Thursday, February 22, 2007

Dear JSTOR: Why won't you let us in?

Imagine this. You are researching a topic through Google Scholar. And there it is. The perfect article. Exactly what you've been looking for. You go to read the article, and what do you get? A JSTOR error message. You're not allowed to read it.

Now we're all about being cheap here at the Stingy Scholar, but we realize that sometimes you need to shell-out a few bucks. But with JSTOR, you can't even pay if you want to. This isn't a problem if you can pop into the university library, but thousands of independent scholars around the world are shut out from the service.

Christopher Barden, a long time reader, recently wrote a letter to JSTOR to vent his frustration and ask them to open up their information. I think he makes some very effective points.


As an independent scholar not currently affiliated with any academic institution, I find it deeply frustrating that one cannot even pay for access for JSTOR.

The mission statement of your Mellon Foundation-funded “not-for-profit” scholarly database says you seek "to improve dramatically access to these journals."

The only thing dramatic about access to JSTOR’s journals is its bizarrely unnecessary lack thereof.

Why can’t one access this highly valuable database with a laptop and a credit card? Why build a digitized scholarly archive, searchable via the public internet, if access to it is controlled like some kind of top-secret database? Is this for university students and teachers only? If so, why? Is the access to online-searchable scholarship in a digital age to be reduced to only the years that one is actually affiliated with a large educational institution? What year is this: 2007 or 1007?

In an age when the Internet has made it not just possible but increasingly common for 'independent scholars to work outside the ivory tower, JSTOR is clearly designed to lock them out. And this seems just plain wrong.

Christopher also discusses the frustration with JSTOR results in Google searches:

JSTOR allows Google's public search engine to index its articles. And, because of the range of topics covered in academic/scholarly articles (which span a fairly broad spectrum of human thought and activity), JSTOR article search results increasingly come up as first-page results in Google searches on topics of scholarly interest.

While this is extremely beneficial to JSTOR, it renders millions of public search results practically worthless to non-JSTOR users. (Imagine Lucy holding the football for Charlie Brown, and you’ve got a pretty clear picture of what JSTOR search results can feel like.)

Not surprisingly, JSTOR is yet to respond. I've posted the whole letter here.


Anonymous said...

Despite what some people think, JSTOR does not own content on the site - publisher's do. Paying for individual articles involves negotiating with every participating publisher (over 200), some of whom may never want to participate in a Pay-per-view program.

That being said, JSTOR has started a pay-per-view program with some titles. Several hundred titles are now covered under the agreement.

pk said...

There is some cross-territory considerations here I think.

I hate JSTOR with a vengeance because they clog up my search results. I didn't know they were virtually institution-only : I'm not going to pay anyway, I just object to their making my searching more difficult.

That's possibly not JSTOR's own fault but that of google. I regard Amazon and Ebay and JSTOR all as search result contaminants and I can only presume that either google has commercial agreements with these entities or else their ranking system is unrelentingly biased: I presume it's this latter reason in so far as Amazon/Ebay/JSTOR are often getting higher ranks in results than their relative worth is on the internet. They are winning the googleranking game and no proper adjustments to google results have been put in place. So I'm sure google themselves are the main culprit.

That said, I am sometimes able to access a page (which may or may not actually relate to my search term) from JSTOR so I don't have as much dislike for them as I do for amazon/ebay (I think I've typed -ebay -amazon into my search box more than any other term). I just wish we could realign the google results so that these nefarious sites' results could be coralled at the bottom of the page or the like.

Chris said...

Thanks, Anonymous, for the update. But I went to the link you listed and it's yet another wonderfully constructed, funny rabbit hole. (Are you from JSTOR? If so, I congratulate JSTOR again on its sense of humor.) I see a FAQ on what to do if I've purchased some mysteriously located purchaseable content, but I don't see any content. But I'll take your word for it. (I have seen lists of links to journal URLs in JSTOR's Wonderland, but they led to yet more redirections through through JSTOR's pages, when I'd have much preferred if my Google search went directly to those sites in the first place.) In any case, I've already experienced enough Post-Traumatic Stress from previous journeys in JSTOR's Wonderland, so I'll pass on going for another round.

The reality remains that JSTOR results on Google (which are ubiquitous) have been a waste of time 99.9% of the time.

If PK is correct about Google, maybe they can do something about it. Maybe Google's people are smart enough to figure out a way to make those same scholarly journals truly available in a universal way, and not just to institutional participants. After all, the high ranking of JSTOR results seems at odds with Google's mission statement.

I don't mean to be overly critical of JSTOR, but they've not replied to emails, they don't seem to care about the independent researcher, and don't really give the impression that there is any human involvement in the enterprise. (Mellon said they'd forwarded one of my emails, but there was no response of any kind.)

