examinations of program quality and effectiveness have been overlooked (Amala, 2006).
Research Questions
1. Do students in online courses perform differently from students who take face-to-face courses?

2. What factors influence the decision to enroll in online courses?

3. What factors influence student satisfaction in online classes?

4. What factors influence learning outcomes?
5. What are the perceived strengths and weaknesses of online education?
Null Hypotheses

H01. Online education is not conducive to favorable learning outcomes.
H02. There is no statistically significant relationship between labor force activity as measured by average weekly hours of work, and the decision to enroll in online courses.
H03. There is no statistically significant relationship between commuting time to school and the decision to enroll in online courses.
H04. There is no statistically significant relationship between student satisfaction with the educational experience and the instructor’s social presence.
H05. There is no statistical evidence that students feel isolated by the online experience.
H06. There is no statistical evidence that students find the online medium to be a poor way to communicate with the instructor.
H07. There is no statistical evidence that students find the online medium to be threatening.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to examine the role of social presence in online courses at a community college. Specifically, the study will examine the relationship of social presence in online courses to students’ perceived learning and to their satisfaction with the instructor.
Significance of the Study
The study will provide information that administrators and faculty may use to improve the design and delivery of online education. The study is significant because online education is the fastest growing segment of higher education. According to a survey conducted by Eduventures Inc. half of prospective college students are interested in earning a degree online (The Chronicle oh Higher Education, 2006). For example, during 2003-2004 online enrollments grew by 18.2 %. In comparison, the National Center for Education Statistics projections for total enrollment growth for all degree-granting postsecondary institutions during 2003-2004, ranged from a low of 0.87% to a high of 1.31% (The Sloan Consortium, 2005).
Gaining knowledge about the processes and outcomes of online instruction will help administrators, educators, and researchers make more informed decisions about future online course development and implementation. With little empirical knowledge about Internet-based education outcomes, the need for research in this area is not only timely, but also imperative (Moskal & et. al., 2006; Caudill, 2007).The online education experience is of recent vintage; therefore, additional information underscoring students’ satisfaction, problems encountered, and educational achievement under this new medium should be useful to administrators, faculty and future students (Tallent-Runnels et. al., 2006).
Assumptions
1. A sufficiently large amount of data will be collected to draw valid statistical inferences.
2. A valid instrument will be used to collect student responses.
Delimitations of the Study
The study will be conducted on students at Tomball College in Houston, Texas. The results of the study may be generalized to the population of students at Tomball College.
Because the study will be conducted on the students of a college in an area whose demographic characteristics are not representative of all areas of the country, the results may not be generalized to community college students in other areas.
Limitations of the Study
Students will be asked to volunteer for participation in the study. Their willingness to participate may have an impact on their attitudes toward online learning. The administration of the instrument by their instructors might have an influence on their responses.


Definition of Terms
Asynchronous: “Communication in which interaction between parties does not take place simultaneously” (e.g., email, mail, threaded posting) (Glossary, n.d.).
Collaborative Learning: A learning environment in which individual learners support and add to an emerging pool of knowledge of a group; emphasizes peer relationships as learners work together creating learning communities (Moore & Kearsley, 2005).
Computer-assisted instruction: Instruction delivered with the assistance of a computer. The student interacts with the computer and proceeds at his or her own speed. CAI software is commonly classified into these categories: drill-and-practice; tutorial; simulation; educational games; problem solving; applications (Glossary, Oregon Network Education).
Computer-mediated instruction: When computers are used as the media that delivers the course content from the instructor to the student (e.g., web-based courses, e-mail, chat rooms, and videoconferencing (Berge & Collins, 1995).
Correspondence Course: A distance learning environment where the course content and communications between the instructor and the student are provided using the U.S. postal system (Moore & Kearsley, 2005).
Distance Education: “the organizational framework and process of providing instruction at a distance. Distance education takes place when a teacher and student (s) are physically separated, and technology (i.e., voice, video, data, or print) are used to bridge the instructional gap” (Willis, 1994).
Distance Learning: “education or training offered to learners who are in a different location than the source or provider of instruction” (Porter, 1997).
Learner Autonomy: "Concept that learners have different capacities for making decisions regarding their own learning." Relates to the structure and interactive expectations of a distance education course (Moore & Kearsley, 1996).
Social Presence: “Social presence theory, a sub-area of communication theory, postulates that a critical factor of a communication medium is its “social presence,” which is defined as the “degree of salience of the other person in the (mediated) interaction and the consequent salience of the interpersonal relationships” (Short & Chritie, 1976). This is interpreted as the degree to which a person is perceived as “real” in mediated communication. Originally construed as an inherent feature of differing media, social presence may also be explored by examining a variety of issues which may contribute to the social climate of the classroom (Gunawardena, 1995). Consequently, it has been argued that social presence is a factor of both the medium and the communicators’ perceptions of presence in a sequence of interactions (Gunawardena, 1995). The construct of social presence in this construction appears to have subsumed that of teacher immediacy by taking into consideration the fact that some media, such as computer, interactive video, audiotape, alter learning environments.
Synchronous: “Communication in which interaction between participants is simultaneous time (e.g., videoconferencing, chat rooms) (Glossary, n.d.).
Telecourse: A strategy of distance learning that provides instruction to the students using television broadcasts or pre-recorded tapes. (Glossary, Oregon Network Education).
Web-Enhanced Instructions: the use of course management system tools (i.e., Blackboard, WebCT) to augment the traditional face–to-face classroom (Hayward & Lorna, 2004).
World Wide Web: “A system of Internet servers that support specially formulated documents. The documents are formatted in a markup language called HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) that supports links to other documents, as well as graphics, audio, and video files…Not all Internet servers are part of the World Wide Web.” (Webopedia, n.d.).

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Arthur L. Petterway, PhD

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Dissertation Committee Member

ABSTRACT


A Mixed-Method Analysis of the Impact of High Stakes Testing on English Language Learners in Major Urban High Schools in Texas
May, 2007

Arthur L. Petterway: B.A. – Dillard University

M.Ed., Prairie View A&M University

Dissertation Chair: Dr. M. Paul Mehta

Ample research has been conducted on the intrinsic validity of standardized assessments, and on the factors affecting the assimilation and integration of English language learners (ELLs). The reliability of these assessments as a universal tool to measure student learning, and as a basis for determining school performance needed closer examination.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of high-stakes testing on ELLs. This was shown in both the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of the study. Data obtained from Texas Education Agency (TEA) were used to determine whether there was a relationship between the percentage of ELLs enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) tests in the core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics given in 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. The qualitative aspect of this study explored what certified English as a Second Language( ESL) teachers, non-certified ESL teachers who teach ELLs, administrators, and district ESL personnel viewed as the impact that high stakes standardized assessments had on ELLs, ESL curriculum, and instruction in ESL classrooms.
This study determined the impact of high-stakes testing on ELLs using the explanatory design of mixed method analysis. Data of 173 major urban high schools were obtained from the Texas Education Agency (TEA). It was determined through the Pearson correlation computations using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) that there was a significant relationship between the percent of ELLs enrolled in a school and the percent of all students passing the 10th Grade TAKS tests in English Language Arts and Mathematics. In the qualitative portion of the study, the views and opinions of district ESL personnel were gathered. Principals, assistant principals, ESL and non-ESL teachers took part in an online, open-ended questionnaire; one-on-one interviews; and focus groups. The focus groups addressed the purposes of statewide testing; its intended consequences; problems and changes created by TAKS, and the recommendations to improve ESL curriculum and instruction.
The results of the study affirmed the expected outcome that a significant relationship existed between the percentage of ELLs enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests in both core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics. The regression analysis predicted that as the percentage of ELLs in a school increased, the performance on the statewide, high-stakes testing in terms of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests decreased. Respondents of the study considered TAKS as a tool to gauge knowledge in the different core areas. English language learners were expected to have at least average scores on TAKS. There was a difference in the expected and actual results; respondents observed dismal or failing performance of ELLS in the actual results in TAKS. This was evident by the high failure rate of ELLs in their respective schools. Higher dropout rate and lower graduation rate of ELLs were problems encountered due to TAKS. Respondents favored a different test for ELLs, possibly given at a later date after ELLs had studied in the country for at least several years. Respondents believed that interventions were needed to help ELLs perform better. Both the school and the home, together with the community, have to be involved in preparing ELLs for their present and future roles in the American society.
Results of this study may provide valuable data to district and school administrators to develop strategies that will improve the performance of ELLs on the statewide, high-stakes testing and to develop assessments that truly measure learning without the nullifying effect of linguistic and cultural bias. The study may also help to enhance the reliability of standardized assessments as a tool to determine accountability for student performance.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Arthur L. Petterway, PhD

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Dissertation Committee Member


CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
For years, the English language learners (ELLs) have been subjected to educational systems that did not expect them to rise to the same standards as their native English-speaking peers (Winograd, 2002). Although that it can take several years to acquire the second language skills needed to be successful in school (Collier, 1989), too often English language learners born in the U.S. are still in English as a second language (ESL) classes and far behind their grade level peers in the content areas by the time they reach high school (Freeman & Freeman, 2002).
One factor that should be considered in this failure to reach grade level requirements is that language may constitute an element of self-identity. It is possible that minority groups are insistent on retaining their ethnic language as their “first.” English proficiency then would be a mere elective instead of an indispensable learning tool. If this is the case, schools are being held accountable for the consequences of a socio-cultural phenomenon that is beyond their limited powers to address.

Public schools are under close scrutiny. Since they are supported by public funds, there is an increasing demand for accountability. The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) now requires all students to be accounted for in any state’s assessment system, although that has not always been the case (Abedi, 2004). School districts are now required to clearly demonstrate they deserve, and effectively utilize public funding. In itself, this is not a disturbing trend. Institutions that are wholly or partly supported by public funds should be accountable. This is essentially a consequence of democracy. A government that is created by, and for the people, is so unlike an aristocracy that is not required to serve a constituency beyond the guarantee of protection from marauders or invading armies. The U.S. system of government empowers the state to undertake measures that guarantee the common good. This goes beyond the guarantee of physical safety, since the term “common good” has a wider application, and implies a calculated sensitivity to every citizen’s pursuit of happiness. While education is not categorized as a fundamental right, it is perceived as primary among a bundle of values essential for every person’s quest for self-fulfillment and happiness. This explains why there is little argument about whether the government should be involved in education at all, and whether this is an endeavor better left to the private sector (Abedi, 2004).
The government’s involvement in education opens a wide avenue for the analysis and evaluation of results. In today’s world, it is not enough that public schools have adequate facilities, although this constitutes one level of analysis. It is important that schools are safe and teachers are qualified, although in the hierarchy of priorities considered for evaluating schools, these outcomes are not standard. Schools are judged principally based on the amount of learning that takes place in their classrooms. As an internal act, the evidence of learning is analyzed from scores students obtain on standardized assessments.
Institutions are now facing an ever-increasing demand for accountability. There is pressure from every conceivable corner to make public schools accountable to their stakeholders. This means that it is not enough for students to learn in school; it is equally important that learning should occur in ways that are measurable. If students are unable to demonstrate what they have learned, it is presumed that no learning took place at all. The time when public schools are allowed to operate without proven success is over. It is appropriate to inquire about the valid manifestations of success and learning, and how they may actually be measured. Cultural construct renders school rankings flawed to a certain extent since they become less accurate as a measure of the faculty and administration’s performance. Instead, they become unintended indicators of the ethnicity of the students to which schools cater (Abedi, 2004).
Statement of the Problem

High stakes assessment systems are meant to bring attention to the needs of ELLs, who are most at risk of not reaching the educational goals set for them (Anderson, 2004). But what results do statewide accountability tests really produce for ELLs (Anderson, 2004)? Assessment systems usually produce both positive and negative consequences (Anderson, 2004). The positive and negative consequences of assessments are what is called ‘washback’ (Alderson & Wall, 1993), or how the results of an assessment affect the stakeholders taking the test (Anderson, 2004).
While quantifiable washback effects such as increased dropout rates or increased referral to Special Education have been researched, assessment washback is more complicated than numbers alone can tell (Anderson, 2004). Students who qualify for Special Education may be allowed to take alternative assessments in lieu of the state assessments such as the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS). It is interesting to note that while the numbers of African-American and Hispanic students are over-represented in Special Education, about eight to nine percent of ELLs are identified as receiving Special Education services in the United States (D’Emilio, 2003; Zehler, Fleischman, Hopstock, Pendzick, & Stepherson, 2003). While these assessments are not on grade level, schools are expected to demonstrate that, based on students’ scores on alternative assessments, improvement in academic performance is taking place.
Data are needed that tell us more about the full range of intended and unintended consequences occurring in schools today (Anderson, 2004). Since school rankings affect student and faculty morale, they serve more as a force for the preservation of the status quo than a force for improvement in student performance. A school that works hard to ensure that learning occurs, and that its students progress academically, but which has a large proportion of ELLs, will risk being ranked as underperforming because the measure used to evaluate its performance is blind to this important demographic reality.
One way to get at these data is by talking with the stakeholders at the schools. Educators are the ones who deal directly with the impact of high stakes assessments, but are overlooked in research. While teachers’ opinions are often cited as anecdotal evidence that a problem exists, their expert observations often go unrecorded in any systematic way (Anderson, 2004).
Standardized assessments are a measure for holding schools accountable for student learning. At the present time, schools in Texas are ranked Exemplary, Recognized, Acceptable or Underperforming, depending on the performance of their students in the Texas Assessment of Knowledge Skills (TAKS). This produces a vicious cycle since exemplary schools attract the best students who may leave underperforming schools to seek what is perceived to be a higher quality of instruction in higher ranked schools. These labels tend to have a self-fulfilling effect, or at least they make it difficult for underperforming schools to achieve higher performance scores on standardized tests, since they face the additional burden of surmounting language barriers and a history of low performance.
Related to this concern is the prevailing system of voluntary segregation in most zones and districts. Some schools have either a predominant population of White, Hispanic, or African-American students. Each of these student groups is given the same tests, and yet they have varying degrees of proficiency in the language in which the assessments are given. It begs to be asked whether these assessments, in fact, measure learning and whether they are linguistically and culturally neutral. The implication is that these students will be able to answer the test questions even if they do not have equal exposure to cultural references that may frame some of the test questions.
This study is intended to explore what educators perceive as the consequences of statewide assessment for ELLs and what they observe as actually occurring (Anderson, 2004).
Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of high-stakes testing on ELLs. This was shown in both the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of the study. Data obtained from TEA were used to determine whether there is a relationship between the percentage of English language learners enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th Grade TAKS tests in the core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics given in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006. To support the quantitative aspect, this study explored what certified ESL teachers, non-certified ESL teachers who teach ELLs, administrators, and district ESL personnel viewed as the impact that high stakes standardized assessments have on ELLs, ESL curriculum and instruction, and what they observed as actually occurring.
Research Questions
Quantitative

Is there a relationship between the percentage of English language learners enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests in the core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics given in 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006?
Hypotheses
H01: There is no statistically significant relationship between the
percentage of English language learners enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests in English Language Arts given in 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006?
H02: There is no statistically significant relationship between the
percentage of English language learners enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests in Mathematics given in 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006?
Qualitative

The major question addressed by this study was: What are the anticipated and observed consequences of the statewide testing, specifically TAKS, on ESL curriculum and instruction as viewed by certified ESL teachers, non-certified ESL teachers who teach ELLs, school administrators, and district ESL personnel?
This major question was explored using the following probes:
1. Why is TAKS given as a statewide test?
2. What are the intended consequences of this statewide testing? (Or what has happened because of TAKS?)
3. What problems have occurred related to or because of TAKS?
4. What changes were caused by this statewide testing?
5. What are your recommendations to improve this statewide testing?
6. What needs to be done for the ESL students to improve their performance in general and specifically for this statewide test?
Description of the Research Design
The study analyzed the issues and challenges faced by ELLs and the public schools that serve them. Quantitative data for this research were gathered from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) regarding the percentage of ELLs and the performance of 10th grade students from the major urban high schools in Texas on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) tests in English Language Arts and Mathematics for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. Qualitative data were derived from one-on-one and focus group interviews and an online questionnaire focusing on respondents’ views and opinions about the various ways that standardized assessments impact ELLs.