I remain naively hopeful that the Web has the potential to become a truly democratic source of useful scholarly content -- if not for free, then at prices that are good both for the publishers and a growing audience of non-institutional scholarly-minded people.

JSTOR says it is "a not-for-profit organization dedicated to helping the scholarly community take full advantage of advances in information technology."

Clearly, the JSTOR's idea of a "scholarly community" excludes a lot of people who are locked out DESPITE "advances in IT" that could make it possible for them to have access.

I hope the negative tone of my letter wasn't too knee-jerk or prejudiced. But if it starts a conversation, then great. I hope people can share some constructive ideas about this. Maybe it will inspire JSTOR and its member journals to think about things from different perspectives.

Anonymous said...

There must be a hack for this. I believe some reference libraries have "in-store" access to JSTOR, i.e. access from their own terminals. Also certain historical societies bundle JSTOR access to their own (only?) journals with annual subscription. Can there be some other way of getting complete remote access?

Chris said...

RE: "Great Firewall of American Academia"

So, back in Beijing, and once more every day dozens of search results lead me to Muse and Jstor -- hallowed places I can't get in. Which is really bumming me out because I'm completely cut-off from big English-language libraries here.

Suddenly, a good name for Jstor/Muse's behavior comes to mind:


Here I am in a country vilified for its restricting its citizen's access to information (such as access to blogspot, which one can only access via proxy.)

And yet, trying to get into my own country's scholarly databases is literally impossible without "joining" academe formally, or hacking into it (which i would never do because unlike Jstor and Muse, I've got a basic sense of fairness and ethics), or doing something intensely energy-wasting (and globe-warming) like hopping on a 747 to fly back to the US to use a library terminal in a country rich enough to get access to Jstor or Muse.

Anyhow, so being American, the natural question arises:


I'm not entirely clear on the funding sources for JSTOR and MUSE -- and whether or not these organizations are profiting from their non-profit status and "digital exclusivity", but if there is ANY case for some kind of class-action lawsuit that could open up these resources to average citizens on the wrong side of the digital divide, count me in.

Failing that, perhaps a public petition to ask Google to delist JSTOR results from their public search results.

GOOGLE, would you please do this for us? Would take a stand on the side of knowledge-seeking people who share your idealism for making information "accessible"?

Any lawyers or law students reading this? Perhaps some kind of investigation of legal remedies to Jstor/Muse's undemocratic use of non-profit funding and public search engines might help tear down the digital divide that these elitist "companies" are trying to erect.

Special thanks are due to the Mellon Foundation, among others, for helping construct what a few friends and I in Beijing are now calling THE GREAT FIREWALL of AMERICA.

Basically, this Firewall's main purpose is:
1) keep poor people out.
2) keep "outsiders" out.
3) if someone really wants in, then maybe (just maybe) charge them huge sums of money to purchase single articles.
4) clutter up public search engines like Google with results whose sole aim is to remind others that "you are too poor, too outside to be allowed in."

Anonymous said...

I have no idea whether JSTOR could do anything about granting remote access to these articles to a larger range of searchers, but I do know this: the TOS for JSTOR and other similar sites like Project Muse even prevent academic libraries who have subscriptions from granting remote access to alumni who pay for library access. Remote access to these resources is for AFFILIATED scholars and students only, at paying institutions. If you do not have an affiliation at a paying institution, you're out of luck. You can't even pay your former institution's library to get this access. Now, anybody can go to an academic library in person and access the articles, but only affiliated scholars can get access online on their own machines.

If you think of someone you can sue to change this limited access, please let me know. Otherwise, might I suggest you start a movement asking ALL faculty worldwide to post all of their publications online a year after they are released? Academic publishers shouldn't be able to have such a stranglehold on access to the academic community's work.

Alex H said...

What I really hate is that alumni are restricted from accessing databases like JSTOR. It's weird that you pay thousands of dollars to a unoversity in tuition only to find out that once you graduate, you don't even get access to the online databases. That's stingy.

dandrake said...

One possible option is to become a member of, say, the New York Public Library, which has JSTOR access:

You don't need to live in New York. Possibly cheaper is to use a local public library, which may have access.

As said above, JSTOR doesn't own the rights to the articles, the publishers do -- so ultimately, I think all the frustration here should be directed towards publishers with restrictive policies.

Anonymous said...

I find it almost hilarious that people are so ignorant of what their public libraries offer these days.

Almost any decent public library offers *FREE* JSTOR access as part of their membership.

My problem isn't with JSTOR - which I love because I can actually use it by virtue of having a Boston Public Library card - but that there aren't more journals offered by JSTOR.

vnessun said...

If you live near a public university, you can probably make a "donation" and then get a library card for the year and access JSTOR and all of the other journals that the school gets.

david meadows said...

if you can name a university that will allow (somehow) an independent scholar to log in remotely and access jstor, please name it. i've been looking for years ...