Assumptions
Fraenkel and Wallen (2003) stated that an assumption is anything taken for granted rather than tested or checked. This study is no different and the following assumptions were made: (a) that the first language of the ELLs is Spanish and they have varying degrees of fluency in the English language; (b) that the ESL curriculum is appropriate for the mastery of the TAKS test for the ELLs; (c) that the online open-ended qualitative questionnaire will be completed by the respondents on time; and (d) that the respondents in the focus groups will truthfully express their views and opinions regarding issues or concerns brought to the group.
Limitations of the Study
Limitations of the study included several factors: mainly the qualitative questionnaire and the manner in which respondents gave their responses. The questionnaire may have vague questions open to more than one interpretation. The pilot study helped in streamlining the questionnaire to remove or modify such vague issues or concerns. Another limitation may have been the manner in which the respondents answered the question. For one reason or another, they may not have truthfully answered some of the questions. The respondents may or may not have completed the questionnaire due to no ready access to a computer or they just did not want to complete the questionnaire. These non-respondents became part of the mortality factor involved in the study. Responses to the open-ended questions became difficult to classify under a certain category. This was facilitated through the Non-Numerical, Unstructured Data, Indexing Searching & Theorizing Vivo-“Nudist Alive” (NVivo) software system (Version 7.0) and by the focus group interviews where the respondents helped determine the category of such responses.
A factor that may have been encountered in the quantitative dimension of the study was the lack of intended data for the study. Diligent efforts were made to gather data from available sources.
Delimitations of the Study
The questions for the online qualitative questionnaire may have been a delimitation of the study. The pilot study contributed to the improvement of the qualitative tool. Another delimitation may have been the choice of participants, especially in the focus groups. The “snowball technique” addressed this issue. Better interaction happened with added ‘quality’ members to the focus groups.
Qualitative data are available and the inclusion of the quantitative aspect of the study provided a challenge and an opportunity to determine if certain factors of the study have any impact on the ELLs.
Definition of Terms
Content Standards are broad descriptions of the knowledge, skills, and understandings that schools should teach and students should acquire in a particular subject area (McLaughlin & Shepard, 1995).
English Language Learners (ELLs) is the preferred term to describe a student whose native language is other than English (Chamot & O’Malley, 1994). These students require instructional modifications, and eventually take the TAKS after two years of enrollment in the school districts.
High Stakes Assessment is an assessment in which student promotion (i.e., high school graduation) can be denied if the scores do not reflect competence (NCBE, 1997); an assessment in which “students, teachers, administrators, and entire school systems must account for student performance” (Loschert, 2000, p. 1).
Limited English Proficient (LEP) refers to a student with a language background other than English, and whose proficiency in English is such that the probability of academic success in an English-only classroom is below that of an academically successful peer with an English-language background (CCSSO, 1992).
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 (PL – 107 – 110). It is the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA).
Opportunity-to-learn (OTL) Standard defines the level and availability of programs, staff and other resources sufficient to enable all students to meet challenging content and performance standards (McLaughlin & Shepard, 1995).
Performance Standards are concrete examples and explicit definitions of what students have to know and be able to do to demonstrate that such students are proficient in the skills and knowledge framed by the content standards (McLaughlin & Shepard, 1995).
Standardized Assessments include the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and the State and Locally-Developed Alternative Assessment (SLDAA) for students who are exempted from the TAKS. A standardized assessment is a measurement of what students know and can do (McLaughlin & Shepard, 1995).
Standards-based Reform requires setting standards of performance in academic subject areas as a means of improving the substance of school curricula and increasing the motivation and effort of students, teachers, and school systems and thereby improving student achievement (McLaughlin & Shepard, 1995).
Washback shows how the results of an assessment affect the stakeholders taking the test (Alderson & Wall, 1993).
Significance of the Study
Expected outcome of this study may possibly provide additional valuable data for writers or researchers in regard to biases in standardized assessments that may encourage school districts to develop assessments that truly measure learning without the nullifying effect of linguistic and cultural bias. Additionally, this study enhances the reliability of standardized assessments as a tool in determining accountability where the performance of English language learners is concerned.
Organization of the Study
Chapter I identifies the problem this study addresses: the impact of high stakes assessments on the curriculum and instruction of English language learners. It includes the hypotheses and research questions of the present study. Included are the definitions of terms valuable to the study.
Chapter II includes the review of literature about the essential conditions and factors regarding the NCLB Act, the AYP implications for concerned schools, high-stakes, statewide assessments and the implications and challenges they present to the preparation and education of ELLs. The information reveals the difficulties that English language learners face when taking these high stakes assessments, the possible positive and negative consequences and possible “washback” related to the assessments.
A mixed-method study is identified and expounded in Chapter III. Quantitative data for this research were gathered from the Texas Education Agency regarding the percentage of ELLs and the performance of major urban high schools in Texas in the statewide test (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills) for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. Qualitative data were derived from an online, open-ended questionnaire and interviews that focused on the respondents’ views and opinions about the varied ways standardized assessments impact English language learners.
Results of the study are presented in detail in Chapter IV. Quantitative results include the available data collected from Texas Education Agency. Results of computations employing the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical package, (Version 14.0) are shown in tabular presentations and explanations regarding the relationship among the variables are included. Qualitative results include the participants’ views and opinions on the impact of high stakes testing on English language learners and the information collected from the online, open-ended questionnaire, individual and focus group interviews.
Major findings of the study are discussed in Chapter V. Impact of high stakes standardized assessments on English language learners are also summarized. Other relevant factors that influenced this study are presented, as well as recommendations for future research.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Arthur L. Petterway, PhD

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Dissertation Committee Member

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Key issues and concerns about the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 and the Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) are major parts of the review of related literature. Included are the principles and accountability involved in high-stakes testing and the descriptions and accommodations given to the ultimate beneficiary of the efforts exerted by the federal and state policymakers, the school and district administrators – the learners, specifically, the English language learners who strive to be better citizens of this country. Short description of related studies on statewide testing and English language learners (ELLs) are given to show their tie-in with this study.
No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
Historical Perspective
The NCLB Act of 2001 (PL – 107 -110), is the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The ESEA was first passed in 1965 with the goal of improving the U. S. educational system by providing better education for students in poverty through an increase in services to them. The ESEA provided federal funds for schools but did not require accountability in the use of those funds. In 2003, the Center of Educational Policy clarified why accountability was not part of ESEA in 1965: “At that time, the federal role in education was marginal, most state education agencies had very limited authority and capabilities, and local people were extremely wary that more federal aid would bring federal control” (p.iv).
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) was initiated as a federal testing program at about the same time when ESEA came into existence. NAEP was tasked to report how the nation’s students were performing on selected items at the three grade levels --- 4th, 8th and 12th. Brennan (2004) reported that there were fears that the NAEP might become a “high-stakes federal testing program” found in some European countries. He explained that, “to help preclude that possibility, it was written into law that NAEP could not report scores for individual students” (p.2). The NAEP evolved through the 1980s and early 1990s from a reporting of item scores to test scores and then, on a trial basis, to a reporting of scores that addressed achievement levels (below basic, basic, proficient, and advanced). It is currently used to confirm state NCLB testing results which, according to Brennan, “is the de facto elevation of NAEP to a federally-mandated high-stakes testing program” (p.9).
Through the NCLB Act, policymakers in Washington seek to raise academic achievement in the nation by requiring schools to assess all students on specified content areas and report their progress toward proficiency. Focus of NCLB is on core academic subjects as defined in the law: “The term ‘core academic subjects’ means English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign language, civics, and government, economics, arts, history, and geography” (U.S. Department of Education, 2002).
The premise of NCLB is that our nation’s schools are failing. Thus, the purpose of NCLB is raising the achievement of all students and eliminating the achievement gap among students differentiated by race, ethnicity, poverty, disability, and English proficiency. Since this Act redefines the federal role in education policy that has traditionally been a state responsibility, it merits the attention of educators, parents and citizens. Because the NCLB Act has an impact on the teaching and the learning of the core content areas, including languages, language educators need to be informed about it.
If a roomful of educators were asked which word or phrase best sums up No Child Left Behind (NCLB), many would say accountability. Others might propose student achievement, proficiency or raised expectations. But perhaps the most accurate word to encapsulate the United States’ most ambitious federal education law – which proposes to close achievement gaps and aims for 100% student proficiency by 2014 - is testing. Certainly, the focus on holding schools accountable for student achievement on standardized tests sets NCLB apart from previous versions of the law. (Guilfoyle, 2006).



Description of the Key Factors
There are four key elements in the NCLB Act (Rosenbusch, 2005):
(1) Accountability. States are required to establish a definition of student proficiency in the core academic subjects of Reading/Language Arts, Mathematics and Science through prescribed indicators and set a timetable to bring all students in all subgroups up to the defined levels of proficiency by 2013-2014. The school must report to parents their child’s progress in each targeted academic subject annually, and the state is required to report the results of students’ performance on the annual tests for every public school to parents and the community. Schools that fail to meet state-defined AYP toward their defined goals for two years are identified as needing improvement. Schools that have not met AYP after four years are subject to restructuring or reconstitution.
(2) Testing. States must develop and administer annual tests that define the proficiency that all students are expected to reach in Reading/Language Arts, Mathematics, and Science. States must include a sample of students in fourth and eighth grades in a biennial NAEP in Mathematics and Reading to verify state assessments.
NCLB requires that by School Year (SY) 2005-2006, each state must measure every child’s progress in Reading and Mathematics in each of grades 3 through 8 and at least once during grades 10 through 12. In the meantime, each state must meet the requirements of the previous law reauthorizing ESEA (the Improving America’s Schools act of 1994) for assessments in Reading and Mathematics at three grade spans (3-5; 6-9; and 10-12). By SY 2007-2008, states must have in place Science assessments to be administered at least once during grades 3-5; grades 6-9; and grades 10-12. States must ensure that districts administer a test of English proficiency to measure oral language, Reading and Writing skills in English to all limited English proficient students, as of SY 2002-2003. Students may still undergo state assessments in other subject areas (i.e., History, Geography, and Writing skills), if and when the state requires it. NCLB requires assessments only in the areas of Reading/Language Arts, Mathematics, and Science.
(3) Teacher Quality. Public elementary and secondary school teachers who teach core content areas are required to be “highly qualified,” which is defined as having full state certification (may be attained through alternate routes specified by the state), holding a bachelor’s degree, and having demonstrated subject matter competency as determined by the state under NCLB guidelines. States are required to develop a plan by the end of 2005-2006 to ensure that every teacher is highly qualified to teach in his or her core content area.
(4) Scientifically-Based Research. The NCLB Act requires that all educational decisions be informed by scientifically-based research as defined in the legislation. The NCLB Act funds for Reading First Grants, for example, are to be used for methods of reading instruction backed by scientifically-based research.
Expectations for Parents Due to NCLB (from Collegeboard.com)
(1) New standards for students will require that beginning 2005, students in grades 3 through 8 must be tested in Mathematics and English to ensure they are meeting state standards. Students in Grades 10 through 12 will be tested at least once. By 2007, states will begin testing students in Science as well. Results of the yearly tests will be known to parents. NCLB requires that school districts provide parents with an annual “report card” that shows how well students in each school performed. The information is broken down by race, ethnicity, gender, disability status, and other categories so that parents will know how well each school is doing in educating minority students or those with disabilities.
(2) By the end of SY 2005-2006, teachers must be “highly qualified” in the subjects they teach. States will determine what skills teachers must have to be “highly qualified”, but the requirements could include a degree in the subject they teach or extra training. States must provide annual report cards about teacher certifications, including the percentage of classrooms in the state not taught by highly qualified teachers. Principals must also maintain information about whether or not their school’s teachers meet the requirements.
(3) Each year, schools must increase the number of students who achieve state standards. At the end of 12 years, all students should be able to pass the tests. Schools that fail to achieve this progress will be targeted for improvements that could include increased funding or staff and curriculum changes.
(4) NCLB requires school districts to notify parents if the child’s school has been identified as needing improvement as a result of failing to increase the number of students meeting state standards.
(5) About half of all public schools receive funding to help students from low-income families. If such a school is targeted for improvement and fails after two years, parents can choose to transfer their child to another school or enroll in free tutoring. Parents have this choice for as long as the school fails to adequately perform.
Response to NCLB (Rosenbusch, 2005)
NCLB has engendered controversy that is centered in part on the increased role of the federal government in educational policy. A majority of Americans believe that decisions about what is taught in public schools should be made at the local level by the school board (61%), rather than at the state level (22%) or the federal level (15%) (Rose & Gallup, 2003). Results of a 2004 survey indicate that they disagree with “the major strategies NCLB uses to determine whether a school is or is not in need of improvement” (Rose & Gallup, 2004, p.2). For example, 83% of those surveyed believe that testing only in English and Mathematics will not yield a fair picture of the school, 73% say it is not possible to judge a student’s proficiency in English and Mathematics on a single test, and 81% are concerned that basing decisions about school on students’ performance in English and Mathematics will mean less emphasis on art, music, history and other subjects.
In the U.S. Department of Education, there is support for high standards and high expectations for every child, but the NCLB focus on standardized testing is resulting in a narrowing of the curriculum and a “sorting of students” (Marshak, 2003, p.229) and “could halt the development of truly significant improvements in teaching and learning” (Lewis, 2002, p.179). The National Education Association supports the NCLB Act in its goal but views it as an obstacle to improving public education because of its focus on “punishment rather than assistance”, and “mandates rather than support for effective programs” (National Education Association, n.d.).
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
Purpose and Support to NCLB
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB; Public Law No. 107-110, 115 Stat. 1425, 2002), the most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Act of 1965, holds states using federal funds accountable for student academic achievement. States are required to develop a set of high-quality, yearly student assessments that include, at a minimum, assessments in Reading/Language Arts, Mathematics and Science. Each year, they must report student progress in terms of percentage of students scoring at the “proficient” level or higher. This reporting is referred to as adequate yearly progress (AYP). A state’s definition of AYP should also include high school graduation rates and an additional indicator for middle schools to reach the “proficient” level or higher, which must be no more than 12 years after the start date of the 2001 – 2002 school year, provided that the first increase occurs within the first 2 years (Abedi, 2004).
AYP will be reported for schools, school districts, and the state for all students. In addition, AYP must be reported for the following subgroup categories of students: (a) economically disadvantaged students, (b) students from major racial and ethnic groups, (c) students with disabilities, and (d) students with limited English proficiency (LEP). According to the educational statistics for 2000 – 2001 school year, the total number of students labeled as LEP in the nation’s public schools is more than 4.5 million or 9.6% of total enrollment; (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2002).
States are continuing to find new ways to calculate AYP under the NCLB, in order to increase the number of schools and districts that meet the student achievement targets set by law. Over the past few years, the U.S. Department of Education (ED) has allowed states to make many changes in the way they determine AYP, including the following: (1) confidence intervals, which make allowances for natural fluctuations in test scores and essentially bolster a school’s or subgroup’s percentage of students scoring at proficient levels; (2) performance indices that allow schools to get “partial credit” for the performance of students below the proficient level; (3) retesting, which allows students to retake a different version of the same test and permits schools to use a student’s best score to count toward AYP, and (4) increased minimum subgroup sizes, which mean that in many schools, subgroups do not get counted for AYP purposes. The changes have the effect of making it easier for the schools to make AYP, early indications are that the number of schools not making AYP has leveled off, despite predictions that this number would increase as proficiency targets rose (Olson, 2005).
Changes and Updates
In NCLB’s original conception, determining AYP for a subgroup of students, a school, or a district was already fairly complicated. States had to establish, for every year between 2003 and 2014, a set of ever-increasing state targets in terms of the percentage of students scoring at the proficient level or above on annual tests, with a final goal of 100% proficiency in 2014. If at least 95% of the students in each subgroup are tested, and if all students and subgroups meet the state proficiency targets, the school or district makes AYP. The school has to meet targets for an additional academic indicator, such as the graduation or attendance rate. The law has a “safe harbor” provision: if a school or subgroup fails to meet the state targets, it could still make AYP if it reduces the number of students who are not proficient from the previous year by 10%, and meets its additional academic indicator.
Some other state changes that have been approved are briefly summarized below (Center on Education Policy, 2005):
Minimum subgroup size. To make AYP, schools and districts must meet achievement targets for each significant subgroup of students enrolled, such as African-American students, low-income students, or students with disabilities. Higher minimum subgroup sizes mean that in many schools, subgroups do not get counted for AYP purposes.
Thirteen states increased their minimum subgroup sizes in 2004; ten more did so in 2005. The trend is away from a single minimum size and toward larger subgroup sizes, different subgroup sizes for different subgroups and/or purpose, and the use of formulas for determining subgroup sizes. Georgia is one state that uses a formula approach. Its subgroup size varies according to the size of the school; the minimum size is either 40 students or 10% of a school’s student population, whichever is greater, with a cap of 75 students.
Participation averaging. NCLB requires 95% of the students in every school and every subgroup within a school to take each subject test required by the Act. If this test participation requirement is not met, the school cannot make AYP even if its test scores meet state targets. In March 2004, the Department relaxed this requirement, allowing states to average their participation rates over two or three years, so that a 94% participation rate one year could be balanced by a 96% participation rate the following or previous year. In 2005, six states changed their accountability plans to incorporate this new policy, in addition to the 32 that did so last year.
English language learners. Initially the U.S. Department of Education (ED) required all English language learners to be tested with the same grade-level tests as other students. In response to state and local criticism, the Department revised its policy in February 2004 to allow states to exempt immigrant students who are in their first year of enrollment in a U.S. school for less than one year from taking the regular state English Language Arts tests. These students still have to take an English language proficiency test and a Mathematics test, but the results need not count toward AYP. When calculating AYP for the subgroup of English language learners, states can also count the progress of former English language learners for two years after they reach English proficiency. Six more states adopted these changes in 2005, in addition to the 36 states that did so in 2004.
Extra time is given for students with disabilities and English language learners to graduate. In 2005, eight states received approval from ED to count students with disabilities and/or English language learners as graduating on time even if they need extra years of high school. Seven states received permission to do this in 2004. For students with disabilities, their individualized education plans would need to call for extra years of high school beyond age 18. English language learners can be counted as graduating on time if it takes five years, or as determined on a case-to-case basis (Center on Education Policy, 2005).
Identifying districts for improvement. In 2005, ED approved amendments requested by 13 states to identify a district as being in need of improvement only when it does not make AYP in the same subject and across all three grade spans (elementary, middle and high school) for two consecutive years. In 2004, 18 states made this change. California attempted to have ED accept a relatively lenient method that exempted districts where low-income students reached a certain level on state tests. ED rejected that method, and California settled on the grade span approach instead (Davis & Sack, 2005).
Annual measurable objectives. Eleven states changed their annual score targets in 2005; four states did so in 2004. For example, Florida was allowed to change its schedule of annual measurable objectives so that targets would increase in smaller increments annually, rather than in large increments every three years (Olson, 2005); Virginia did so as well. Several other states, including Alabama, Alaska, New Mexico, and North Carolina, changed their annual targets because they were introducing new assessments.
NCLB is a demanding law. The achievement goals are ambitious, and the burden on states and districts of declaring schools in need of improvement and then imposing sanctions on them is high. To try to meet these demands, states have a strong incentive to keep the numbers of schools and districts not making AYP as low as possible. Unable to change the fundamental requirements written into the law, states are using administrative methods to lessen the numbers of schools and districts not making the AYP – confidence intervals, indexing, and other techniques.
Education Secretary Margaret Spellings has been more flexible than her predecessor in policies regarding students with disabilities, and in granting special exemptions to some districts in the areas of school choice and supplemental educational services (tutoring). Secretary Spellings has decided to allow the Chicago school district to provide tutoring despite the fact that the district has been identified for improvement (Gewertz, 2005). This exemption was then extended to New York City, Los Angeles, Boston, Memphis, Anchorage, and Dayton. This was a regulatory change.
Secretary Spellings went further with four districts in Virginia by suspending a key element of the law itself, invoking a clause in NCLB that allows the Secretary of Education to do so. Her action exempted these districts from the law’s requirement that they provide school choice before tutoring (Olson, 2005). Secretary Spelling’s letter to Virginia officials indicates that this is a pilot program intended to raise the numbers of students receiving supplemental educational services (Spellings, 2005). In addition, districts in the five states most affected by Hurricane Katrina were allowed to postpone, for one year, the consequences that follow when a school is in need of improvement, such as tutoring, restructuring, and corrective action (Olson & Davis, 2005).
ED’s willingness to make adjustments based on state and local experience is commendable. But on the downside, parents in many states would now find it difficult to understand what it means when a school does or does not make AYP, and what criteria were used to determine this success or failure. For example, parents in Pennsylvania may see a report card that indicates that their child’s elementary school has made AYP, but might wonder whether the school is improving or whether it simply made AYP as the result of what might be seen as a new “loophole” in the law. The parents probably would not understand that the school may have made AYP through the use of a 95% confidence interval, safe harbor with a 75% confidence interval, or the Pennsylvania Performance Index as a second safe harbor. In other states, parents of English language learners, students with disabilities, or other subgroups may not realize that raising the minimum subgroup sizes means that their children no longer count for AYP purposes at the school level. They might not realize that the use of confidence intervals allows for considerable leeway in a subgroup’s test scores not available to larger groups of students, and that this is occurring despite the assertion that improving achievement for subgroups is a major focus of the law.
Other drawbacks to the increasing complexity may contribute in the difficulty of discerning clear trends in the number of schools and districts not making AYP, because the rules governing AYP keep changing every year. Amid these changes, it is impossible to determine whether an increase in the number of schools making AYP within a state is due to better teaching and learning or NCLB rule changes. The constant rule changes, particularly the use of large confidence intervals and ever-increasing minimum subgroup sizes, may raise questions about whether the law is being watered down so much that it shortchanges the very groups of disadvantaged children that it aims to help. Public support may wither if the implementation of the law is perceived as deceptive or confusing.
As states continue to learn from one another about the new types of flexibility that ED is allowing, and as state achievement targets continue to rise until 2014, changes in AYP policies are likely to occur at a more rapid pace, at the expense of the public’s ability to understand these changes. More transparency is needed at both the state and federal levels. States must fully and clearly explain their rationales for requesting changes to accountability plans. Once changes are approved by ED, they should be explained in such a way that the public understand how AYP is determined.
At the federal level, ED should more systematically and promptly publicize its decisions about what types of changes to state accountability plans are and are not acceptable, and why. The current process of granting changes does not help state officials learn from other states’ experiences, nor does it help them understand how ED is interpreting the intent of the law.
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) and Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students
Definition of English Language Learners (ELLs) and LEP
Limited English Proficient (LEP) students are students who lack sufficient English skills to participate in a regular education, all-English speaking classroom. English Language Learner (ELL), according to Rivera and Stansfield (1998), is a positive way to refer to any LEP student in English.
NAEP does not provide a definition of the LEP population; instead it presents criteria for the inclusion of LEP students. NAEP inclusion criteria indicate that: A student who is identified on the Administration Schedule as LEP and who is a native speaker of a language other than English should be included in the NAEP assessment unless: (a) the student has received Reading or Mathematics instruction primarily in English for less than 3 school years including the current year , and (b) the student cannot demonstrate his or her knowledge of Reading or Mathematics in English even with an accommodation permitted by NAEP (NCES, 2001).
Due to the importance of LEP subgroups in NCLB accountability and reporting, NCLB provides an operational definition of LEP (NCLB, 2002). According to this definition: The term ‘limited English proficient’, when used with respect to an individual, means an individual (a) who is aged 3 through 21; (b) who is enrolled or preparing to enroll in an elementary school or secondary school; (c) who was not born in the United States or whose native language is a language other than English; who is a Native American or Alaska Native, or native resident of the outlying areas; and who comes from an environment where a language other than English has had a significant impact on the individual’s level of English language proficiency; or who is migratory, whose native language is a language other than English, and who comes from an environment where a language other than English is dominant; and (d) whose difficulties in speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language may be sufficient to deny the individual the ability to meet the State’s proficient level of achievement on State assessments described in section 111(b)(3); the ability to successfully achieve in classrooms where the language of instruction is English; or the opportunity to participate fully in society.
The term “English language learner” (ELL) is a recent designation for students whose first language is not English. This group includes students who are just beginning to learn English as well as those who have already developed considerable proficiency. The term reflects a positive focus on what these students are accomplishing – mastering another language- and is preferred by some researchers to the term “limited English proficient” (LEP), the designation used in federal and state education legislation and most national and state data collection efforts (August & Hakuta, 1997; LaCelle-Peterson & Rivera, 1994).
The ELL population is highly diverse, and any attempt to describe the group as a whole, as with any diverse group of people, is bound to result in inaccurate generalizations. While this group of students shares one important feature - the need to increase their proficiency in English - they differ in many other important respects. ELLs are a diverse cross-section of the public school student population. The primary language, cultural background, socio-economic status, family history, length of time in the United States, mobility, prior school experiences, or educational goals of any student in this group can distinguish him or her from any other ELLs.
ELLs represent a rapidly growing, culturally and linguistically diverse student population in the United States. In 2000-2001, LEP students comprised nearly 4.6 million public high school students. The majority were Spanish speakers (79.0%), followed by Vietnamese (2.0%), Hmong (1.6%), Cantonese (1.0%), and Korean (1.0%). Since the 1990-1991 school year, the limited English proficient population has grown approximately 105%, while the overall school population has increased by only 12%.
English learners matriculate in schools throughout the nation, but most frequently in large urban school districts in the Sun Belt states, in industrial states in the Northeast, and around the Great Lakes. This trend is changing as immigrants move to more affordable suburban and rural areas and to areas where language-minority families are relative newcomers, such as the Midwest. More than half (56.1%) reside in four states alone: California (32.9%), Texas (12.4%), Florida (5.6%) and New York (5.2%) (Kindler, 2002). English learners represent one in four K – 12 students in California schools (California Department of Education, 2000).
This population includes recent immigrants as well as children born in the United States. In the 2000-2001 school year, more than 44% of all LEP students were enrolled in Pre-K through Grade 3; about 35% were enrolled in Grades 4 – 8; and only 19% were enrolled at the high school level (Kindler, 2002). Many LEP students attend schools where most of their peers live in poverty. There are numerous differences among English learners; for example, Spanish-speaking families tend to have lower parental educational attainment and family incomes than Asian-or Pacific-language families (August & Hakuta, 1997).
Many criteria are used across the nation for identification of ELLs. Among the most commonly used criteria are Home Language Survey results and scores from English proficiency tests. There are reasons to believe that the Home Language Survey results may not be valid because of parents’ concern over equity in education for their children, parents’ citizenship issues, and communication problems (Abedi, 2004b). Similarly, there are concerns about the validity of current English proficiency tests, such as the Language Assessment Scales and other commonly used assessments (Zehler, Hopstock, Fleischman & Greniuk, 1994). Criterion-related validity coefficients, or the correlation between English proficiency tests and other existing valid measure of English proficiency, are not strong, explaining less than 5% of the common variance (Abedi, 2003). Finally, in terms of content and construct validity, there is little evidence that the contents of the existing English proficiency tests align sufficiently with commonly accepted English language proficiency standards, such as standards by Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (Bailey & Butler, 2003).
Issues and Other Considerations of LEP
Disaggregated progress reports by subgroups mandated by the NCLB legislation will monitor the nation’s goal of having “no child left behind.” However, there are major issues in this disaggregated reporting among different subgroup categories (students who are economically disadvantaged, students from major racial and ethnic groups, students with disabilities, and LEP students). NCLB requirement for subgroup reporting may give the impression that students in the subgroup categories start the achievement race at about the same level and can progress with other students at about the same rate. This might be an overly optimistic view of the situation of less advantaged learners. By focusing this discussion on the consequences for schools enrolling LEP students, we see how putting into practice the policy may produce invalid assessment and unreliable reporting while exacerbating the burdens of current educators. Following is a discussion of some challenges in AYP measurement and reporting for LEP students.
Results of research on the assessment of LEP students suggest a strong confounding of language and performance. LEP students exhibit substantially lower performance than non-LEP students in subject areas high in language demand. Studies suggest that the large performance gap between LEP and non-LEP may not be due mainly to lack of content knowledge. LEP students may possess the content knowledge but may not be at the level of English language proficiency necessary to understand the linguistic structure of assessment tools. Strong confusion of language factors and content-based knowledge makes assessment and accountability complex for LEP students and, very likely, students in other targeted groups.
Because of the strong effect of language factors on the instruction and assessment of LEP students, they lag far behind native English speakers. This leads to huge initial differences. LEP students start with substantially lower baseline scores. More important, unless LEP students’ English language proficiency is improved to the level of native English speakers- which is not an easy task- they will not be able to move at the same rate on the Adequate Yearly Progress line as do native English speakers.
NCLB cannot have much of an effect on the initial performance differences between LEP and non-LEP students. A more sensible question here is whether or not NCLB can provide enough resources to schools with a large number of LEP students to help them increase these students’ language proficiency to a sufficient extent that they can progress with their native English speaker peers in both instruction and assessment.
Inconsistency in LEP classification across and within states makes AYP reporting for LEP students even more complex. If students are not correctly identified as LEP, how can their AYP be reliably reported at a subgroup level? Although NCLB attempts to resolve this issue by providing a definition for this group, its criteria for classifying LEP students may face the same problems as the existing classification system (Abedi, 2003; Zehler, Hopstock, Fleishman & Greniuk, 1994).
Inconsistency in the classification of LEP students may lead to more heterogeneity in the LEP subgroup. With a more heterogeneous population, larger numbers of students are needed to provide the statistically reliable results required by NCLB. The population of LEP students in many districts and states is sparse. In many states, there may not be enough students in a district or school to satisfy even the minimum number of 25 students suggested in the literature (Linn, Baker & Herman, 2002). Other researchers have argued that even 25 students may not be enough to provide statistically reliable results and have proposed a minimum group size of 100 students (Hill & DePascale, 2003). Considering a small number of LEP students in many districts and states, the small group size for LEP reporting would be another obstacle in regard to reliable AYP reporting.
The LEP subgroup suffers from yet another major problem related to AYP reporting: The lack of stability of this group. In many states and districts across the nation, LEP students’ level of English proficiency is reevaluated regularly, and if they reach a proficient level of English proficiency, they move out of the LEP subgroup. While this helps the more English-proficient students receive more appropriate instruction and assessment, it results in the LEP subgroup continuing to be low-performing. The students in this group will always be labeled as underachievers, and schools with large number of LEP students will be stuck in the “need for improvement” category.
Some states with substantial numbers of LEP students have expressed concern over this issue. They have proposed ideas and negotiated with the federal government to ease the level of possible negative impact that this situation may have on school, district, and state accountability. For example, Indiana and Delaware will continue to include exited LEP students in the LEP subgroup for 2 years after they have been determined to be proficient in English. Georgia plans to include LEP students as long as they still receive services through the English for Speakers of Other Languages program, even if they have met exit criteria (Erpenbach, Forte-Fast & Potts, 2003). In California, students re-designated as LEP will remain in the LEP category until they reach the proficient or above level on the California Standards Test in English-language arts for 3 consecutive years (California Department of Education, 2003). However, the question of whether this policy will provide a long-term solution to the problem of LEP subgroup instability or serve only as a temporary relief remains unanswered.
The measurement of the academic achievement of LEP students is much more complex than what the NCLB legislation conceives. A fair assessment of students in the four targeted subgroup categories requires much more serious consideration than is outlined in the law. Despite attempting to solve the age-old problem of heterogeneity among LEP students, the NCLB seems to perpetuate it, thereby leaving more room for children to be left behind.
On the other hand, NCLB’s attention to students in the four subgroup categories in general and to the LEP population in particular is a step in the right direction. Considering that Title III of NCLB requires assessment of LEP students’ English proficiency on an annual basis and providing support to states to develop reliable and valid measures of students’ proficiency is promising. Any decisions concerning assessment for all subgroups, particularly LEP students, must be informed by results of research and experience in the education community.
Currently, several tests for measuring students’ level of English language proficiency exist. Some of these tests have been used for many years by different states and districts. In spite of the existence of such tests, states are developing new English language proficiency tests with funding through NCLB’s Enhanced Assessment Instruments. A reasonable explanation for this might be that states did not find that the existing tests provided reliable and valid measures of students’ level of English language proficiency as required by NCLB. If this is the reason for the development of the new tests, then the test developers should be aware of problems in the existing tests to avoid the same problems in the new tests.
For example, a careful review of some of the most commonly used language proficiency tests concluded that the tests differ considerably in types of tasks and specific item content and are based on different theoretical emphases prevalent at the time of their development (Zehler, Hopstock, Fleischman & Greniuk, 1994). This suggests that in the case of some of the existing tests, the English language proficiency domain was not operationally defined before the test development process. This and similar studies and reviews should inform the development process of new tests. For example, it is imperative this domain be operationally defined before any effort in developing an English proficiency test. This definition should be based on current developments in the areas of psycholinguistics, developmental psychology, education, linguistics, and psychometrics. Content standards for English for speakers of other languages should also be considered (Bailey & Butler, 2003).
In analyzing data from the administration of existing language proficiency tests, researchers have expressed concerns about the reliability and validity of these tests, the adequacy of the scoring directions, and the limited populations on which test norms are based. For example, analyses of several large data sets from different locations across the nation have shown validity problems in predicting LEP classification and lack of power in identifying different levels of English language proficiency among the LEP student population (Abedi, 2003; Abedi, Leon, & Mirocha, 2003). Those involved in the development of new English language proficiency tests should learn from such research and should conduct more analyses on the wealth of data that exists in this area. To be considered valid and reliable measures of English language proficiency, as outlined in the NCLB, new tests must first go through a rigorous validation process. Otherwise, there may not be a reasonable justification to spend the limited NCLB resources on English language proficiency test development (Abedi, 2003).