Anonymous said...

This article sums up the exact problem that I have had when researching. I'll search a specific topic and be elated to find an article directly regarding my subject, only to be angered to learn that it is the property of JSTOR. Either Google should not show JSTOR results or they should make their articles available to the public. Their 'stingyness' is ridiculous.

Anonymous said...

I have contacted Jstor about individual access. I am a grad student who must leave school due to financial issues. However (and I told them), I would like to continue to have access so that when I continue, my head will already be "in the game" when I can continue. There are tons of articles which I simply cannot get anywhere else for my field. While I am very very unhappy about having to leave school, it would feel like a "double whammy" to feel shut out of the subject matter and access to materials which have been so rewarding to read and relevant to my interests. Yeah, I'm one of those students that doesn't do the minimum to get by with the grade. I read the scholarly articles for fun too. I browse Jstor for many things, and it is very inspiring and motivating. I have an honest interest in academia and this kind of scholarly writing and I don't want to be cut off from the resources. I would be willing to pay a reasonable fee for access (not pay-per-view), but that fee cannot be a four or five-figure fee. If I had THAT kind of money, I'd be continuing school and getting free access which I currently have, but will soon end. Kinda ironic, huh? Jstor, are you listening?

Erica said...

"Almost any decent public library offers *FREE* JSTOR access as part of their membership."

Well, that's all very nice but the problem is that such access is only granted on-site, and people with day jobs are rarely able to pop down to the public library during its (ever-shrinking) opening hours. Ironic given that the whole point of JSTOR is to allow remote access to journals.

Their exclusionary policies really push all my buttons about the medieval guild that is academia - even if you have a degree, as soon as you lose "affiliation" with the ivory tower, you are no longer considered a scholar. Oy.

Vikas Gupta said...

I have linked to your article. Check out my this post on free access to JSTOR:


Anonymous said...

I, too, am very frustrated that I cannot access the articles on JSTOR. I am not affiliated with a university in my area, so I cannot access JSTOR even if I visit a nearby univeristy. Access is restricted.

As for those of you have access via your public library, please be aware that not all public libraries will buy it. Here is the message I received back from my most recent inquiry into whence my public library will buy JSTOR:

"Below is the answer I received from our Collection Management Administrator, Deborah Duke.

'Given its academic focus, it’s not something we would license. Collections I and II would cost $20K buy-in, then $8,000 annually. We cannot allocate that much of our materials budget to something that is not for our primary audience.'

Shirley Wise
Adult Services Department
Assistant Manager for Interlibrary Loan Services
Fort Worth Public library"

My response to this was quite honest, albeit not very complimentary. I feel the public libraries, at least in my area of the country, are becoming affliates of Block Buster stores and popular novel shops. The independent researcher has no place at the public library any more. Everything is being "dummed down" more and more. :(

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Anonymous said...

It's not just in Beijing where there are problems. I am a not-for- profit researcher who has recently retired and who has wanted to access articles to help write pro-bono publications.
Unfortunately, I am not affiliated with any University, although that suits me fine since they can not tell me what to write and how to write it, and so on and so on, etc etc.
JSTOR is a dead-end. It's usually the only place on the net which has the articles I need to either complete or extend my research. The only way that I can go forward is by using snail mail via the British Library, which costs a fortune in copying and postage.
In terms of the web, the only helpful institution I have come across is the National Library of Australia - full marks to them - they will photocopy out of copyright material and send a pdf at a reasonable cost. So this is the situation: I live in England and I have to plead with a former colony to get material which is on the shelves of public libraries in this country; but, which is unavailable at any cost because the librarians refuse to either photocopy or convert it to pdf form.
Good luck with Google's mammoth project. In 20 years time all the snobby institutions will be History and we will have something approaching "Access for All". Hopefully, this will replace the current situation of "Access for the Privileged Few" which is at the heart of the JSTOR philosophy.

Pugak said...

I am an independent scholar from the Philippines and jstor always remind me how poor our country is!!! I believe I will have my chance someday where people around the world can access a scholarly database I own- for free...
F**K JSTOR!!! There are lots of open access alternatives that are even better!

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Michelle said...

The easiest way to access JSTOR is via the University Portal, at:
(Log in using your University of Lincoln network\accountID and password.) You have to take note of this in your diaries. If you have tried this and still it will not work then we gotta find another solution.

Anonymous said...


I am a registered member of NYPL but I cannot access JSTOR remotely, only in person via a terminal at one of their sites in NYC

Anonymous said...

"And there it is. The perfect article."

No, that's not how it works.

You find several articles with promising titles, download them, read through them, and realize they don't have anything useful for you inside.

And I have to pay $30 or $50 for each one before finding out that they're not what I'm looking for? ಠ_ಠ

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