As a final thought, assessment and accountability of LEP students cannot be pursued in isolation of other important factors. An effective education system for LEP students that may lead to a successful AYP outcome should include at least three interactive components: (a) classification, (b) instruction, and (c) assessment. A problem in any one of these components may affect the other two. For example, a student misclassified as LEP student may be assigned a different curriculum and thus receives inappropriate instruction. Alternately, inappropriate instruction may result in low performance that may in turn result in misclassification. While each component has a unique role, they share common ground - the effect of language factors or barriers. Unnecessary linguistic complexity of assessment may threaten the validity and equitability of assessment among LEP students. Complex linguistic structure of instruction may negatively affect LEP students’ ability to understand classroom instruction, and invalid assessment of students’ level of English proficiency may result in misclassification. In a positive light, valid assessment may provide diagnostic information that can inform instruction and classification (Abedi, 2003).
An effective way to help LEP students reach proficiency in the AYP model is to consider the broader picture using the interactive model. The following are few critical needs:
1. Improve current LEP classification and assessment. There is a need to establish a common definition of English language proficiency and substantially improve the validity of LEP instruments. Among other things, validity of LEP assessment can be enhanced by avoiding cultural biases and reducing unnecessary linguistic complexity of assessments.
2. Improve monitoring of progress. Schools need effective and valid data collection methods that can be used to monitor LEP progress at every stage of a student’s education. Weaknesses must be quickly addressed with appropriate instructional strategies.
3. Improve teacher quality. LEP students need teachers who are well qualified in both language development and content, each of which plays a crucial role in LEP student achievement. The federal government can play a key role in this process by funding and encouraging programs that improve teacher capacity in this dual role. Teachers of LEP students should receive training in content delivery, language sheltering, and the teaching of the academic language.
4. Consider redesignated LEP students as part of the LEP subgroup that established the baseline score. State plans allowing redesignated students to remain in the LEP subgroup for only a limited time are temporary fixes. While new LEP students are added to the subgroup, redesignated students should be retained for AYP reporting. This “semicohort” approach to tracking LEP students allows the progress of redesignated students to be counted toward subgroup AYP progress (Abedi, 2003).
Based on the results of the research, policymakers, lawmakers, and decision makers are urged to take appropriate action to correct the inequities resulting from the NCLB in regard to the subgroups targeted by the legislation, particularly the LEP student subgroup. What is encouraging is that states, in collaboration with the federal government, are taking steps to remedy some of these issues. The hope is that these continued efforts will bring more fairness into the assessment of and accountability for LEP students (Abedi, 2003).
High Stakes / Statewide Testing
The 2001 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), also known as the No Child Left Behind (NCLB), carries testing and accountability requirements that will substantially increase student testing and hold all schools accountable for student performance. This legislation marks a major departure from the federal government’s traditional role regarding elementary and secondary education. It requires that states administer Reading and Mathematics tests annually in grades 3 – 8 and during one year in high school starting in 2005 – 2006. These requirements will affect almost 25 million students each school year (National Center for Education Statistics, 2002).
NCLB requires states to meet adequate yearly progress (AYP) goals to ensure school accountability for student achievement on state tests. Schools that fail to achieve AYP goals face demanding corrective actions, such as replacement of school staff, implementation of new curriculum, extension of the school day or academic year, parental choice options, and, finally, complete reorganization.
Today’s widespread implementation of standards-based reform and the federal government’s commitment to test-based accountability ensure that testing will remain a central issue in education for the foreseeable future. Test results can provide useful information about student progress toward meeting curricular standards. But when policymakers insist on linking test scores to high-stakes consequences for students and schools, they often overlook lessons from the long history of research (Abrams & Madaus, 2003).
Current emphasis on testing as a tool of education reform continues a long tradition of using tests to change pedagogical priorities and practices. In the United States, this use of testing dates back to 1845 in Boston, when Horace Mann, then Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education, replaced the traditional oral examination with a standardized written essay test. Internationally, high-stakes testing extends as far back as the 15th century in Treviso, Italy, where teacher salaries were linked to student examination performance (Madaus & O’Dwyer, 1999).
Principles of Testing Programs
A 1988 examination of the effects of high-stakes testing programs on teaching and learning in Europe and in the United States (Madaus, 1988) identified seven principles that captured the intended and unintended consequences of such programs. Current research confirms that these principles still hold true for contemporary statewide testing efforts.
Principle 1: The power of tests to affect individuals, institutions, curriculum, or instruction is a perceptual phenomenon. Tests produce large effects if students, teachers, or administrators believe that the results are important. Policymakers and the public generally do believe that test scores provide a reliable, external, objective measure of school quality. They view tests as symbols of order, control and attainment (Airasian, 1988).
Today’s high-stakes testing movement relies on the symbolic importance of test scores. Forty-eight states currently require schools to provide the public with “report cards” (Edwards, 2003). Goldhaber and Hannaway (2001) found that the stigma associated with a school receiving a low grade on the state report card was a more powerful influence on Florida teachers than were the school-level sanctions imposed for poor test results.
Principle 2: The more any quantitative social indicator is used for social decision making, the more likely it will be to distort and corrupt the social process it is intended to monitor. In other words, placing great importance on state tests can have a major influence on what takes place in the classrooms, often resulting in an emphasis on test preparation that can compromise the credibility or accuracy of test scores as a measure of student achievement.
We can assess whether this principle still applies today by examining the relationship between rising state test scores and scores on other achievement tests. Both old and new studies of this relationship (Amrein & Berliner, 2002; Haladyna, Nolen & Haas, 1991; Klein, Hamilton, McCaffrey & Stecher, 2000; Linn, 1998) show that improvements in the state test scores do not necessarily reflect general achievement gains.
We can find examples of this second principle in two recent surveys of teachers’ opinions. In one national study, roughly 40% of responding teachers reported that they had found ways to raise state-mandated test scores without, in their opinion, actually improving learning (Pedulla, Abrams, Madaus, Russell, Ramos & Miao, 2003). Similarly, in a Texas survey, 50% of the responding teachers did not agree that the rise in Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) scores “reflected increased learning and high-quality teaching” (Hoffman, Assaf & Paris, 2001, p. 488).
Principle 3: If important decisions are based on test results, then teachers will teach to the test. Curriculum standards and tests can focus instruction and provide administrators, teachers, and students with clear goals. A substantial body of past data and recent research confirms that as the stakes increase, the curriculum narrows to reflect the content sampled by the test (Jones et al., 1999; Madaus, 1991; McMillan, Myran, & Workman, 1999; Pedulla et al., 2003; Stecher, Barron, Chun & Ross, 2000).
New York State, where the state department of education is requiring schools to spend more time on the NCLB-tested areas of Reading and Mathematics, provides an example on how such pressure encourages schools to give greater attention to tested content and decrease emphasis on non-tested content. According to one school principal, “the art, music, and everything else are basically out the window… something has to go” (Herszenhorn, 2003).
Principle 4: In every setting where a high-stakes test operates, the examination content eventually defines the curriculum. Pressure and sanctions associated with a state test often result in teachers using the content of past tests to prepare students for the new test. Several studies have documented that an overwhelming majority of teachers feel pressure to improve student performance on the state test. For example, 88% of teachers surveyed in Maryland and 98% in Kentucky believed that they were under “undue pressure” to improve student performance (Koretz, Barron, Mitchell & Keith, 1996a, 1996b). As an outgrowth of this pressure, the amount of instructional time devoted to specific test preparation often increased.
Studies have found that teachers are spending a sizable amount of instructional time and using a variety of test-specific methods to prepare students for their state tests (Herman & Golan, n.d.; Hoffman, Assaf, & Paris, 2001). In North Carolina, 80% of elementary teachers surveyed “spent more than 20% of their total instructional time practicing for the end-of-grade tests” (Jones et al., 1999, p. 201). A national survey found that teachers in high-stakes states were four times more likely than those in low-stakes setting to report spending more than 30 hours a year on test preparation activities, such as teaching or reviewing topics that would be on the state test, providing students with items similar to those on the test, and using commercial test-preparation materials from previous years for practice (Pedulla et al., 2003).
Principle 5: Teachers pay attention to the form of the questions of high-stakes tests (short-answer, essay, multiple-choice, and so on) and adjust their instruction accordingly. A wide variety of research confirms that test format does influence instruction in both positive and negative ways.
Studies in states that require students to formulate and provide written responses to test questions show an increased emphasis on teaching writing and higher-level thinking skills (Taylor, Shepard, Kinner & Rosenthal, 2003). For example, in Kentucky, 80% of teachers surveyed indicated that they had increased their instructional emphasis on problem solving and writing as a result of the portfolio-based state test (Koretz, Barron, Mitchell, & Keith, 1996a).
In several studies, teachers have reported decreases in the use of more time-consuming instructional strategies and lengthy enrichment activities (Pedulla et al., 2003). A study found that the format of the state test may adversely affect the use of technology for instructional purposes: One-third of teachers in high-stakes states said that they were less likely to use computers to teach writing because students were required to construct handwritten responses on the state test (Russell & Abrams, n.d.).
Principle 6: When test results are the sole or even partial arbiter of future education or life choices, society treats test results as the major goal of schooling rather than as a useful but fallible indicator of achievement. Almost 100 years ago, a chief inspector of schools in England described this principle in a way that resonates today: Whenever the outward standard of reality (examination results) has established itself at the expense of the inward, the ease with which worth (or what passes for such) can be measured is ever tending to become itself the chief, if not sole, measure of worth. And in proportion as we tend to value the results of education for their measurableness, so we tend to undervalue and at last ignore those results which are too intrinsically valuable to be measured (Holmes, 1911).
In the next five years, almost half of U.S. states will require students to pass a state-mandated test as a requirement for graduation (Edwards, 2003). As a result, a passing score on the state test is the coin of the realm for students, parents, teachers, and administrators. The social importance placed on state test scores ensures that students’ successful performance on the state test is the ultimate goal for schools. Local press coverage on school pass rates and anecdotal evidence that scores on the state test may influence local real estate sales show the importance of test performance as a surrogate for education quality.
Principle 7: A high-stakes test transfers control over the curriculum to the agency that sets or controls the examination. State standards-based reform efforts leave the details and development of testing programs to state departments of education and whomever the department contracts with to construct the test. This system shifts the responsibility for determining curricular priorities and performance standards away from local school administrators or classroom teachers and often results in a one-size–fits-all curriculum and test.
Falmouth, Massachusetts, provides a recent noteworthy example of how a high-stakes state test can override local control. Under the threat of losing state funding and the licensure of the school principal and superintendent, the Falmouth School Committee reversed a decision to award diplomas to special-needs students who failed the Massachusetts state examination, thus shattering the hopes of a student seeking admittance to a nonacademic culinary degree program (Myers, 2003).
Accountability in Testing
No one denies the importance of accountability. The relationship between test scores and accountability, however, is not as simple as some people think. The seven principles formulated in 1988 have been acted out in state after state in the past 15 years and clearly reveal the serious flaws in the practice of using a single high-stakes measure to hold all students and schools accountable.
Cut-off scores that place students in such performance categories as needs improvement, basic, proficient, or advanced are arbitrary. The subjective methods used to categorize students into performance categories often lack validity (Horn, Ramos, Blumer & Madaus, 2000). Most policymakers and the public do not understand the psychometric underpinnings of the tests. Issues that might seem trivial to them, such as the assumptions made when running computer programs that produce scaled scores, and even basic decisions about rounding, have significant consequences when categorizing students.
Like any measurement tool that produces a number, test scores are fallible. Yet most state laws do not consider margin of error when interpreting students’ scores. Misguided executive decisions, poorly conceived legislation, understaffing, unrealistic reporting deadlines, and unreasonable progress goals can cause numerous errors in test scores (Rhoades & Madaus, 2003).
One single test can only sample knowledge and cannot give a full picture of what students know and can do. As an illustration, Harlow and Jones’s (2003) interviews with students showed that on the science portion of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), the students had more knowledge about concepts than their written answers had demonstrated for more than half of the test questions. Conversely, the interviews suggested that for one-third of the items, students lacked a sound understanding of the information assessed even though they had given the correct response.
A fundamental principle in social science research is to always use at least two methods when studying social science phenomena because relying on only one method can produce misleading results. We need to enhance state testing programs by including multiple measures of student achievement. Measuring in a variety of ways does not mean giving students multiple opportunities to take the same test, but rather incorporating other methods of measurement or additional criteria, such as teacher judgments, when making decisions about grade promotion and graduation (Harlow & Jones, 2003).
As districts, schools, and teachers respond to federal and state-based accountability policies, we must step back from a blind reliance on test scores. We need to acknowledge that tests, although useful, are also fallible indicators of achievement. We also need to recognize that when test scores are linked to high-stakes consequences, they can weaken the learning experiences of students, transform teaching into test preparation, and taint the test itself so that it no longer measures what it was intended to measure (Harlow & Jones, 2003).
Effects of High-Stakes Testing on Student Motivation and Learning
Current generation of policymakers did not invent high-stakes testing. Tests of various sorts have determined which immigrants could enter the United States at the turn of the 20th century, who could serve in the armed forces, who was gifted, who needed special education, and who received scholarships to college. But the NCLB Act of 2001 aims to make high-stakes testing more pervasive than ever before, mandating annual testing of students in grades 3 – 8 in Reading and Mathematics.
Federal legislators who overwhelmingly passed this act into law apparently assumed that high-stakes testing would improve student motivation and raise student achievement. Because testing programs similar to those required by NCLB already exist in many states, we can put that assumption to the test.
Eighteen states currently use examinations to grant or withhold diplomas: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia. Most of these states also attach to their state assessments a broad range of other consequences for students, teachers, and schools. The experiences of these states can help predict how the new nationwide program of high-stakes testing will affect student achievement.
Unfortunately, the evidence shows that such tests actually decrease student motivation and increase the proportion of students who leave school early. Further, student achievement in the 18 high-stakes testing states has not improved on a range of measures, such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), despite higher scores on the state’s own assessments (Amrein & Berliner, 2003).
High-stakes testing assumes that rewards and consequences attached to rigorous tests will “motivate the unmotivated” to learn (Orfield & Kornhaber, 2001). The “unmotivated” are usually identified as low socio-economic students in urban schools, often African Americans and Latinos. Researchers have found that when rewards and sanctions are attached to performance on tests, students become less intrinsically motivated to learn and less likely to engage in critical thinking. In addition, they have found that high-stakes testing cause teachers to take greater control of the learning experiences of their students, denying their students opportunities to direct their own learning. When the stakes get high, teachers no longer encourage students to explore the concepts and subjects that interest them. Attaching stakes to tests apparently obstruct students’ path to becoming lifelong, self-directed learners and alienates students from their own learning experiences in school (Sheldon & Biddle, 1998).
Dropout rates are climbing throughout the United States and many researchers hold high-stakes testing at least partly to blame (Rothstein, 2002). Some researchers found that dropout rates were 4 to 6 percent higher in schools with high school graduation examinations. Another study reported that students in the bottom quintile in states with high-stakes testing were 25% more likely to drop out of high school than were their peers in states without high-stakes testing (Jacob, 2001). Researchers in yet another study found that failing these tests significantly increased the likelihood that even students with better academic records would drop out (FairTest & Massachusetts CARE, 2000).
More and more teenagers are exiting formal schooling early to earn a General Educational Development (GED) credential (Murnane, Willett, & Tyler, 2000). Although young people who have earned such alternative degrees do not technically count in dropout statistics, many of them undoubtedly left school because of their concerns about passing rigorous graduation tests.
Students who repeat a grade are significantly more likely to drop out of school (Goldschmidt & Wang, 1999). In states where promotion to the next grade hinges on passing the state exams, high-stakes testing policies contribute to higher dropout rates in the long run. Even before they actually take the test, struggling students are more likely to be retained in grade if they attend schools in high-stakes testing environments. By holding low-achieving students back, schools ensure that these students have more of the knowledge necessary to perform well on high-stakes testing the next year and keep low-performing students’ test scores out of the composite test performance in the grades in which high-stakes testing matter.
In Texas, students from racial minorities and low socio-economic backgrounds are being retained in Grade 9 at very high rates before taking the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) in Grade 10. Many teachers retain students if they doubt their potential to pass TAAS the following year. McNeil (2000) estimated that half of all minority students enrolled in Texas high schools are technically enrolled as freshmen. Although some of them are 9th graders for the first time, thousands of others have been retained in the 9th grade once or even twice. Other researchers (Haney, 2000, 2001; Klein, Hamilton, McCaffey & Stecher, 2000; Yardley, 2000) have verified her numbers. In 1998, one in every four African American and Latino 9th graders in Texas was retained (Fisher, 2000). After these students are retained, thousands of them drop out of school.
Common problems of high-stakes testing programs are quite likely to affect the breadth and depth of student learning. If schools narrow the curriculum they teach; make heavy use of drill activities tied to the state test; cheat by over-identifying language minority and special education students and then keeping these students from taking these tests; retain poorly performing students in grade; and encourage those who are at least likely to pass the state’s test to drop out, then scores on state tests will almost certainly go up. But have students really learned any more than they did before high-stakes testing policies were instituted (Fisher, 2000)?
Other Considerations of Assessment and Testing
Although NCLB now requires all students to be accounted for in any state’s assessment system, this has not always been the case (Anderson, 2004). In the past, groups of students such as English language learners or students in Special Education were systematically excluded from large scale assessments (State, 1999), or their scores were not reported (Thurlow, Neilson, Tellucksingh, & Ysseldyke, 2000).
In the 2002-2003 school year, the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) replaced the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) as the primary statewide assessment program. TAKS is designed by legislative mandate to be more comprehensive than its predecessors and encompasses more of the state-mandated curriculum, the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), at more grade levels than TAAS did. The high school level assessments, administered at Grades 9, 10 and 11, are grounded in the high school TEKS curriculum. By law, students for whom TAKS is the graduation testing requirement must pass exit level tests in four content areas – English Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies – in order to graduate from a Texas public high school (Technical Digest, 2003-2004).
In Texas, there is evidence that the numbers of black and Hispanic students in Special Education rose between 1994-1998 while the state implemented its statewide testing program which excluded some Special Education students from the reported scores (Haney, 2000). It is interesting to note that while the numbers of African-American and Hispanic students are over-represented in Special Education, about eight to nine percent of English language learners are identified as receiving Special Education services in the US (D’Emilio, 2003, June; Zehler, Fleischman, Hopstock, Pendzick, & Stepherson, 2003).
Labeling schools can have an impact on teacher and student morale (Anderson, 2004). Certainly, poor test scores or poorly explained assessment systems can result in decreased student motivation (Lane & Stone, 2002). Teachers have also reported that the high-stakes nature of some assessments can have a negative impact on student morale (Flores & Clark, 2003). Although some teachers have reported that their English language learners can reach the high standards set for them, they may need more time than other students (Hood, 2003).
For English-language learners, the additional requirements of an exit examination could increase dropout rates (Anderson, 2004). Hispanic students, many of whom are English-language learners, have higher dropout rates than the population as a whole (Barro & Kolstad, 1987; Kaufman, Alt, & Chapman, 2001).
In another study, teachers reported that increasing emphasis on test scores cause them to dislike their jobs (Hinde, 2003). In a study examining the discussion and journal entries from teachers, Flores and Clark (2003) found that teachers were not against accountability and viewed it as distinct from statewide testing, but also thought that an over-emphasis on testing resulted in unbalanced curriculum and inappropriate instructional decisions. In order for teachers to make specific changes to instruction, the assessments needs to be clear as to what skills are being assessed (Popham, 2003). Some teachers may react to low test scores of English language learners by teaching to the test while others may ignore the impact of the test scores all together (Alderson & Wall, 1993).
Testing cannot be divorced from socio-cultural, economic, and psychological issues (Solano-Flores & Trumbull, 2003). ELLs, for instance, may not score any differently in an assessment even when allowed to use a dictionary (Albus, Thurlow, Liu & Bielinski, 2005). This is further complicated by the theory forwarded by Wang and Koda (2005) that ELLs as a group may have diverse styles in developing English Language proficiency. Therefore modifications are adapted to teach ELLs the academic content of a lesson, and at the same time support the acquisition of a new language (Major, Fitzmaurice, Bunta, & Balasubramanian, 2005).
ELLs are particularly vulnerable to high-stakes decisions based on test results; tests are used to make decisions regarding high school graduation, grade promotion, and the placement of ELLs into tracked programs (Heubert & Hauser, 1999).
A study of washback from a test in Hong Kong demonstrated that change in the assessment could change the ways in which teachers and students interacted (Cheng, 1999). School Administrators and teachers, as well as students, need to be motivated to change the way learning takes place and also be invested in demonstrating achievement on the assessments in order for washback to instruction to take place and be successful (Lane & Stone, 2002).
Related Studies
Quantitative
A study by Escamilla, Mahon, Riley-Bernal & Rutledge (2003) on “High-Stakes Testing, Latinos, and English Language Learners: Lessons from Colorado”, the researchers utilized the results of the Colorado Student Achievement Program (CSAP) across 3 years (1999 – 2001) to determine the impact that standards-based education in Colorado is having on Latino students in general, and on Latino ELLs specifically. The CSAP has been created as the performance standard to determine progress that Colorado students in Grades 3 and 4 are making toward meeting content standards. For this study, the English and Spanish CSAP tests for reading and writing in Grades 3 and 4 were considered to be comparable assessments. This study also examined the extent to which school report card grades were affected in schools with large number of ELLs. Results of the study indicated that the percentage of Latinos meeting state standards as measured by the Spanish CSAP is equivalent to, and in some cases higher, than the percentage who are taking the CSAP in English. A gap exists between Latinos, no matter what their language of instruction and testing, and all Colorado third and fourth graders. This study indicated that there is a significant relationship between a school’s report card grade and the number of ELLs in the school. For the districts sampled, 76.5% of the unsatisfactory schools were highly impacted by ELLs; 62% of the schools receiving low grades had large number of ELLs.
The purpose of another study by Mahon (2006) on “High-Stakes Testing and English Language Learners: Questions of Validity” was to understand the relationships between English proficiency and academic performance of ELLs from 4 elementary schools. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to examine scores from the Language Assessment Scales – Oral Short Form (LAS-O), the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey (WMLS), and the Colorado Student Assessment Program. The LAS-O and WMLS are state-approved English proficiency assessments. Results showed that English proficiency was significantly related to English academic achievement, even for ELLs who had been in the U.S. schools for 3 years or longer. The 5th grade ELL cohort had greater increases in reading and writing scores compared to all Colorado 5th graders. This led to a slight closing of the achievement gap. Spanish achievement, especially when combined with English proficiency, predicted English achievement.
Qualitative
In a study on “Intended and Unintended Consequences of Statewide Testing for ESL Curriculum and Instruction”, Anderson (2004) examined what positive or negative impact assessment systems have on the curriculum and instruction of English language learners in one Midwestern school district. The researcher used focus groups and interviews to obtain views of educators on the consequences of statewide testing for ELLs. Positive consequences that were identified included more teacher collaboration, changes in curriculum and instruction, better alignment between ESL and content area curricula and more focus on reading and writing. Negative consequences included student and teacher frustration, more teaching to the test occurring, and a narrowed curriculum. Educators in the study also identified problems with the accountability system and made recommendations for how it could be improved (Anderson, 2004).
Another study on “Inclusion of Students with Limited English Proficiency in National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP): Classification and Measurement Issues” conducted by Abedi (2004) reported the major concerns over classification and measurements for students with limited English proficiency (LEP). Issues included the poor operational definition of English proficiency construct and validity concerns on the existing language proficiency tests. The study discussed issues concerning the classification of ELLs and elaborated on factors that impact decisions to include ELLs in NAEP assessments. With funding through a competitive bidding process authorized under the NCLB section on Enhanced Assessment Instruments, there are national efforts underway to develop English proficiency tests that can be used to provide valid measures of students’ level of English proficiency (Abedi, 2004).
Wall (2000) made a microethnographic case study entitled “A Case Study of Secondary School Efforts Toward English Language Learner Success in a Standards-Based Reform System.” This study was designed to describe and interpret the site-based decision-making process of a collaborative study group of high school educators as they focused on the appropriate participation of ELLs in a district wide, standards-based, reform initiative. The research question which guided the study was: From what perspectives and with what outcomes does a collaborative group of site-based, high school educators deliberate the participation of ELLs in a standards-based reform system which mandates high stakes assessments? Three themes emerged from the study: (a) personal discovery, (b) informed action, and (c) instructional advocacy. These themes suggested phases of sociolinguistic accommodation through which educators progress in their reform-based deliberations regarding appropriate approaches to support ELLs in a high-stakes assessment system (Wall, 2000).
This study on the impact of high-stakes testing on ELLs in major urban high schools in Texas showed quantitatively how the percentage of ELLs enrolled in a school affects the school’s performance in the State’s assessment. Qualitatively, it gathered the input and feedback of educators on the different concerns included in the study: (a) purpose of TAKS, (b) changes caused by TAKS, (c) consequences of TAKS, (d) recommendations to improve TAKS, and (e) needs of ELLs.
Summary
As stated in chapter I, the purpose of this study was to determine the impact of high-stakes testing on ELLs. This was shown in both the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of the study. Data obtained from TEA were used to determine whether there is a relationship between the percentage of English language learners enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests in the core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics given in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006. To support the quantitative aspect, this study explored what certified ESL teachers, non-certified ESL teachers who teach ELLs, administrators, and district ESL personnel viewed as the impact that high stakes standardized assessments have on ELLs, ESL curriculum and instruction, and what they observed as actually occurring.
The mandates and key elements of the NCLB were geared towards improving the achievement of students in the different public schools of the United States. The measure of adherence was channeled through the AYP that the different schools and districts of the different states monitor and report. High-stakes testing became the measuring stick that gauged the achievement of students in the different core subject areas. Issues and concerns were centered on the ELLs regarding the different moves and accommodations given to this special subgroup of learners. Feedback regarding the issues and concerns of the different studies and researches included both positive and negative dimensions.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Arthur L. Petterway, PhD

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Dissertation Committee Member


CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

Introduction

Standardized testing and assessments have become necessary facets of American education. Consequently, accountability testing is currently implemented in practically every state in the U.S. Since the purpose of this increased level of accountability is to ensure that all students are receiving a quality, standards-based education, it is important to document the consequences of the system to ensure that the intended reforms are taking place. One of the goals of the accountability system should be to document any negative opposing impact that could occur so that interventions can be developed so that these consequences can be minimized.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of high-stakes testing on ELLs. This is shown in both the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of the study. Data obtained from TEA were used to determine whether there is a relationship between the percentage of English language learners enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests in the core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics given in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006. To support the quantitative aspect, this study explored what certified ESL teachers, non-certified ESL teachers who teach ELLs, administrators, and district ESL personnel viewed as the impact that high stakes standardized assessments have on ELLs, ESL curriculum and instruction, and what they observed as actually occurring.
The study also addressed concerns regarding the validity of student evaluations, and the common inferences made about student performance in these assessments. There is a need to know how public schools that have diverse student attributes can be held accountable on the basis of one uniform and universal standard. Since the standardized assessments are given in English, schools with predominantly Hispanic populations may already be at a disadvantage through no fault of their own. What needs to be examined is whether standardized assessments facts are free from linguistic and cultural bias as viewed by teachers of ELLs.
Research Questions
Quantitative

Is there a relationship between the percentage of English language learners enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests in the core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics given in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006?
Null Hypotheses
HO1: There is no statistically significant relationship between the
percentage of English language learners enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests in English Language Arts given in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006.
HO2: There is no statistically significant relationship between the
percentage of English language learners enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests in Mathematics given in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006.
Qualitative

The major question answered by this study was: What are the anticipated and observed consequences of statewide testing specifically, TAKS, on ELLs, ESL curriculum and instruction as viewed by certified ESL teachers, non-certified ESL teachers who teach ELLs, school administrators, and district ESL personnel?
This major question was explored using the following probes:
1. Why is TAKS given as a statewide test?
2. What are the intended consequences of this statewide testing? (Or what has happened because of TAKS?)
3. What problems have occurred related to or because of TAKS?
4. What changes were caused by this statewide testing?
5. What are your recommendations to improve this statewide testing?
6. What needs to be done for the ELLs to improve their performance in general and specifically for this statewide test?



Research Methods
Both descriptive and comparative research techniques were employed in the explanatory design of the mixed methods study. Fraenkel and Wallen (2003) stated that Creswell describes the two types of mixed methods.
1. In a triangulation design, the researcher simultaneously collects both quantitative and qualitative data, compares results, and then uses those findings to see whether they validate each other (p. 443).
2. In an explanatory design, the researcher first collects and analyzes quantitative data, and then obtains qualitative data to follow up and refine the quantitative findings (p. 443).
For this study, the explanatory design was used. Quantitative data for this research were gathered through TEA to determine if a relationship existed between the percentage of English language learners enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests in the core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics given in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006. Qualitative data were obtained through the online, open-ended questionnaire and individual and focus group interviews about the varied ways in which standardized assessments impacted ELLs.
For the qualitative research component, the study used the cross-sectional, open-ended questionnaire. A cross-sectional, open-ended questionnaire collects information from a sample that has been drawn from a predetermined population. Furthermore, the information is collected at just one point in time, although the time it takes to collect the data may take anywhere from a day to a few weeks or more (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2003).
The study also utilized descriptive research methods. Isaac and Michael (1995, p. 46) describes this type of research as: “to describe systematically a situation or area of interest factually or accurately.” A survey study also falls under the classification of descriptive research. Van Dalen (1979) lists the purpose of survey studies:
1. To collect detailed factual information that describes existing phenomena.
2. To identify problems or justify current conditions and practices.
3. To make comparisons and evaluations.
4. To determine what others are doing with similar problems or situations and benefit from their experience in making future plans and decisions.
Research Design
Since the study utilized the explanatory design of the mixed methods, the investigator first gathered quantitative data from Texas Education Agency (TEA) regarding the major urban high schools in Texas. TEA records personnel assisted in accessing and retrieving data from the TEA website. Qualitative data were obtained through the online, open-ended questionnaire and individual and focus group interviews; views and opinions of the respondents were gathered and collated to validate and support the quantitative data.
Quantitative Data
From the Texas Education Agency, the following data regarding the urban high schools were gathered: the percentage of English language learners enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests in the core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics given in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006.
Qualitative Data
Qualitative data were obtained using an online, open-ended questionnaire given to principals, assistant principals, ESL district personnel, ESL certified teachers and non-ESL certified teachers who were purposively sampled for the study and through the individual and focus group interviews using open-ended questions about the varied ways in which standardized assessments impact ELLs.
Pilot Study
Two Houston Independent School District schools, not included in the main study were selected for the pilot study. Quantitative data were obtained regarding the schools’ percentage of English language learners enrolled in a school and the percentage of all their 10th grade students passing TAKS in the two core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics. This was for the four school years starting with the first school year 2002 – 2003, when TAKS was administered.
During the pilot study the online questionnaire underwent pre-testing with three basic considerations: (1) administered the pre-test under conditions comparable to those anticipated in the final study; (2) analyzed the results to assess the effectiveness of the trial questionnaire to yield the information desired; and (3) made appropriate additions, deletions, and modifications to the questionnaire (Isaac & Michael, 1995).
Qualitative data resulting from an online open-ended questionnaire on the six different concerns listed below were tabulated combining the results from the two schools. Results were categorized using the NVivo software package but the categories were modified based on the expert opinion of the respondents belonging to the focus groups. The frequencies for the responses by the different respondents (teachers, school administrators and district ESL personnel) pertaining to the different categories were tallied and percentages were computed. Listing of categories was based on the total frequencies; those categories identified most by the respondents were listed first followed by those with lower frequencies. The different concerns included the following: (1) Purpose of TAKS; (2) Consequences of TAKS; (3) Problems Related to TAKS; (4) Changes Caused by TAKS; (5) Recommendations to Improve TAKS; and (6) Needs of ELLs.
Results of the focus group and one-on-one interviews were validated against the results of the online questionnaire and provided explanation or support for the answers given. The categories for the different responses were affirmed or modified by the focus groups.
Population and Samples
Quantitative Data
The TEA provided the data on the percentage of English language learners enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests in the core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics given in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006. The researcher used purposive sampling in selecting schools for this study. Purposive sampling is based on the assumptions that the investigator wants to discover, understand, and gain insight and therefore must select a sample from which the most can be learned (Merriam, 1998).
While not a random sampling of high schools, the sample is not intended to create results that can be generalized to all major urban high schools in the U.S. A purposive sampling was used in order to provide a representative sample of the major urban high schools in Texas in order to gain in-depth insight into what impact might be occurring. The impact that might emerge from this study might occur in other high schools, but it is important to take into account the characteristics of the high schools as well as the assessment system in the state in order to extrapolate from the findings and make comparisons with other situations (Patton, 1990).
Qualitative Data
The online, open-ended questionnaire was given to the principals, assistant principals, certified ESL teachers and non-ESL certified teachers handling ELLs of the selected schools and to the district personnel:
Total
1) ESL Teachers 30
2) Non-Certified ESL Teachers 30
3) Principals 10
4) Assistant Principals 20
5) District ESL Personnel 8
Total 98
The different focus groups consisted of ESL certified and non-ESL certified teachers handling ELLs. One-on-one interviews involved the selected principals and the selected district ESL personnel. The same schools and district personnel who answered the online questionnaire were included in the focus groups and one-on-one interviews. Selection of the participants in the focus group interviews utilized the snowballing technique. Participants will identify others whose input or experience will also be valuable to the study (Krathwohl, 1993).
Since the researcher has the obligation to respect and protect the rights and wishes of the research participants, the following actions were done: (1) the researcher protected anonymity of the participants by using computer-given codes for the responses; and (2) the researcher informed the participants about the purpose of the survey.
The security of the raw data gathered through the records sections of TEA and the selected schools, responses to the online questionnaire and the transcripts of the interviews was assured in order to protect the anonymity of the participants and to uphold the trustworthiness of the study.
The above concerns regarding trustworthiness and confidentiality of data or information were shared with the participants when the researcher contacted them through e-mail, telephone, mail, or in person.
Instrumentation
Quantitative data were accessed and retrieved from the TEA website regarding the major urban high schools in Texas. Data were organized for computations utilizing the SPSS software package, Version 14.0.
The online, open-ended questionnaire provided one of the bases for the qualitative data. The triangulation method included categorizing the responses to the online, open-ended questionnaire into emergent themes, interviewing the focus groups of teachers and assistant principals and one-on-one interviews with the principals and district ESL personnel.
According to Fraenkel and Wallen (2003) personal interview is probably one of the most effective ways there is to enlist the cooperation of respondents in a survey; rapport can be established, questions can be clarified, unclear or incomplete answers can be followed up and so on.
Patton (1990) expounds that the purpose of interviews is to gain access to those areas of the participants’ experiences or thought which cannot be observed. Consequently, interviews will play a significant role in data collection, a role which generally cannot be duplicated by other means (Dexter, 1970).
Fraenkel and Wallen (2003) cite the following advantages of open-ended questions in survey research (a) allows more freedom of response; (b) easier to construct; and (c) permits follow-up by interviewer. But there are also disadvantages: (a) responses tend to be inconsistent in length and content across respondents; (b) both questions and responses may be subject to misinterpretation; and (c) responses are harder to tabulate and synthesize. However, these disadvantages can be minimized through the use of the NVivo software package, expert help from the focus groups in classifying categories, follow-up interviews with the focus groups and one-on-one interviews.




Validity and Reliability
For validity and reliability, the following expert opinions were considered. “Validity, I mean truth: interpreted on the extent to which an account accurately represents the social phenomena to which it refers” (Hammersley, 1990, p. 57). “Reliability refers to the degree of consistency with which instances are assigned to the same category by different observers or by the same observer on different occasions” (Hammersley, 1990, p. 67). The triangulation method involving the analysis of the qualitative data, collation of data from the online questionnaire and interviews assured the validity and reliability of the survey questions and the explanatory design of the mixed methods study.
For the quantitative dimension of the study, validity and reliability measurements were derived from the TAKS report prepared by TEA. Validity is a process of collecting evidence to support inferences made from scoring results of an assessment. In the case of TAKS, test results are used to make inferences about the students’ knowledge and understanding of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). Test reliability indicates the consistency of measurement. TAKS test reliabilities are based on internal consistency measures, in particular on the Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20) for tests involving dichotomously scored (multiple choice) items and on the stratified coefficient alpha for tests involving a mixture of dichotomous and polytomous (essay-prompt and short answer) items.
In order to build trustworthiness in the qualitative aspect of the study, four different criteria were considered to meet this need: (1)credibility, which aims to produce findings that are believable and convincing; (2) transferability, which attempts to apply findings in one setting to other contextually similar settings; (3) dependability, which addresses the question concerning which findings are consistent with those of other similar investigations; and (4) confirmability, which ensures that both the process and the product are auditable (Isaac & Michael, 1995).
Research Procedures
Quantitative
After appropriate permissions for data gathering were obtained, records personnel of TEA were contacted and arrangements made as to process and assistance regarding acquisition of data for the study. The dry-run or pilot study with the two HISD schools facilitated the above process.
Qualitative
The questions in a survey, and the way they are asked, are of crucial importance (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2003). The authors refer to Floyd Fowler who points out that there are four practical standards that all survey questions should meet:
1. Is this a question that can be asked exactly the way it is written?
2. Is this a question that will mean the same thing to everyone?
3. Is this a question that people can answer?
4. Is this a question that people will be willing to answer, given the data collection procedures? (Fowler, 1984).
After the questionnaire was refined based on the suggestions of the focus groups during the pilot study, the questionnaire was placed online to respondents of the study. Prior to this, the researcher contacted the respondents in person, by phone, by email or mail. Furthermore, the researcher arranged dates with the different schools and districts for the focus group and one-on-one interviews.
Data Collection and Recording
Quantitative
The data for the major urban high schools regarding the percentage of ELLs enrolled in a school and the percentage of all Grade 10 students passing the TAKS tests in English Language Arts and Mathematics during the four years when TAKS was administered, starting school year 2002 – 2003 were obtained from the TEA website.
Qualitative
An online, open-ended questionnaire was answered by the principals, assistant principals, ESL teachers, and non-certified teachers handling ELLs of the selected major urban high schools in Texas. District ESL personnel were also requested to answer the same questionnaire. The focus groups offered expert opinions regarding the categories to use in classifying the responses to the questionnaire. Further clarification was requested from the principals and the district ESL personnel during the one-on-one interviews.
Results of the questionnaire were placed in categories suggested by the focus groups after initial classification was done through the NVivo software system. Transcripts of the interviews and focus groups were entered into the NVivo software system (version 7.0) and coded according to themes that emerged in the data. NVivo provides a sophisticated way of electronically organizing interview transcripts for analysis and classification into themes and allowed the researcher to work with a large amount of transcript data. The themes that emerged from the data were compiled and compared between high schools. While NVivo was a valuable sorting tool that allowed the researcher to code, sort, and recall data in different ways, the researcher developed and created codes for the responses gathered. The analysis was done by the researcher using NVivo’s capabilities to sort out the complexities of the rich data from the interviews and focus groups. A program such as NVivo can help the researcher ensure that the qualitative data were well-organized (Weitzman, 2000).
One of the strengths of collecting qualitative data is the richness of the information that can be collected and which can capture a theme in a more complete way than the researcher may be able to summarize. This evidence directly from the data was used to show a clear connection between the data and the identified themes (Marshall, 1990). The rich description of the themes from the participants’ own words also aids in verifying that the themes identified are those that the participants actually voiced (Creswell, 1998; Krueger & Casey, 2000).
The researcher triangulated quantitative data analysis, qualitative data analysis, and interviews in order to strengthen the credibility of the survey study. By combining multiple observers, theories, methods, and data sources, researchers can hope to overcome the intrinsic bias that comes from single-method, single-observer and single-theory studies (Denzin, 1970). With the mix of analyses, the author has better tools to discuss the impact of statewide testing on ELLs, ESL curriculum and instruction.
Data Analysis
Quantitative
Descriptive statistics and analyses were performed to test each variable. After the data were examined and properly inputted, the next step was to compute for Pearson r correlation coefficients using the SPSS statistical package and test for statistical relationship at p < 0.05. For other analyses, the predictor variable is the percentage of ELLs enrolled in a school and the outcome variables were the percentages of all students passing the Grade 10 TAKS tests in English Language Arts and Mathematics. For each of the years under study, two separate Pearson r correlations were computed; the percentage of ELLs enrolled in a school was compared with the English Language Arts results to determine if they have significant relationship and the other comparison was with the Mathematics results. The SPSS computations showed three different results in tabular form: (1) the means and the standard deviations of the percentage of ELLs enrolled in a school and the percentages of all students passing the TAKS tests in English Language Arts and Mathematics during the four years under study; (2) Pearson r correlation coefficients to determine if there was significant relationship between the percentage of ELLs enrolled in a school and the percentages of all students passing the English Language Arts and Mathematics TAKS tests given in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006; and, (3) regression analysis using the percentage of ELLs enrolled in a school as the predictor variable to predict the percentage of students passing in the 10th grade TAKS tests in the core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics.
Qualitative
The information for the qualitative portion of the study included the emergent themes shown as categories in the frequency distribution table. The frequency distribution is a table in which all score units are listed in one column and the number of individuals receiving each score appears as frequencies in the second column (Isaac and Michael, 1995).
Frequencies were tallied and percentages were computed. Categories with higher percentages were listed first followed by those with lower percentages. An overview preceded each table giving the emergent themes mostly cited by the respondents. Anecdotal records followed the tables - these are the views and opinions of the respondents regarding the different concerns included in the study.
Summary
In this study the researcher considered the aspects of procedural consistency, neutrality of findings, and truth value to assure the study of trustworthiness. “Valid inquiry in any sphere… must demonstrate its truth value, provide the basis for applying it, and allow for external judgments to be made about the consistency of its procedures and the neutrality of its findings or decisions” (Erlandson, 1993).
Quantitative data that were sourced as aggregate data from the TEA website included the percentage of English language learners enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests in the core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics given in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006.
Qualitative data were collated from the responses of selected respondents to the online questionnaire regarding the anticipated and observed consequences of the statewide testing, specifically TAKS, on ESL curriculum and instruction as viewed by ESL teachers, school administrators and district ESL personnel. Interviews were conducted with the focus groups and one-on-one interviews involved the principals and district ESL personnel.
Presentation of data included: (a) the quantitative data analysis on the correlation between the percentage of ELLs enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS in English Language Arts and Mathematics and the regression analysis using the percentage of ELLs enrolled in a school as predictor variable and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS in ELA and Mathematics as outcome variables; (b) qualitative data analysis classifying responses to the online, open-ended questionnaire as different emergent themes; and (c) anecdotal records from the interviews with the different focus groups, principals, and district ESL personnel.
The relationship between the percentage of ELLs enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS in each of the core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics was determined using the SPSS program for Pearson r correlation. The regression analysis resulted to linear regression equations predicted the percentage of all students passing in 10th grade TAKS in English Language Arts and Mathematics using the percentage of ELLs enrolled in a school as predictor variable.
Emergent themes were categorized through the NVivo software package and suggestions of the focus groups. The anecdotal records expressed the views and opinions of the respondents regarding the following and focused on the ELLs: (a) the purpose of the statewide, high stakes TAKS; (b) intended consequences of TAKS; (c) problems related to TAKS; (d) changes caused by TAKS; (e) recommendations to improve performance in TAKS; and, (f) the needs of ELLs.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Arthur L. Petterway, PhD

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Dissertation Committee Member

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William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

Arthur L. Petterway, PhD

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Dissertation Committee Member


CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of high-stakes testing on English Language Learners (ELLs). This was shown in both the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of the study. Both quantitative and qualitative dimensions of the study provided the status of high-stakes testing as it affected ELLs and how it influenced efforts in schools to improve performance of students, particularly ELLs. Data obtained from Texas Education Agency (TEA) were used to determine whether there was a relationship between the percentage of ELLs enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) tests in the core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics given in 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. To support the qualitative aspect, this study explored what certified English as a Second Language( ESL) teachers, non-certified ESL teachers who teach ELLs, administrators, and district ESL personnel viewed as the impact that high stakes standardized assessments had on ELLs, ESL curriculum and instruction.
Review of literature included the important consideration of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). NCLB holds states using federal funds accountable for student academic achievement. States are required to develop a set of high-quality, yearly student assessments that include, at a minimum, assessments in Reading/Language Arts, Mathematics and Science. NCLB requires states to report Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for all students and for subgroups, including students with limited English proficiency (Abedi, 2004). Phrases such as “student achievement,” “proficiency,” “raised expectations” and “testing” are implications of NCLB. Certainly, the focus on holding schools accountable for student achievement on standardized tests sets NCLB apart from previous versions of the law (Guilfoyle, 2006).
The focus of the study is the ELLs. The term “English language learner” is a recent designation for students whose first language is not English. This group includes students who are just beginning to learn English as well as those who have already developed considerable proficiency. The driving force behind including English language learners in statewide accountability testing is the legislation requiring it. In order to continue to receive Title I funds through NCLB, states must set high standards for all students and implement accountability systems to measure progress towards those standards. NCLB specifically states that English language learners must be included in statewide accountability testing, that their scores must be disaggregated so that it can be seen how they are achieving as a subgroup, and that the assessment system must accommodate their linguistic needs (“NCLB”, 2002).

High-stakes testing -- using standardized scores to impose consequences affecting teachers and students – has been embraced widely in recent years as a way to hold educators and students accountable for their performance. Experts say the movement is one of the most significant shifts in U.S. education in decades (Whoriskey, 2006).
The goal of statewide accountability testing for English language learners (or for all students for that matter) is to improve standards-based practices. The intended “washback” of including English language learners in standards-based assessment has been described as providing “the leverage needed to raise expectations for English language learners, and the emphasis on higher level skills should improve the quality of teaching provided to them” (Lachat, 1999, p.60), “feedback that will allow instructional leaders to improve instructional programs” (Lacelle-Peterson & Rivera, 1994, p.64), and will ideally “…help students reach the standards by (a) influencing what is taught and how it is taught (i.e., ‘washback’ to instruction), (b) providing data to guide instructional modifications, and (c) targeting resources to schools they are most needed” (Rivera & Vincent, 1997, p.336). In addition, Mehrens (2002) states that large-scale assessments have two major purposes: to drive reform and to gauge if reform policies have had an impact on student learning. These goals are especially important for English language learners who often face socio-economic, cultural, and linguistic challenges to academic achievement.
Demographic Data
Total respondents who answered the online questionnaire totaled 55 – 35% are non-ESL certified teachers and 27% are ESL-certified teachers. The administrators accounted for the remaining 38%- 16% are Assistant Principals, 11% are Principals and 11% are ESL District Personnel.
Conclusions
The analysis of the quantitative data in Chapter IV led the researcher to draw the following conclusions:
1. The descriptive statistics showing the means of the 10th grade TAKS for ELA and Mathematics do not indicate improvement in performance despite the decrease in the percent of ELLs enrolled in a school.
2. All the obtained Pearson r correlation coefficients to determine whether there is a relationship between the percentage of English language learners enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests in the core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics given in 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006 were all significant at the 0.05 level, two-tailed. Both null hypotheses were rejected.
3. The negative Pearson r correlation coefficients implied that as the percentage of ELLs in a school increased, performance on both English Language Arts and Mathematics decreased.
4. The linear regression equations may be used to predict outcomes in 10th grade TAKS tests in ELA and Mathematics using the percentage of ELLs enrolled in a school as the predictor variable.
The analysis of the qualitative data in Chapter IV led the researcher to draw the following conclusions:
1. Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) were perceived by respondents as a tool to gauge knowledge in the core areas.
2. ELLs were expected to have at least average scores on TAKS.
3. There was a difference in the expected and actual results. Respondents observed dismal or failing performance of ELLS in actual results in TAKS. This was evident by the high failure rate of ELLs in their respective schools.
4. Higher dropout rate and lower graduation rates of ELLs were problems encountered due to TAKS.
5. Respondents favored a different test for ELLs.
6. Respondents believed that interventions were needed to help ELLs perform better.



Implications
The research data gathered in the course of this study suggested that while there was a common perception that ELLs performed poorly on high stakes testing, there was no unanimity among professionals in the field of education regarding the viability of options that might be considered in addressing the low achievement level of ELLs. This was not necessarily relevant, although it suggested that the appreciation of the problem and its causes lent itself to biases and distortions depending on the personal circumstance and perspective of those presenting these options. It was clear from the study that schools needed to do things differently, if they expected ELLs to perform better on standardized assessments. The major implications of the study were as follows:
1. The performance of schools in high stakes testing was affected by the size and proportion of ELLs taking the test. At the same time, ELLs were not evenly distributed across campuses. The performance of schools on standardized tests was influenced to a degree by the voluntary segregation in many districts of ethnic groups who speak English only as an adopted language. This was a phenomenon that was beyond the power of school districts to address, and that required wide coordination among various government agencies to develop an appropriate policy response.
2. The extended deferment of standardized tests administered in English to ELLS should be considered. The primary goal of these tests was to measure learning that might be more accurately accomplished if the assessment was done in the language the student was most proficient. There was the expectation that the student will eventually be proficient in English as well. Since a second language is acquired in degrees, it might be reasonable to assume that ELLs would not readily have the same facility for English as a native speaker. Administering the test in English before the ELL student was ready for it would compromise the stated goal of measuring learning as accurately as possible.
3. Learning is transmitted through communication. Due to the unique linguistic characteristic of ELLs, unique strategies, modifications, and instructions need to be used to maximize their capacity to learn concepts and skills. It is futile to assume that ELLs will learn the same way as native speakers of the English language. It follows that education professionals need the specialized training and support to be able to facilitate learning for ELLs.
4. The Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC) in each campus needs to take a more active role in monitoring the progress of ELLs and devising specific plans to properly respond to the requirements designed specifically for ELLs. They need to undertake a regular evaluation of instruction and curriculum for ELLs and communicate findings and recommendations to all stakeholders – school administrators, teachers, parents and the ELLs.
5. Interventions to improve the situation of ELLs should include specific action plans to devise a more intensive English program in schools and a continued emphasis on quality instruction employing strategies suggested by educational experts who have extensively researched on such courses of action.
Recommendations for Further Study
Based on the results of the study, the researcher recommends the following concerns for further study:
1. A study should be conducted to explore what additional supports are needed to ensure that English language learners will pass high-stakes tests.
2. A study should be conducted to identify what data are needed to make fair high-stakes decisions about English language learners (like subject grades, samples of class work and recommendations of teachers and counselors).
3. A study should be conducted to determine the specific reasons why English language learners scored lowest among student groups on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills tests in the core areas of English Language Arts and/or Mathematics.
4. A study should be conducted to explore different approaches on school campuses regarding handling of English language learners in terms of instruction, curriculum and other pertinent or related aspects (such as some sort of evaluation - academic, social, financial, etc.) that may guide administrators and teachers to effectively handle English Language learners.
5. A study should be conducted to determine the performance of 10th grade English language learners compared to non-English language learners and non-classified students based on the different objectives of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills tests in either or both Mathematics and English Language Arts.
6. A study should be conducted to determine the impact of high stakes testing on English language learners as viewed by parents and students.
7. A study should be conducted to explore different instruments to measure academic performance of English language learners.
8. A study should be conducted to determine if there is significant a difference between performance in the different core areas of English language learners belonging to different language groups.
This study affirmed the expected outcome that a significant relationship existed between the percentage of ELLs enrolled in a school and the percentage of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests in both core areas of English Language Arts and Mathematics. The regression analysis predicted that as the percentage of ELLs in a school increased, the performance in the statewide, high-stakes testing in terms of all students passing the 10th grade TAKS tests decreased. The respondents of the study considered the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) as a tool to gauge knowledge in the different core areas. English language learners were expected to have at least average scores on TAKS. There was a difference in the expected and actual results; respondents observed dismal or failing performance of ELLS in the actual results in TAKS. This was evident by the high failure rate of ELLs in their respective schools. Higher dropout rate and lower graduation rate of ELLs were problems encountered due to TAKS. Respondents favored a different test for ELLs, possibly given at a later date after ELLs had studied in the country for at least several years. Respondents believed that interventions were needed to help ELLs perform better. Both the school and the home, together with the community have to be involved in preparing ELLs to be better prepared for their present and future roles in the American society.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

PhD, The University of Iowa
M.Ed., Seattle Pacific University
B.A., Central Washington University

Supreme and District Court Decisions on the Nonrenewal of Professional Personnel Contracts

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


The purpose of this study was to investigate the implications of selected State Supreme and District court decisions rendered across the nation which relate to the nonrenewal of public school professional personnel for reasons of declining enrollment or economic stress from 1911-1974. It was hoped that specific characteristics could be identified that would lead to more efficient school administration based on an understanding and awareness of those historical and philosophical characteristics as established by the courts.
The data collected in this study was primarily historical in nature. A process of legal research called shepardizing was utilized in collecting the data. A total of 38 court cases were identified for the inclusion in the study. Thirty of these were State Supreme Court cases and eight were District Court cases. The source information for all cases was the national Reporter System.
Cases appropriate to the topic of investigation had occurred in 17 states. The distribution of cases among these 17 states varied considerably. Pennsylvania accounted for 12 cases. Iowa accounted for 3. Minnesota accounted for 3. New Jersey, California, Ohio, North Dakota, New Mexico, and North Carolina had two cases each. Kentucky, Missouri, Oregon, Indiana, Alabama, Delaware, Tennessee, and Washington had one case each. The distribution of cases across time showed a marked consistency of frequency by decade. While the period 1911-1920 accounted for only one case, the range for the decades following was from four to eight cases each. Five cases occurred during the period 1971-1976.
Prior to a consideration of the summary of findings and the attendant conclusions that were drawn from the, certain limitations should be carefully noted.
Each court case is different and rests upon its own particular evidence. There were inconsistencies across the nation both with respect to statutes and the interpretations placed on them as these relate to the dismissal of public school personnel for reasons of declining enrollment and economic stress. No cases had occurred in 33 states, and of the thirty-eight cases reported, 18 occurred in three states. When these two facts are viewed together, it is apparent that caution should be exercised with respect to any generalizations that are made. At the same time, court cases do serve as precedents and to some extent past decisions are predictive of the future.
In summarizing the significant authority characteristics that courts seemingly have ascribed to school boards, to employees, and similarly in describing the procedural components to which school executives must give the greatest attention, the following sequence of presentation has been used: first, the generalized characteristics are given. Next, specific examples from various cases are provided to document and illustrate these characteristics. To assist the reader, the case reference and page location for each in the study have been included.

Authority Characteristics of the Board of Education

As viewed by the Courts, School Boards are required to make necessary decisions relative to the allocation of funds for the operation of the schools within their districts. Boards have been forced for reasons of economic stress and/or declining enrollment, to make critical decisions relating to nonrenewal of professional personnel. The Courts recognize that Boards must have discretionary power in order to carry out their function. At the same time Boards are subject to statutory restrictions and must consider these restrictions in making decisions. Specific examples of the Courts’ view on this issue include:

1. The Board is justified in nonrenewal of personnel contracts when it is acting to correct the condition of the school district where evidence indicates the district is financially embarrassed, as long as the Board does not act for any political or arbitrary reason. (Miller v. Stoudnour, p. 71)
2. As long as the Board considers the seniority rights guaranteed to employees under the teachers’ Tenure Act, the Board has the authority to assign teachers, abolish, discontinue, or reorganize a department for financial reasons. (Miller v. Stoudnour, p. 71)
3. The Board has the authority to terminate employees when it is motivated by a reduced school enrollment with consequent reduction in school revenues and by the necessary requirements of economy. (Frank v. Meigs County Board of Education, p. 75)
4. The Board has the authority to terminate an employee and close a school under economic stress. A formal notice to the employee of the discontinuance of the school is a prerequisite to the termination of the teaching contract. If an employee receives no such notice, he is justified in believing that a threatened closing of the schools has been abandoned. (McWithy v. Heart River School District No. 22, p. 103)
5. The Board should recognize the law does not require a school district to retain unneeded employees in one area of education at the expense of not hiring needed employees in another area. (Smith v. Board of School directors of Harmony Area School District, p. 162)
6. As long as the Board acts in good faith to cope with financial problems of the school district, the Board has the authority to dispense with the services of employees selected from the entire district. (Wall v. Stanly County Board of Education, p. 145)
7. Where there is a significant decrease in student population reflected in the principal area of a tenured employee’s teaching responsibilities, the Board may assign the subjects previously taught by the employee to others in the district who are certified as being qualified to teach the subjects. The Board must act for the total benefit of the district in eliminating a teaching position. (Flannery v. Jenkins Township School Directors, p. 96; Butler v. Wilkes-Barre Twp. School District, p. 99)
8. The Board may suspend the necessary number of employees where a curtailment or alteration of the educational program seems warranted by reduced enrollment provided the concurrence of appropriate officials is obtained. (Paden v. Lake-Noxen School District, p. 115)
9. The Board may adopt rules, regulations and bylaws for management of the public schools and for the employment of teachers. (Downs v. Board of Education of Hoboken District, p. 48)
10. The Board has the authority to define teaching assignments for purposes of contractual relationships along a more restricted range than that commonly covered by certification. (Walker v. School District of the City of Scranton, p. 124)
11. The Board’s control of the courses of study encompasses the authority to substitute one offering for another even though in doing so a teacher’s position is eliminated. (Walker v. School District of the City of Scranton, p. 124)
12. Where a Board’s exercise of authority is based on a specific statute, it generally will be upheld. (Wheatly v. Division Board of Education of Hancock County, p. 19)

Authority Characteristics or Right of Employees

As viewed by the Courts, employees do have rights which should be considered when staff reduction is being contemplated. These rights vary with the statutes existent in the several states. Employees protected by a teachers’ tenure act and seniority provisions have definite guaranteed employment rights over those not protected. Where a reduction in teaching force is caused by declining enrollment or economic stress and employees are not protected by statute, school executives are free to recommend termination of employee contracts in complete disregard to previous experience in the district or education preparation. More importantly, the Board may use its discretion in selecting employees for nonrenewal at the least expense to taxpayers. In some instances the courts have indicated that seniority rights of professional personnel are considered to extend across grade levels and in others they have limited the range covered by seniority rights. Seniority is usually considered in relation to certification; however, definitions of classification vary and the courts have been inconsistent with respect to definition when this issue is left to their interpretation. Different authority characteristics have been ascribed to employees in relation to classification for purposes of the exercise of seniority rights. Examples of the Courts’ view in regard to employment, tenure, and seniority rights include:

1. The purpose of any teachers’ tenure act is to secure permanence within the teaching profession. (Watson v. Burnett, p. 57)
2. An employee protected by tenure and seniority rights is assured a permanent position unless employment is suspended or terminated in accordance with the provisions established with a teachers’ tenure act. (Bragg v. School District of Swarthmore, p. 64; Munley v. School District of City of Pittston, p. 81)
3. Employees protected by tenure and seniority cannot have their rights violated by the Board in favor of an employee junior in tenure. (Flannery v. Jenkins Township School Directors, p. 96)
4. Consideration must be given to the seniority rights guaranteed to employees when interpreting or applying a teachers’ tenure act to the prevailing situation when making recommendations for termination of contracts. (Watson v. Burnett, p. 57; Munley v. School District of City of Pittston, p. 81)
5. An employee may not be deprived of tenure rights by the simple abolishment of a class of students. (Seidel v. Board of Education of Ventnor City, p. 39)
6. In terminating an employee protected by tenure and seniority rights, it is necessary to show affirmatively there is no position available for which the employee is qualified to teach (Swisher v. Daren, p. 117)
7. An employee protected by tenure cannot be dismissed while at the same time a non-tenured employee is retained to teach in the principal area of professional competence. (Board of School Trustee v. O’Brien, p. 132)
8. In general, no permanent employee protected by tenure can be terminated while a probationary employee or any other employee with less seniority is retained to render a service which a permanent employee is certificated to render. (Unruh v. Piedmont High School District, p. 53)
9. Where there is a reduction in the teaching force the first consideration should be retention of those employees with the longest years of service by the method of realigning the staff. (Welsko v. School Board, p. 121)
10. Non-tenured employees in a given building are entitled to have their qualifications compared with all non-tenured employees in the district before being discharged. (Rolfe v. County Board of Education, p. 149)
11. Certification is important as it relates to the grouping of employees for seniority purposes. (Jordahl v. Independent School District No. 129, p. 165)
12. Where employees have been assigned to the teaching of the primary grades for a period sufficient to establish tenure rights, they should have priority over employees from the intermediate school grades although the tenure rights of each are the same. (Ging v. Board of Education of Duluth, p. 84)
13. Where an employee with seniority rights protected by tenure becomes certified in a different area, he is entitled to “bump” another with less seniority even though the person with less seniority had actually held the specific certification over a longer period. (Flannery v. Jenkins Township School Directors, p. 96)
14. Where a unique local plan for appointment of employees to specific teaching assignments does not exist, employees are entitled to positions in accordance with their certification, qualifications, and seniority. (Flannery v. Jenkins Township School Directors, p. 96; Caperelli v. School District of the Borough of Winston, p. 108; Welsko v. School Board, p. 121)
15. Where a district has described in advance a limited grade assignment range covered by the individual contract, the court will uphold that description. (Walker v. School District of the City of Scranton, p. 124)

Courts have been strictly enforcing constitutional safeguards guaranteed to professional personnel of racial minority groups. The authority characteristics ascribed to racial minorities include:

1. Definite objective standards for the employment and retention of employees must be established and applied to all employees alike regardless of racial origin and in a manner compatible with the requirements of the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the Constitution. (Chambers v. Hendersonville City Board of Education, p. 139)
2. Where employees are displaced from formerly racially homogeneous schools, they must be judged by definite objective standards applied to all employees in the system as a basis for determining who will have continued employment. (Wall v. Stanly County Board of Education, p. 145)

An employee serving in an administrative capacity often maintains particular advantages. According to court decision they include:

1, An employee’s long experience in a purely administrative capacity does not always disqualify him from teaching in the school system and fulfilling the responsibilities of a subordinate employee. (Davidson v. Board of Education of the City School District of East Cleveland, p. 90)
2. If a school executive is linked to the teacher’s salary index with additional compensation for administrative responsibilities, seniority rights as a teacher may be retained. (Davidson v. Board of Education of the City School District of East Cleveland, p. 90)

Procedural Components School Executives Must Give the Greatest Attention

The Courts view procedural matters as very crucial in nonrenewal of employee contracts for reasons of declining enrollment or economic stress. Procedures outlined with statutes must be followed, and any deviation tends to be interpreted as a violation of due process. School executives must be specific in their recommendations to the Board, taking into consideration the guaranteed protections afforded employees protected by tenure laws and seniority rights and any and all other statutory provisions. As indicated by court decisions, procedural components to which school executives must give the greatest attention when implementing a staff reduction decision include:

1. School executives must recognize that in procedural matters, notification to the employee of the termination of his contract must cover more than the fact of nonrenewal. Notification must fully inform the employee of the criteria used for selecting employees for nonrenewal so that if grounds for appeal exist, the employee will be alerted. (Thayer v. Anacortes School District, p. 157)
2. Where nonrenewal of teaching contracts is apparent, school executives must be specific, detailed, exact, and concise concerning cause of termination, taking into immediate consideration any tenure act, seniority rights, and other stipulations in accordance with the law. (Bragg v. School District of Swarthmore, p. 64)
3. School executive should realize that any procedure utilized to terminate employee such as the National Teacher Examination must be universally applied if it is going to constitute justification. (Chambers v. Hendersonville city Board of Education, p. 139)
4. Where there is a reduction in teaching force, school executives should realign teaching assignments for the retention of those employees protected by tenure, seniority rights, and longest years of service. (Caperelli v. School District of the Borough of Winston, p. 108; Welsko v. School Board, p. 121)
5. School executives should recognize the importance of state certification as it relates to the grouping of employees for seniority purposes. (Jordahl v. Independent School District No. 129, p. 165)
6. Where the cause of the employee’s nonrenewal is not personal, it does not always require a strict adherence to procedures as prescribed by statute. (Funston v. District School Board for School District No. 1, p. 31)
7. School executives must recognize the importance of a given statute in relation to procedure. Where specific restrictions and dates are included within statutes, any deviation tends to be interpreted as a violation of procedure. Courts will support procedure as stated. (Linden School District No. 24 v. Porter, p. 134; James v. School Township of Troy, p. 36; Ashby v. School Township of Liberty, p. 127)
8. School executives must recognize the fact that there are obvious inconsistencies among state laws relating to nonrenewal of contracts, seniority, and tenure rights, and these differences should always be considered when implementing a staff reduction decision. (Board of School Trustees v. O’Brien, p. 132)
9. School executives must set up definite objective standards for the employment and retention of employees and apply them equally to all regardless of racial origin, and in a manner compatible with the requirements of Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the Constitution. (Chambers v. Hendersonville City Board of Education, p. 139)

Conclusions

Should a school district not comply with the legal requirements in the nonrenewal of public school professional personnel contracts for reasons of declining enrollment or economic stress, the nonrenewal may be held ineffective, as is generally indicated by court decisions. School boards and school executives should realize that the courts have been strictly interpreting the procedures of termination statutes as having been enacted for the protection of the employee, and the validity of a nonrenewal action will depend upon full compliance with the law.
Each court case decision is different and rests upon its own particular evidence. There are inconsistencies across the nation relating to dismissal of public school personnel and persons reading court decisions involving termination of employees must bear this important fact in mind. Because the circumstances of each decision differ, it is recommended that school executives and board members confer with legal counsel on any contemplated nonrenewal for reasons of declining enrollment or economic stress.
Where a board of education gives notice that it is considering the nonrenewal of an employee’s contract, the Board should have specific reasons and specific evidence that will support those reasons for not renewing the contract. School executives should discuss with legal counsel all pertinent material from the employee’s file and the prevailing declining enrollment or economic stress situation. It is highly recommended that school executives prepare a memorandum an evaluation of the facts surrounding the nonrenewal and the reasons for its recommendation. All policies of the school district relating specifically to nonrenewals, terminations, grievance procedures, dismissals or any other policy relating to staff reduction should be reviewed and listed as part of the notification memorandum to serve as a reminder during the process of nonrenewal.
If the reasons for the nonrenewal are declining enrollment or economic stress, these reasons should be given. If there are other reasons, they should be carefully considered and be supported with facts. Declining enrollment should not be used as a pretext to terminate an incompetent employee.
Boards should be prepared to defend the reasons given for nonrenewal of employee contracts and should be aware that the burden is placed on the Board to sustain the reasons which are given for dismissal.
School executives should be certain there is nothing in the record which would give rise to a claim that the employee is being nonrenewed for impermissible constitutional reasons, and that the reasons for the nonrenewal are not arbitrary, capricious, or based on unsupported conclusions.
Where there is a substantial decline in enrollment or economic stress, the School Board has the duty of running the best possible school district with the least expense to the taxpayers and in the most efficient manner. The Board may determine that it can only afford so many supervisors, so many school executives, so many teachers, or so many other personnel. If the Board finds it advisable to make a reduction in number of personnel, the Board has the authority to do so but it must adhere to legal restrictions and stipulations imposed by statute.
It is a fact that employees protected by a teachers’ tenure act and seniority provisions have definite guaranteed employment advantages over those not protected by tenure. From the standpoint of employed teachers, their organizations would be well advised to strive to develop tenure laws for the protection of public school professional personnel.
State and District courts across the nation have rendered many decisions relating to educational statutory concerns. An attempt has been made to investigate the implications of these decisions as they relate specifically to declining enrollment or economic stress from 1911-1974. It is hoped that specific characteristics have been identified that will lead to more efficient school administration based on an understanding and awareness of characteristics as established by the courts in the past. Certainly, one conclusion that cannot be avoided is that greater consistency from state to state is needed if Boards are to function with maximum efficiency and all teachers are to receive equal treatment under the law.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Termination of Professional Employee Contracts

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE OF STUDY


The baby boom of the 1950s was a hectic time for school people. Expansion was the period’s chief characteristic. New schools became crowded with children before they were finished. School officials worked hard at passing bond issues, building more schools, and finding teachers for them.
At the time of this historical and philosophical analysis, instead of crowded classrooms, school executives across the nation were facing declining public school enrollments and economic stress.
The National Center for Education Statistics (1975) reports nationwide enrollment in public schools grew from 25.1 million in 1950 to 45.9 million in 1970, an increase of about 83 percent. Peak enrollment was 46.1 million in 1971. Since then, the enrollment has slipped to about 45 million, and was expected to fall to 40.5 million by 1981.
Sargent (1975) predicted enrollment figures at both the elementary and secondary levels would decline together and the full impact of declining enrollments will continue at an accelerated pace through at least 1980. Sargent summarized what the school population would be after 1980 is a matter of conjecture. Some projections yield results for 1995 ranged from a high of 61.5 million students to a low of 49 million. But all projections given agreed on about the same low point of 47 million.
Iowa’s Department of Public Instruction (1975) estimated public school enrollments at 608,327 for the 1975-76 school year, 591,976 for 1976-77, 577,256 for 1977-78, 560,175 for 1978-79, and 539,800 for 1979-80. Iowa’s peak enrollment of 659,888 students occurred in the fall of 1969.
The United States Office of Education (1975) reported public school enrollment in the nation’s 48 largest cities decreased overall by 500,000 students between 1971 and 1973 — from 7.3 million students to 6.8 million. All indications pointed to a further decline of public school enrollments.
Educators across the nation felt the decreasing numbers of students should be viewed as an opportunity to reduce the pupil-teacher classroom ratio so the quality of education could be improved. Instead, financially pressed school boards were being forced to reduce their public school professional personnel.
There were fewer positions available for public school professional personnel across the nation because school districts were reducing personnel due to declining public school enrollments or economic stress. School boards were using staff reduction to cope with financial problems. This tactic was working at cross purposes with teachers who wanted to keep classes small. Conflicts were inevitable.
The nonrenewal of public school professional personnel contracts for reasons of declining enrollments or economic stress created many problems in the field of education. Court action appeared to be an available alternative for public school professional personnel and school districts in assuring equal protection under the law.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the implications of State Supreme and District Court decisions which have been rendered across the nation relating specifically to the nonrenewal of public school professional personnel due to the declining school enrollments or economic stress. It was hoped that specific characteristics of these decisions could be identified that would prove of assistance to boards, school administrators, and teachers. More specifically, the following questions were examined:
1. In cases involving the nonrenewal of public school professional personnel contracts for reasons of declining enrollments or economic stress, what are the authority characteristics ascribed to school boards as indicated by court decisions?
2. In cases involving the nonrenewal of public school professional personnel contracts for reasons of declining enrollments or economic stress, what are the authority characteristics or rights ascribed to employees as indicated by court decisions?
3. In cases involving the nonreneal of pubic school professional personnel contracts for reasons of declining enrollments or economic stress, what are the procedural components to which school executives must give the greatest attention when implementing a staff reduction decision as indicated by court decisions?

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said...

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Termination of Professional Employee Contracts

Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


The purpose of this study was to investigate the implications of State Supreme Court and District Court decisions which have been rendered across the nation relating specifically to the nonrenewal of public school professional personnel due to the declining school enrollments or economic stress from 1911-1974. It was hoped that specific characteristics could be identified that would lead to more efficient school administration based on an understanding and awareness of characteristics as established by the courts.
A review of doctoral dissertation abstracts, periodicals, and texts yielded no studies of characteristics of court decisions relating specifically to the nonrenewal of public school professional personnel contracts for reasons of declining enrollments or economic stress from 1911-1974. However, over time, this area has continually been the subject of analysis in the literature. Following the presentation of a summary of state statutes that was reported by the National Education Association (1970), the review of literature is organized in chronological order to provide an overview of developments in the area of due process as related to teachers, boards of education, and school executives during this time period.
Though grounds for dismissal generally have become less arbitrary, this is not to say the hands of educational management are completely tied. The latitude that existed in most states at the elementary and secondary level for dismissing teachers or denying them tenure was considerable. The National Education Association (1970) summarized 143 court decisions with legal issues of particular importance to teachers. The materials came from judicial decisions published during the 1970 calendar year in the National Reporter System. While most of the decisions summarized were rendered in 1970, cases decided earlier were included. According to the summary, thirty-eight states had statewide tenure laws (that is, with some exceptions), and five had tenure only in particular areas. It was reported that Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Utah, and Vermont had no tenure laws of any kind, though most of them did require contracts and did permit long-term contracts.
Within these tenure laws there existed a variety of reasons for dismissing teachers or withdrawing their tenure. According to the NEA summary, sixteen states denied tenure to teachers after a certain age; in most cases it was 65, but in two states it was 70 and in two others it was 62. Alaska provided that tenure is lost when employment in a district was interrupted or terminated. Florida provided that any employee could be returned to an annual contract for three years for cause. It was reported that twenty states had penalties, usually loss of certification, for resignation in the middle of the year or for refusal to teach.
According to the summary, inadequate professional character had led to dismissal. Failure to maintain discipline and inefficient management was a cause in two states; and unprofessional conduct, conduct becoming a teacher, and disreputable conduct were a cause in three others. Iowa allowed dismissal for teachers who had shown “partiality.” Failure to make professional advancement or professional growth was a cause in four states and communities. Maine had a provision for dismissing teachers who were shown to be unfit or whose service was “unprofitable” to the school system. Cruelty or brutal treatment were causes for dismissal in five states. Any causes which were grounds for loss of a teaching certificate also were grounds for dismissal in Nevada. In addition, medical reasons, lack of a medical or physical examination, and communicable diseases were causes for dismissal in four states.
The NEA summary reported that California led the states in provisions for dismissing teachers for criminal syndicalism, membership in the Communist Party, teaching to indoctrinate in Communism, or refusing to answer questions about Communism. Four other states had similar provisions for disloyalty, teaching disloyalty, advocating the overthrow of state or federal governments, and unAmerican activities. Crime was a cause for dismissal in two states. In Louisiana, membership in or contributions to an organization declared illegal or enjoined from operating in the state could lead to dismissal.
Of course, the statutes were not devoted entirely to restrictions on teachers. Many spelled out protections as well. For example, political or personal reasons could not be used for dismissal in Alabama, and there could be no dismissal for exercising constitutionally protected rights in DeKalb and Fulton counties in the state of Georgia. Marriage explicitly is said not to be a cause in three states, although at the time of the summary Waterbury, Connecticut, still had a provision whereby women teachers may be dismissed for marriage. In Massachusetts a teacher could not be dismissed for exercising voting rights, signing nomination papers, petitioning the general court, or appearing before a legislative committee, unless such things were done on school premises, during school hours, or when interfering with school duty. On the other hand, Missouri teachers could not manage campaigns for the election or defeat of school board members in districts in which they were employed. In larger cities in New York over 125,000 population, no charges could be brought against a teacher for incidents that were more than three years old, except where the misconduct constituted a crime.
There also was a variety of professional protections mentioned in the NEA summary. No teacher could be dismissed in Pennsylvania unless efficiency ratings had been kept by the school board. In Chicago, if charges against teachers were for causes that were remediable, the teacher must have been given warning that the charges would be brought if the causes were not removed. Though school boards in Virginia had the right to dismiss both tenured and non-tenured teachers because of enrollment decreases or subject cancellations, in Colorado no teacher’s salary could be reduced for budgetary reasons unless there was a general reduction in all salaries in the district. In Oregon a tenured teacher could not be made part-time without consent.
The summary pointed out that an equal variety of vague, catch-all, and special causes still existed. Though dismissal was provided for, no causes for dismissal were listed in the laws of three states. In Illinois, no causes were listed for dismissal in smaller communities (less than 500,000 population). It was reported there were still vestiges of local morality in some state laws like Florida that had a prohibition against drunkenness, and Louisiana which provided for dismissal of teachers who advocate integration.
Generally, one might expect probationary teachers to be judged by the same criteria, for probation is claimed to be necessary as a time in which the teacher is expected to demonstrate the talents and conduct expected of permanent professional employees. The Wyoming statutes did say that probationary teachers are subject to the same causes for dismissal as were tenured teachers. Massachusetts laws provided due process rights for most probationary teachers. Iowa, which had no probationary requirement, provided for automatic renewal of all contracts after a certain date an due process rights for any teacher not retained. The NEA summary noted that generally probationary teachers were dismissed for the same or similar reasons as tenured teachers.
According to the NEA summary, some states did have different or additional causes for probationary teacher dismissal. Probationary teachers in Texas, for example, could be dismissed for willful failure to pay debts or for the use of drugs or alcohol.
The summary also hints at the history of why teachers have been dismissed or have had to fear dismissal. That is, the information bears, if indirectly, on why and how tenure was developed. Not a great deal of systematic history has been written about tenure and much of the current criticism of tenure still overlooks the historical perspective. It is beyond the scope of this review of related literature to delve deeply into the historical background of tenure; however, the tenure concept does appear with considerable frequency throughout the literature pertaining to staff reduction.
The above review of the National Education Association summary shows several things. One is that there was little basis for the belief that adequate provisions do not exist for removing “unproductive” teachers. Numerous causes were set out in most states, and in other states the causes were general enough to cover almost any eventuality.
A more adequate perspective of the findings of the National Education Association summary may be gained by considering past studies and reports dealing with the issue of teacher reduction and termination.
Beale (1936) noted a study done in Indiana in the early 1930's that concluded that on the whole superintendents are not handicapped in their work by tenure. Where initiative is taken and cases are well prepared, there is no reason to believe marginal teachers cannot be dismissed. Beale believed that administrators opposed tenure because it decreased their authority.
Wriston (1940) reported that the real protection of poor teaching is not tenure, but lack of administrative skill or courage. This is in reference, according to the author, to the inept way in which teacher dismissals are handled, but other critics indict administration for other reasons as well.
Beale (1941) gave a review of the legal precedents relating to elementary and secondary teaching as late as the 1930's. Again one must be cautious when speaking about “the courts.” But Beale showed that in a variety of places and over a period of time court decisions have become important where the law is silent or ambiguous. For example, some courts have held that dismissals are limited to announced causes, causes cannot be added after employment, and boards are bound by their own rules and regulations; tenured teachers have protections when schools are closed for economic reasons or declining enrollment, and tenured teachers cannot be demoted; teachers cannot be dismissed for marriage, and hearings must be held even if no law calls for them; new charges cannot be introduced in mid-trial; and teachers dismissed without a hearing must be reinstated and cannot be charged for the same cause later.
Hofstadter and Metzger (1955) commented that in reading the reports of the AAUP Bulletin, it led one to believe that administrative, not teacher, incompetence is the unsolved problem of academic life.
Byse and Joughin (1959) noted the following causes for dismissal in higher education: “cause” or “good cause”, professional incompetence; immorality; crime, including treason; incapacity or disability; grounds stated in the American Association of University Professors “1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure, “ failure in the institutional relationships, disloyalty, and lack of cooperation. The authors expressed that provisions for dismissing teachers were added or changed every year. They pointed out that it was proposed in Florida in 1968, though not implemented, that striking teachers should have psychiatric examinations before they were allowed to return to the classrooms. The discretion in dismissing non-tenured teachers was not limited either. Some persons argue that tenure contributes to greater competence. Byse and Joughin quote from an early Kansas legal case in 1878 in which the judge held that “The shorter and more precarious the tenure in office, the less attractive, important, and valuable it would be; and generally, men of only inferior talent could be found to accept it or to perform its functions with such a precarious tenure.” Courts have helped to develop the idea of tenure. The authors quote Robert Hutchins’ widely accepted thesis that the law is not basic to the protection of academic freedom and tenure, which are, rather, protected by those in society who make decisions about the purpose of education. But they also quote the view of Russell Kirk that “The courts, when all is said, remain the chief defense of academic freedom when a right to tenure...can be proved.” The history of tenure seems to give weight to the latter view, though there is a sense in which the law is poor protection—because it is the last protection—of any right. Byse and Joughin analyze a long line of legal cases relating to the acquisition of tenure and the criteria and procedure for termination of tenure. They emphasize that it is hazardous to generalize about the positions courts have taken on tenure: the precedents go back far into history, there is no single entity which constitutes “the courts” because the points of law may differ subtly, opinions differ, change, and often contradict. Nevertheless, the authors conclude that generally legal enforcement strengthens tenure, though the need for independent judicial review will be diminished to the extent tenure plans give final power for deciding cases to faculty and provide procedural safeguards.
Byse and Joughin (1959) also spell out the elements of due process. Due process, they say, is a well-established part of the American legal tradition; it is based on the principle that “the accused is entitled to know the case against him, to confront and cross-examine adverse witnesses, and to present evidence and argument to an unbiased tribunal.” They noted that institutions frequently qualified “cause” by adding “good,” “adequate,” "grave,” “just,” “justifiable,” or “sufficient.” Furthermore, the causes can be explicit. “Incapacity” might be physical and mental, and it can include incompetence or failure to perform duties; “immorality” might include sexual relations, especially with students, the use of profanity, or conviction of a crime; “financial exigencies” might result from economic stress, termination of a course of study, or budgetary cutbacks. Financial exigency provides a good example of how causes for dismissal can be limited. It has been established by the courts that dismissal for this reason should be a last resort and, if made, should carry certain rights with them, such as the right to be rehired first.
Atty (1964) pointed out the problems some probationary teachers face. In Pennsylvania the school code set out the legal causes for dismissal of teachers. One requirement for tenure was two years of successful teaching. Thus, a teacher who was rated low in those years could not attain tenure. Atty noted that the causes of probationary teachers’ failure to attain tenure differed substantially from enumerated causes for dismissal; 98.1% were dismissed for reasons other than those outlined in the school code.
Duvall (1966) found that a high proportion of superintendents believed tenure interferes with the proper power of superintendents and boards of education. Duvall notes that principals and superintendents believe tenure makes it impossible to discharge unsatisfactory teachers, reduces incentive toward in-service improvement and attendance at summer school, and requires greater supervision of teachers. Teachers, on the other hand, believe tenure makes teaching more professional, reduces resignations, encourages self-expression, creates incentives to work on personnel policies and problems, and improves community-teacher relationship.
Credell (1967) surveyed 773 school districts in California and concluded that administrators were not implementing the provisions of the tenure laws regarding retention or dismissal. He found also that many schools do not have observable standards for behavior, competence, or dismissals, and they are at a disadvantage because of this.
Bement (1967) found that though principals identified “marginal” tenured teachers, no dismissals or other steps were taken under the tenure statute. Teachers who did not improve were invited to leave or were put in other positions, but if they did not go, no further steps were taken. Principals tended to deal with problem teachers themselves, rather than using special resources such as psychologists, medical person, and counselors. Bement noted that of 97 marginal tenured